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6306. a 






On the 26th of January 1857, the Master of the Rolls 
submitted to the Treasury a proposal for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country from the 
Invasion of the Bom!ans to the Reign of Henry VIII. 

The Master of the Rolls suggested that these materials 
should be selected for publication under competent 
editors without reference to periodical or chronological 
arrangement, without mutilation or abridgment, prefer- 
ence being given, in the first instance, to such materials 
as were most scarce and valuable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical docu- 
ment to be edited should be treated in the same way as 
if the editor were engaged on an Editio Princeps ; and 
for this purpose the most correct text should be formed 
from an accurate collation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Master 
of the Rolls suggested that the editor should give an 
account of the MSS. employed by him, of their age and . 
their peculiarities; that he should add to the work a 
brief account of the life and times of the author, and any 
remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; but no 
other note or comment was to be allowed, except what 
might be necessary to establish the correctness of the 

a 2 


The works to be published in octavo, separately, as 
they were finished ; the whole responsibility of the task 
resting upon the editors, who were to be chosen by the 
Master of the Rolls with the sanction of the Treasury. 

The Lords of Her Majesty's Treasury, after a careful 
consideration of the subject, expressed their opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated February 9, 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Master of the EoUs ." was well 
calculated for the accomplishment of this important 
national object, in an efifectual and satisfactory manner, 
within a reasonable time, and provided proper attention 
be paid to economy, in making the detailed arrange- 
ments, without unnecessary expense/' 

They expressed their approbation of the proposal that 
each chronicle and historical document should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent with all possible cor- 
rectness the text of each writer, derived from a collation 
of the best MSS., and that no notes should be added, 
except such as were illustrative of the various readings. 
They suggested, however, that the preface to each work 
should contain, in addition to the particulars proposed 
by the Master of the Rolls, a biographical account of 
the author, so far as authentic materials existed for that 
purpose, and an estimate of his historical credibility and 

Rolls H<mse^ 

December 1857. 
















Printed by 

BxxE and 8poitiswoode> Her Hi^esty's Printers. 

For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 

iBL. Coll. Diy. Joh. Cast. (h. i.l 



4 ^t«Ms*/>iA»f&/ttw'*««^«fa« fc»^*;»™'-.*/»»^ /"' 

Mi;s. Bbit, M S. 



Intropuctiom - - - •• - - ix 

Summary of Contents - - - - Ixxiii 




Scarcely anything of the personal history of Ranulph Biographi- 
Higden has come down to us; and indeed the scanty ofHig^^n. 
notices which we now possess, relating .both to him ^^ateriais 
and to his Chronicle, serve rather to perplex than ^n^tTs-*^ 
to instruct us. A single sentence may tell all that^*^*^^- 
we can say about him with certainty. He was a 
Benedictine monk of St. Werburg's abbey in Chester, 
who died at an advanced age in the latter half of the 
fourteenth century, having compiled a Polychronicon, 
or Universal History, readiing to his own time ; being 
likewise the author of some other works, which are 
in part extant. 

The name of Higden is variously written, and ap- His name 
pears xmder the following forms : Higdenus, Higden, ^^^^^ ^ 
Hygden ; also, Hikeden, Hykedoun, Higedenus, Higge- 
den ; and, besides these variations, we have likewise, 
as it would appear, Higgenet (by a transition from 
Higgened) and Heggenet.^ His Christian name is 
usually written Kanulphus, in English Ranulf, or Ralph ; 
but also Radulphus, and in English Randall, Rondoll, 
or Rondle.^ He is very frequently designated Ranulphus 


' That is to say, if Kan4all Hig- 
genet, the monk of Chester, author 
of the miracle plays, be the same 
person ; of which, as Warton 
says, not without reason, " there is 
the greatest probability." Hist of 
EngL Poetry (vol. ii. p. 179, note. 
Lond. 1778). Their dwelling 
place, vocation, and age agree ; 
fheir names differ but slightly. See 

also Catalogue of Harl. MSS., ». 
2013. Dr. Guest {English RhythTns, 
vol. XX. p. 415) observes that Hignet 
is still a common name at Chester. 
2 Leland, Collect^ t. 2, p. 368 
(ed. 1770); Tanner, :BtX/., p. 403; 
Oudinus, De Script. EccL, t S, 
p. 1029. We have, however, Hig- 
denus own authority for the form 
Ranulphus, In a Cambridge MS., 


Cestrensis, or Cestrensis only. The reader may well be 
satiated with these synonyms, and yet the most im- 
portant variation is to be mentioned, if variation it be. 
It should rather be styled an erroneous designation. The 
Eoger of Chester, mentioned by Bale and many others 
as a writer distinct from Kanulph Higden, seems, upon 
the whole, to be most probably identical with him ; and 
his Polycraticon appears to be nothing else but a shorter 
form of the Polychronicon of our author^ or, as Bome 
MSS. call it, his Polycraticon. But of this more hereafter^ 
Details of We are unable to point out either the exact place 
inexac?^^ Or date of his birth. HSs native place was somewhere 
or doutt- in the west of England, according to Bale, and he must 
have been bom in the latter part, probably during the 
last twenty years of the 13th century. He appears 
to have taken monastic vows in or about the year 1299. 
He attached himself to the Benedictine order, and be- 
came an inmate of the rich and powerful abbey of 
St. Werburgh in Chester.* From this time to the date 


our R) a foot note on the pro- 
logue obscurely lets us into a 
deep mystery : Gramata (ac) dant 
prima capitalia rumen agentis. The 
same line is also mentioned by On- 
dinus from Selden. The initial 
letters of the chapters of the first 
book form the following words : — 

^'Fresentem cronicam compilaTit 
frater Bannlphus Cestrensis.*' 

Kanulphus is obtained from c. 
34, sqq., thus : — 

<« Il[efert] A[ffirmatum] N[otat] 
V[ulgatran] Lpbri] P[ost] 
H[«c] V[t] S[unt]." 

It seems that this whimsical mode 
of writing a title page was adopted 
by other writers also. See Oudinos, 
«. 8,; also Pits, de HL Angl Script, 
p. 616. 

* " BanulphttS Hygden, in occi- 
« dentali Anglorum patria oriundus, 
*• ad Werburgse £lnum in Oestrien- 


sis urbis ccenobio, perpetuis se 
" Benedictinomm sanctionibus con- 
" secraTit." Bale, Cent. vi. n. 12. 
'* Usque hue (A.t). 1348) scripsit 
'^ Bominus Banulphus Hykedon, 
** monachusmonasteriiSancteeWer- 
"bergae Cestrensis." MS. Laud, 
619, in fine. 

• In the year 1093 Hugh Lupus, 
earl of Chester, established a con-> 
Tent of Benedictine monks, froox 
Bee in Normandy, upon the foun- 
dation of St Werburgh, haying 
expelled the secular canons. 

Her shrine, now the bishop's 
throne in the cathedral, is a beauti- 
ful specimen of workmanship of the 
early part of the 14th century. It 
must, as it would appear, have been 
built while Higden was an inmate 
of the abbey. Lewis, Topogr. Dict<, 
s. v.; Dugdale, MoncbsU vol. ii. p. 
7 1 (ed. 1846). 



nicle, both buried at Chester. Indeed there is nothing 
in Roger's history which differs from Higden's, except 
so far as concerns (1), their names ; (2), the titles of 
their works ; (3), their dates. 

(1) With regard to the name, it is very probably by 
a mere error that Roger is written instead of Ranul- 
phus ; in many MSS. of the Polychronicon the name 
of the author is not given at all ; and the book is 
often cited by others simply as the Polychronicon, or 
as Gestrensis only; the latter designation seeming to 
be inconsistent with the notion that two monks of 
Chester wrote Chronicles differing slightly from each 
other. There was a Roger Frend, afterwards abbot of 
Chester, in Higden's time, and if he was one of 
those who urged Higden to compose the chronicle, 
and assisted him in the compilation^ it is not im- 
possible that his name might be attached to the 
work by some scribes, who were only partially 
acquainted with the facts of the case.^ Moreover, as 
appears from Wanley's probable conjecture, the name 
of Ranulphus has in one instance at least been sub- 
stituted for the xxame of Roger, as though the error 
had been detected and corrected. 

(2) No argument can be founded on the difference 
of the titles of their works. The Polycraticon of John 
of Salisbuiy is designated in one of our MSS. (B.), and 
cited in one of the versions, as the Polychromcon ; 
and in another MS. used iu this edition (C), we have 
actually have, " Idcirco earn historiam Polycraticam, 
" a pluratitato temporum quam continet censui nun- 
" cupandam.'' Indeed, Polycratica temporum cotdd 
not be used as a title of an Universal fcstory, by any 

' See I>ng6sXe*sM(m€t8tf toI. ii. p. 
373. He 'WBS the eleventh abhot, and 
held office fi'oni A.D. 1240 16 1249. 
It may appear even more prohable 
that the chronicle -«ras often entitled 

only Cestrensis Polychronicon, or i2. 
CestreTisis^axid that i?o^eri was added 
by coi^ectnre as the interpreta- 
tion of the symbol 9,. which occurs 
throughout the hook. 



of his death, he being then "in a good old age," " we 
have, I believe, no details of his personal histpry, except 
that we are told . (but on very doubtful authority) that 
" one Don Rondle Heggenet " thrice visited Bome in 
order to obtain leave of the pope that the miracle 
plays, of which he was the author, should be acted 
" in the English tongue " at Chester. They were even- 
tually acted in the mayoralty of Sir John Amway 
(A.R 1327, 1328). From A.D. 1309, during a period 
of seventy years, which was termed the Babylonian 
captivity, the pope resided at Avignon, and that 
without interruption, so far as we ' are aware. A 
grave suspicion, therefore, attaches to the whole story, 
which rests* upon a note written in a HarL MS. in 
1628. Moreover it is not absolutely certain that 
Higgenet and Higden are the same person.^ Our 
author certainly appears to have left his monastery 
on occasions, and to have visited various parts of 
England, including Derbyshire, Shropshire, and Lan- 
cashire, with which he is said to be familiar.^ I can 
only add that his death probably occurred in the 
month of March 1363, and that he was buried in the 
abbey at Chester.* 

' Usque hie »(t.c. 1352) scripsit 
*^ Baaulphus Hikedoun, monaclms 
'* Cestrensis, istomm Chromcornm 
'^ compilator, qui obiit in senectute 
" twna." Note at the end of MS. 
E. A later hand has added, <* Anno 
" Domini 1363." 

2 See Warton, «, *. 

3*<Aperte ausim affirmare Ba- 
<<nulphum in eruendis mysteriis 
'^ antiquitatis Britannicse dh St& 
" ireurooy illo (Polydoro Vergilio) 
** BUperiorem fuisse } si spectes pro- 
**Tincias in quihus versatos fuit, 
** nempe Salapiani, Devaniam, Lu- 
" niam, Doroventamam.*' Leland, 

De Script Brity p. 339. He often 
quotes Higden in this work. 

^ '' Senex tandem obiit, annos ha- 
" bens in monachatu 64, circa Gre- 
" gorii festum (March 12), anno 
« ab incarnato Messia 1363, Cestrise 
** in coenobio sepultus." Bale, Ceni.^ 
vi. n. 12. ** Tandem in senectute 
« bona postqnam vixerat in reUgione 
" Ixiv. annos, circa festum S. Grego- 
** rii, anno grati8e*1363, in Domino 
« obdormivit." (MS. iawrf., 619, 
a. s.) So also note at end of MS. E. 
(SeeaboTC.) Heame (Fre&ce to 
Camden*s AnnaleSf p. 117) quotes 
fh)m a Christ Church MS. tf is note 



His works; Higden is principally^ known to posterity as the 
chronicon. ^uthor of the .Polychronicon,^ which was one of the 
Occasion most popular histories during the 14tli and 15 th ben- 

* manu vetusta : ' " Corpus hujus 
'* Banulphi conditum est in monas- 
" terio D. WereburgsB in anstrali 
" parte templi juxta ehonim prope 
'' ostium qiiod dacit in cemiterinm. 
" Arcus iUi muro concavatus est. 
** Inscriptam ftdt in muro : Non 
" hie sub muro, sed subter marmore 
" duro.'* Pits, u. s., wto is followed 
by bishop Nicholson (Engl, Hist, 
Libr., 65), places his d6ath in 1377. 
* Some other works of his are ex- 
tant in MS. : tIz., Speculum curato- 
rum (composed in 1 340), Ball. Coll, 
Oxon. Cod. 69, and Cambr. Univ. 
Libr. Mm., 1. 20 ; and Ars compo- 
nendi sermones, Bibl. Bodl. Cod. 
2752. The former of these is men- 
tioned by Bale, who had seen it, as 
appears by his quoting the opening 
words. He had also' seen his Pcc- 
dagogicon grammatices, and his Dis- 
tinctiones Tlieologicce, The former 
of these was in Sion College, and 
the latter is in the Lambeth Li- 
brary. See Tanner, p. 403, and 
Cave's Hist Lit, Besides these, 
Bale mentions the following : 
Abbreviationes Chronicorum, which 
is probably the same as a very 
damaged work now in the British 
Museum (Cotton. MSS. Tib. B. viii. 
fol. 210), thus entitled ; " Cronica 
^* bona et compendiosa de Regibus An- 
<* glitB tantum, a Noe post diluvium 
" usque in hunc diem** (it ends A.D. 
1300) *^conscripta a Manulpho Hig- 
** deno Cesiriensi monacko, qui vixit 
« annogratiiP 1358.** Another copy 
is in A^e library of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, numbered 21, 
ending at 1367. See Nasmith's 
Catalogue^ p. 10. A letter from Dr. 

Moberly apprises me of the existence 
of a third copy in the Winchester 
College library, ending at 1377. Bale 
then enumerates : Expositio super 
Job; Tn Cantica Cantieorum; Ser- 
Tnones per annum ; Determinationes 
subcompendio; In litteram Calendar 
rii ; adding, as usual, aliaque plura 
fecit The Mappa Mundi, which 
he names as a distinct work, is 
nothing but the first book of the 
Polyckronicon, Bale likewise men- 
tions Ex Guilhelmo Stephanide ; but 
it appears that this "ad ea pertinet 
** qusB in Polychronico scripsit de . 
" Thoma Becket, archiepiscopo 
" Cantaariensi," Fabricius, Bibl, 
Med, et Inf. Latin. The like remark 
is probably to be made of the Ex 
Stepkano Langton mentioned by 

- Higden gives as the reason for 
adopting this title, ** quia prsescns 
'^ chronica multorum temporum con- 
" tinet gesta," Oudinus is therefore 
mistaken in saying, " Operi suo 
" Polychronici nomen indidit, recte 
'^ quidem, et cum modestia, quia 
" nimirum uti coHectaneum quod- 
'< dam ex multis allis chronicis ex- 
" cerptum ; quod aliorum quidem 
'* est quoad res contentas, Banulphi 
<^ autem quoad oidinem, atque enar- 
" rationes rerum ultimse setatis.** 
(De Script Ecel, t. 3, p. 1027.) He 
soon afterwards refers to G. J. Vos- 
sius, Sandius, the Aci/x Erud, Lips, 
for 1694 (read 1692), and V. Plac- 
cius, for more information about 
Higden. I have examined them 
all, but they contain nothing which 
is not otherwise well known. 


• •• 


turies, and which continued to be much in use during of its com- 
the following century also. He tells us in the pro-Hfechro- 
logue to the first book that he composed it at the »ologicai 
earnest request of his companions, i.e., the Benedic- 
tines of St. Werburg, and designed to include therein 
the more important facts of general history fix)m the 
Creation to his own time in chronological order, noting 
also the dates of their occurrence according to more 
than one computation of years. In the early part of 
the history the birth of Abraham is taken as the origin, 
and the year of the judge, or other historical personage, 
is also added in the margin. From Abraham to Da\dd 
he reckons 942 years. The establishment of David's 
kingdom becomes another origin, and Abraham disap- 
pears ; and from this date to the Babylonian captivity 
he reckons 496 years, adding also the year of the Jewish 
king then reigning in the margin ; but for the latter 
part the year of the foundation of Rome, after which 
date the secondary king disappears in the later edi- 
tions of the chronicle.' From the Babylonian captivity 
to Christ, the years from the captivity and' from the 
foundation are recorded. From the Christian era 
downwards to the age of Charlemagne, the years of 
that era and of the emperor of Rome are noticed ; 
and from that time forwards the years of the Chris- 
tian era and of the king or emperor whose acts are 

The Polychronicon is divided into seven books, this Plan of the 
division being suggested by the account of the cosmo- contents of 
gony in Genesis, The first book is rather geographi- tli« seven 

cal than historical, being, as the author calls it, a map 


' Higden threatens occasionally 
to "purple his margins" with a 
triple series. This would he a fit 
place for doing so, and accordingly 
we find three columns of dates in 
the shorter forms of the chronicle, 
as in MS. D. In the following 

VOL. I. 

period the year of Alexander's or 
Ptolemy's reign is not nnfrequently 
added to the years of the Captivity 
and of Rome. But in other MSS., 
as A. and E., we never have more 
than two series of years tabulated 
in the margin. 




of the world. It comprises a brief description of the 
countries of the known world, and a more particular 
account of Great Britain. The second book is a His^ 
tory of the World from the Creation to the destruction 
of the Jewish temple by Nebuchadnezzar. The third 
book carries on the history to the birth of Christ The 
fourth proceeds thenceforward to the arrival of the 
Saxons in England. The fifth goes on with the hisr 
tory up to the invasion of the Danes/ or, as Higden 
calls them, Dacians* The sixth book concludes with 
the Norman conquest. The remaining book proceeds 
as far as Higden's own time, that is to say, as far as 
the reign of Edward IIL^ The author pleasantly con- 
ceives ths^t by thus dividing the vast current of his- 
tory into seven streams, he laid open a path by which 
his readers may ^^go over dryshoA" 

* Thus fer all is easy ; but when 
ire come to consider the exact year, 
ire are immediately involyed in 
graye difficulties. TheMSS. end 
at very different years, and the notes 
in different MSS. give different 
accounts of the years atifhich Hig- 
den himself concluded his work. 
A :fo]l discussion of this perplexed 
matter must be left for our last 
volume. In the mean time, so far 
as I can judge at present, Higden's 
own work, after he had put las last 
strokes to it, terminated in the end 
of the year 1342. There are notes 
in several MSS. to that effect See 
Tanner, &c But there is also a 
considerable number of MSS. which 
end in the year 1327. These are 
either all or for the most part, I 
believe, more brief than the later 
ones; and X should conceive that 
we may place Higden's first edition 
in that year. The number of MSS. 
(not being imperfect) ending before 
1327 is very small, and I have not 

myself examined any such ; but 
from Mr. S. A. Moore's notes it 
appears that there is one in Magd, 
Coll. Oxon. which ends in 1321» and 
another in the Advocate's library at 
Edinbm^h ending in 1326. These 
may have been written before a 
general issue of the book took place. 
The excellent Cambridge MS., our 
"E,, says that Higden concluded his 
chronicle at 1352, (in which, how- 
ever, the events between 1342 and 
1352 occupy less than a page,) and 
Caxton places the last year written 
by Higden in 1357. This will be 
the latest date that is well pos- 
sible^ if Higden died in 1363 at a 
very advanced age, to which latter 
year indeed J, Joscelin, archbishop 
Parker's secretary, says that he con- 
tinued his work (Cat Hist, p. 292, 
Heame). Trevisa leaps from 1348 
to 1354, and ends 1860. But on 
these matters I hope to say some- 
thing more definite on a fiiture 



Our author mentions at great length, in his second Sonrces of 
chapter, the authorities from which his history is derived. ^^^^' 
But before discussing them it may be as well to con- wholesale 
sider a charge which has been brought against him by con^^enS 
Wanley, Nicholson, and others.* The first-named author 
describing the Harleian MS. n. 666, writes thus in his 
catalogue : — 

" Polycratica temporum, sen Polychronica Bogeri, 

" monachi Cestrensis, quam foedissime defioravit plagi- 

" ariorum insignissimus, Banulfiis Higden commonachus 

'' sutis/' * And again, describing n. 1707 of the same 
collection, he tells us that Banulph Higden was not 

the original author of the PolychroTdcon^ but an arrant 

plagiary (plagiarium maxime insignem).^ 

Bishop Nicholson repeats the charge, adding reasons 
which will be best understood and appreciated by 
citing portions of his accounts of Roger Cestrensis 
and of Banulphus Higden, given in his English His- 
torical Zibrary» 

" Roger Cestrensis, who was a Benedictine monk of 
St. Werburg, in Chester . . . wrote a large account of 
the affairs of this nation. This work he entitled Poly- 
cratica Temporum, and began it with the coming in 
of the Romans : he coi^tinued it at first no lower than 
1314, but added afterwards a supplement of fifteen years 
more. In thd Harleyan library there are several MS. 
copies of this work,* one whereof is firequently marked 

^ FiiUer ( Worthies of Chester) 
bad already asserted : *<He yamped 
" the history of Roger aforesaid»" 
After Wanley's time the charge has 
been often repeated ; Bale had in- 
deed given occasion for it. 

2 Harl, Cat.,yol. 1, p. 398. Lond. 
1808. This was first published in 
1762, long after the author's death 
in 1726. 

^ Id. vol. 2, p. 180. 

* I have examined (somewhat 
cursorily) all the MSS. of Roger 
of Chester in the British Museum ; 
viz., Harl. MSS. n. 1707, 1728-9, 
1751 ; Cotton, Julius E. viii. In 
none of them (so fer as I observed) 
was the name of Roger written by 
the original scribe. The same re- 
mark is to be made of the MS. in 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; 
see below. The Rev. W. Stubbs, 
M.A., librarian to the Lord Arch- 

b 2 



by Bale's own hand. By comparing these with those 
of E. Higden in the same noble repository, it is mani- 
fest that Balph stole his pretended work from Eoger, 
disguising it only with his own superscription. For 
(1) one of the copies of the Polycrcuticon is plainly the 
numerical book described by Pitts/ under the name of 
Higden. (2) Another of them has Ran. Geatr. in a 
modem hand on its title, instead (as Mr. Wanley pro- 
bably conjectures) of Rog. Oestr. rased out. (3) The 
forgery is most evident, from comparing a passage re- 
lating to the two Caerleons, to one whereof (Chester) 
the true historian takes notice of his beiag particularly 
related ; ® which Kalph literally transcribes, adding, 
Sicut per capitales hujus primi libri apices clarius 
patet Wliich is ascertaining the whole chronicle to 

Ushop of Canter1}uiy, at my request, 
kindly examined a Lambeth MS. of 
Koger of Chester» and in*iteB as fol- 
lows : ** The ascription of the Lam- 
" beth MS. 112 to Roger of Chester is 
*^ not in a contemporary hand. It is 
<' written in the margin, I am pretty 
^' sure in Archbishop Sancroft's 
" hand, and the title is written on 
^ the label outside in the same 
" hand: * Bogeri de Cestria Historia 
'• * Polychronica.' 

'' The title of the book I do not 
" find. It begins, * Frologus primus 
" * in Historiam Policronicam. 

** ' Postprceclaros artium, 

" *• Prssfatio . U. At quoniam 

' pnssens Cronica» 

" ' Prse&tio III. CupienUbus 


*' It ends in ' ecclesia libertatem * 

(i.e. in 1327), and * Explicit 
<* * Historia Policronica' 

« The dates in the later books are 
" in two columns.'- We have some 
c urious phenomena here. The longer 




form of the Chronicle is ascribed to 
Roger, and the title of his book is 
Poh/chronicon, To myself as well 
as to Archdeacon Hardwick, the 
work seems to be the same as the 
Polyehronicon of Higden. 

* Reference to Fits might have 
been spared, as he had never seen 
the book. "Historiam Banulphi 
*< multum qusesitam, nunquam in- 
** ventam, et mihi non visam fa- 
" teor." (De Illust. Angl. Scripto- 
ribus, p, 516.) This is most extra- 

2 In MSS. Harl. 1707 and 1751, 
and in the MS. C.C.C, Cant. n. 259, 
the clause runs thus : ** Est et alia 
<< Urbs Legionum ejusdem nomlnis, 
" vhi et prasens chronica fuit elabo- 
rata, urbs quidem in con£nio An- 
glise/' But in HarL MS. 1728, we 
have only this notice : ** Est et alia 
" Urbs Legionum ejusdem nominis, 
** Caerleon sive Caerlegion, urbs 
" quidem in confinio Angliae.*' 





himself, according to the villainous contrivance, which 
we shall mention, anon/' ^ 

And again under Higden : — 

** If you spell the first letters of the several chapters 
" that begin it, you read : Prcesentem chronicaTn con- 
" pilavU Frater Rmmil/phvs moncichus Ceatrens'is. 'Tis 
" observable, that the plagiary picks out such capitals, 
" and enlarges them, as are for his wicked purpose, and 
" omits the rest ; which is another notorious proof of his 
*' knavish forgery/^ ^ Now if we compare the accounts 
of Roger of Chester and of Eanulphus Higden, as given 
by Bale,* from whom others do little else but copy, 
we are immediately struck with their remarkable simi- 
larity. Both Benedictine monks of St. Werburg of 
Chester, both concluding their Universal Chronicle in 
the time of Edward III., both urged to write it by 
their fellow-monks, both adding to their original chro- 

* p. 64« Second ed., Lond. 1714. 
The first edition was published in 
1696. See also Heame, Pr«/- ad 
Camd.AnnaL, p. 119. 

2 Id. p. 65. 

* ** Bogerus de Cestria, Benedic- 
" tinorum sectse monachus, et in 
*' eadem nrbe ad Werbargse &num, 
" historiographus illustris, bonarum 
*< litterarum campos . . . merito mul- 
'' tumque colebat. . . . Hie a suis 
** commilitonibus monachis, prse- 
** cipue ab ejus loci episcopo patrono 
*' suo rogatus, Anglorom historiam 
*"• a Britannorum, immo ab ipsins 
^ OLundi ongine, usque ad annum 
*' Domini 1 314, et demum ad annum 
<< Christi 1339, Latine docte et ele- 
" ganter «cripsit. In qua, prseter 
** author 66 a Banulpho Hygdeno 
** numeratos, Nenniom, Elvodugi 
^* discipulmn, et Gildam adducit, 
'* Bannlphumque ipsum plusquam 
" 22 anuis praecessit, ab Hugone 
** Virleyo in Historiarum Figuris 

'* plerisque in locis citatus. Compo- 
*' suit ergo Bogerus Chronicon, egre- 
" glum certe, quod vocabat Po/^cra> 
" tica Temporum, libris septem. In- 
*^ cipit, 'Intrabo in agros priscorum 
" subsequens.* '* 

*' Addiiiones 15 annoruniy Hbro 
** uno. Incipit, ' Septimo anno 
** * Megis JSdwcurdi Secundi^ Et 
'* alia qosdam. Polycraticorum 
** vero primus post Prsefationem 
** liber incipit ; * Julius Ccssar di' 
** * vinis humanisque rebus/ etc. 
'^ Claroit hie Cestrius anno a Christi 
*^ nativitate 1339, quo ultimum opus 
" finiit, sub Edwardo Tertio, et Ces- 
" trisB sepelitur." Bale (C«i/. v. n. 
xMii. ed. 1569). Hugo Virley flou- 
rished A.I). 1344. He is the only 
writer before Bale, who mentions 
Boger of Chester, so far as I know. 
The Figures Historiarum, called by 
Bale " nobile opus," have not been 
printed. I do not perceive that they 
even exist 



one who knew the meaning of the word, but in the 
general ignorance of Greek, the scribes^ to whom the 
Polycraticon of John of Salisbury was a familiar name, 
frequently confounded the two words. The work of 
Higden, moreover, is sometimes called Polycraticon : 
thus our MS. C. has in the colophon : ** Expliciunt 
" chronica^ venerabilis Eanulphi, monachi Cestrensis, in 
" septem libellos distinctse, dictaeque Historia Policra- 
" tica/^ In the sixteenth century Higden's work was 
known imder both titles^^ It is not altogether impos- 
sible that Higden himself may have made the blunder, 
and corrected it in his later editions ; for it is in the 
earlier MSS., so fer as we knoWj that this error is 
mostly to be found. 

(3) Very little stress can be laid on the slight diflFe- 
rence of their dates. *^ Eanulphum ipsum plus quam xxii. 
*' annis prgecessit," says Bale ; but, by his own account, 
Roger afterwards continued the chronicle from 1314 to 
1339* Now, as many of Higden's earlier copies cease 
at 1327, and at various years afterwards, it can scarcely 
be said that there is any difference of time between 
his and Roger's chronicles.^ 

The contents of the two chronicles may be said to 
be identical^ Higd^n^s work itself appears in a longer 

^ ** Vulgo voeatur FoUcfaronicon 
** siye Polictftticon/' ilote on second 
fly-leaf of our MS. A. 

2 Bale indeed says, ** In qna (his* 
*< torla), prseter anth(»es a Banulpho 
" Hygdeno numeratofi^KenniumEl- 
" Yodngi discipnlnm et Gildam ad- 
« ducif' This is an error ; in this 
edition the latter of these authors 
is enumerated among the sources of 
the history, and he is also quoted in 
cxxxviii. With regard to Nennius, 
he is mentioned in our MSS. C. D. 
(See p. 24, note 2), as one of the 
historians used by Higden, but not 
in the other MSS. or in the versions. 

This is one indication among others 
that the Polycraticon of Boger, is 
nothing else but a form of the Foly- 

^ Bale mentions that it cominen<^s, 
** Intrabo in agros priseorum:" see 
this edition, p. 12. Archdeacon 
Hardwiek had printed this note on 
the word Intrabo : "Here begins 
" the sot-called ' Polycraticon ' of 
^^ Boger of Chester." In a copy 
of liilacray'B Manual of British 
Historians, p. 36 (Pick. 1845), 
where Boger of Chester Is noticed, 
he has written : ** I have collated 

part of this" (i.e. Harl. MS. 1707, 




and in a shorter form ; and Roger's Polycraticmv is 
only a slightly more abbreviated state of the shorter 

Upon the whole there seems to be no ground for 
the charge of plagiarism brought against Higden ; and 
from henceforth dismissing Roger of Chester and his 
Polycraticon, as being things of buckram,^ we pro- 
ceed to consider the sources whence the Polychronicon 
was derived, 
dted^*^^^ The author recoimtsat large in his second chapter 
Higden. the names of the writers who are alleged in his 
Chronicle. They are about forty in number,^ and it is 
needless to transcribe them here.^ It will be of more 

which Wanley declares to be ahnost 
identical with a MS. in which Bale 
himself has written Pdycratica 
temporum Rogeri Cesirensis, and 
some other late hand has also 
written Rogeri Cestrensis Poly- 
chronicon; see Oat. Harl. MBS., 
vol. 1, p. 180, ed. 1808) «with MS. 
« Nero, D. viii., assigned to Higden, 
"and find the two works almost 
** identical. One writer adopts the 
" title PolycronicoHy and the other 
" Polycraticon, but for precisely the 
'' same reason. The Harleian is the 
" better text j the latter MS. (the 
** Harleian) goes down to 1327, and 
** there ends with an index." It 
commences not with ** Intrabo," but 
with "In historico namque con- 
** textu ;" above which a later hand 
has written, " Post praeclaros," &c. 
By the kindness of the Bev. E. H. 
Perowne, B.3>., I have examined 
the MS. (numbered 269) of Roger 
of Chester, in the library of Corpus 
Christ! College, Cambridge. Bale's 
account of him is transcribed on a 
fly-leaf, but his name does not occur 
in the MS. itself. It begins (cer- 
tainly not abruptly) " Intrabo," and 

ends A,D. 1338, "statim postea 
" concusserunt." 

^ Neither Leland in his Comment, 
de Script Britann., nor Henry 
Wharton, nor R. Gery, who write 
accounts of Higden, in the Appen< 
dix to Cave's Historia Litteraria^ 
give Roger a place, or even mention 
lum at all. 

^ Many authors are quoted in 
the first volume, which are not 
included in Higden's catalogue. 
Thus he ^e^rs to the life of John 
the Almoner, and copies it pretty 
closely (p. 240) ; also to Ptolemy 
the geographer (p. 44) ; and to 
Cicero (p, 82) ; to say nothing of 
passing allusions to the classics, 
as to Horace (p. 12), Virgil (pp. 
208, 266), Ovid (p. 238), and 
Juvenal (p. 412) ; or to the 
Pathers, as Gregory Nazianzen 
(p. 8), or Gregory the Great (p. 
12). Conversely a large number 
of the authors named are not quoted 
at all in this volume. 

* The reader is requested to ex- 
amine not only the lists, but also 
the various readings. The MSS. 
C. and 1). give, in addition to. the 



utility to point out briefly, as the volumes of this 
edition make their appearance, to whom Higden is 
principally indebted for his accounts of the history 
and geography therein severally contained.^ I proceed, 
therefore, to indicate the contents of the first book, 
(wliich may be seen more fully in the Summary which 
follows this Introduction,) in connection with the 
fountains (which are sometimes none of the purest) 
from which Higden has drawn. 

The bombastic and not very intelliarible ^ prologue Contents of 
concluded (c. i.),^ the plan of the work expounded first book. 

list in our text, the names of Hero- 
dotus, Quintilian, and AulusGelUus. 
Who this Herodotus (or as Higden 
writes him Erodotus) is I do not 
kno^. He is quoted or alluded to 
at pp. 172, 290,296, 386. He names 
Pompey the Great, also the Picts, 
and seems to be some Western me- 
dieval chronicler. 

' In the present volume he quotes 
Isidore, naming him, about fifty 
times, and very frequently uses him 
without naming him at all ; he 
quotes Flmy and Justin about a 
dozen times each. These last are 
the only classical authors of whom 
he makes considerable use, unless 
Solinus be so designated, who is re- 
ferred to about half a dozen times. 
Of the rest, Hugutio, Petrus Comes- 
tor, Paulus Biaconus, William of 
Malmesbury, Bede, and especially 
Giraldus Cambrensis, are Higden's 
principal authorities, besides the 
anonymous Geographia, which he 
never names. His allusions to Au- 
gustine and Jerome are rather nu- 
merous, but mostly unimportant 

JLIt is possible Ihat conjecture, or 
a collation of other MSS., might 
help the text a little ; but I suspect 
not a great deal. On reflection, I 
think. that quo adoivcrent (p. 2), 

though evidently the reading of the 
MSS. (A., E.), should be changed 
into quoad viverent Dr. Moberly 
has very kindly collated for this 
edition the prologue and also the 
second chapter (giving names of the 
authorities) as they stand in the 
Winchester MS. (see below) ; but 
tWe various readings are few and 
unimportant. For qjtto adviverent 
(p. 2) the Winchester MS., quo ad- 
venirenf ; for tulerunt (p. 6), contw 
lerunt (which is better) ; for nempe 
(p. 6), namque ; for reperies (p. 16), 
invenies; for Ormesta (p. 22), Or- 
mestia; for memorabiiibus (p. 22), 
memoria ; for episcopus» Historia (p. 
24), episcopus de historia. The 
other variations are not worth 
mentioning, being in some cases 
mere blunders. I have also sub- 
sequentTy collated Gale's excellent 
MS. (G.) for the same parts, but 
have not found a single various 
reading worth recording here. 

* The reader who compares this 
Introduction with Higden's text, is 
requested to refer to the chapters 
by means of the Summary of Con- 
tents, as a few of the chapters of the 
Latin (not English) text are mis- 
numbered. See Corrigenda, 



His (c, iii«, iv.), and the authorities rehearsed (a ii.), the 

physical^ author proceeds with the first book, which is, as we 
have already said, a map of the world, or series of 
descriptions of the principal countries of the ancient 
and more modem nations. He begins by describing the 
magnitude of the globe, whose diameter he determines 
to be 6,491 miles ;^ then the three great parts of the 
world, and the relations of their magnitudes to one 
another. After that he proceeds to describe the Medi^ 
terranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, c. viii., ix. His 
principal authorities for these accounts are Isidore of Se- 
ville, of whom he makes very extensive use in the first 
book, and PUny, to whom he is also largely indebted. 
Besides these Higden also quotes Giraldus Cambren- 
sis, Bede, Solinus, Paulus Diaconus, and the author of 
a cosmography, whom he calls Prisdanus, but who 
commonly passes, whether rightly or wrongly, under 
the name of -^thicus.* 

^ The true mean diameter is 7,9 12 

* See pp. 22, 40, 42, 50. I now 
see that Higden only followed the 
Geographia Uhiversali», of which 
more helow, in which he is called 
Prescianus, The quotation at p. 40 
appears thus in iBthicns: '^Itaque 
«Julius Csesar bissextilis rationis 
<< inventor, divinis humanisque 
« rebus singolariter instructas, cum 
'< consnlatus sui £i8oes erigeret, ex 
^'senatuB consulto censuit omnem 
" orhem jam Bomani nonunis ad- 
«metiri per pradentissimos viros, 
<< et omni philosophise munere de~ 
** coratos. .^ . . Ac sic oiimis orbis 
*' terree intra annos xxzii. a dimen- 
^ soribus peragratns est, et de omni 
*' ejus continentia perlatam eBt ad se* 
« natmn,"p. 26. Bd.GrolioT. (ad calc. 
Pomp. Mels,Lugd. Bat, 1696.) The 
readings of C. D., it will be observed 
here and in other places, agree more 

nearly with the original text of the 
author referred to than the later 
and larger forms of the chromcle 
do. The quotation at p« 50 ajppears 
thus : ** Plurimi qui res divinas (Aw- 
** manas, Higden) evidentitis agno- 
** verunt duas tantum partes aecipi- 
*^ endas Snadent, id est, Asiam et 
** Europam tantummodo $ Africam 
** vero censent Europe finibus depu- 
** tandam. * * * Quia et spatio latitu- 
« dinis caret, et coeli male (leg. malo) 
'* sulgacet climAti) laborans aeribus 
** snis, venenis facisque repleta im~ 
'* maninm et incognitaram humano 
" generi innnmerabilium bestia- 
** mm." Id. pp. 25 and 51. (ubi 
plara.) These citations will in some 
degree show the manner in which 
Higden manipulates his autho^ties, 
as well as the difference of treatment 
in the earlier and later editions. 
There are several other places in 
which Higden may perhaps have 



Our author, having at length concluded his general Higden'g 
account of earth and sea, which we may call his ^"^^^^^j^J^ 
physical geography, proceeds to describe the separate divisions 
provinces of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Not to dwell g^rth! Asia 
on his speculations on Paradise (c. x), derived in part and its 
from Isidore of Seville, Petrus Comestor, and John^"^^^^^* 
Damascene,^ we pass on to his description of Asia, 

used ^thiciis, though without 
acknowledgment e^,, in his descrip- 
tion of Tile (Thule), of which 
^thicus says (p. 61) ; ^< Insula 
'^ Tilse, quae per iufinitum a csetetis 
'' patet longins secreta, in medio 
" oceanisita,vt:rpattcisnoto/' Com- 
pare Higden, c. SI, who refers to 
Solinns De MirahUibus; Solinus 
however {Polyhisiy c* 22)^ dbes not 
employ the phrase» nor does his 
original source» Pliny. I now per- 
ceive, however, that Orosius (lib. 
i. c. 2) has almost copied iBthicus; 
and as Higden certainly knew that 
author, nothing can be said posi- 

For more about ^thicus, who is 
most probably the same person as 
Julius Honorius, see Bitschl, in 
Bhein, Mus, 1842, pp. 481-523. 
JSthicus is by no means the only 
author quoted in Higden, which has 
occasioned me trouble, and I may 
be permitted to make one or two 
remarks respecting his citations and 
alluiuons in general. When the 
MSS. agree in the reference to an 
author, I have not in general thought 
it worth while to verify it i when 
otherwise, I have commonly -tried to 
discover (fi^quently without suc- 
cess) which of the references was 
the true one. It has sometimes 
^dlen out that an examination of 
tike original authority shows that 
the true reference is something 
different to what any of the MSS. 

contain. (See pp. 84, 196, &c.). It 
is much to be feared that some 
other citations may likewise be 
erroneous ; but in cases where the 
MSS. agree, the &,ult ought to be 
charged upon Higden, not on his 
editor. To rectify every erroneous 
reference in a work which is in a 
great measure made up of quo- 
tations from other writers, variously 
altered and modified, would be an 
endless taskj and indeed would 
very ill repay the labour in the case 
of such an author as Higden. How- 
ever, where the case seemed to re- 
quire it, I have made some search 
into the original authority for the 
statement ; but shall be thankful to 
any one who may discover and 
inform me respecting errors or 
omissions on Higden's part or my 

* The text of our edition differs 
much from the MSS. G. D., so much 
indeed that a collation is impossible. 
I now perceive, from a comparison 
of the Etdogium Historiarum (vol. 
ii. pp. 11-14) that this early text 
was very much derived from an 
unpublished work, ebtitled Geo- 
graphia UniversaliSj which has been 
a good deal used by Higden for 
his description of northern Europe, 
though he never refers to the book. 
A copy of the text in D., and of the 
text of the Geographia, is subjoined 
in an appendix. 



which commences with India (c. xi.). His account, 
which is for the most part fabulous, and relates to 
monstrous dragons, to the battles of pigmies and cranes, 
to men of strange conformations, ages, habits, and 
qualities, and to prophetical trees, which warned Alex- 
ander the Great not to enter Babylon/ is taken from 
Isidore, Pliny, Cicero, and Petrus Comestor. He 
preserves, however, some grains of truth, and describes 
with tolerable correctness the institutions of caste^ the 
burning of widows, and the natural products. Parthia 
follows next in order, and the account of its kings 
and people is derived principally from Justin, some 
portions being also said to be taken from Isidore 
and Giraldus. Except that he erroneously designates 
Phrahates the Fourth, (who is known as Arsaces the 
Fifteenth,) by the name of " Mithridates, son of Mith- 
" ridates,'' his account is conformable to the classical 
accounts which have come down to us.^ 

An account of Assyria and the adjoining regions 
foUows (c. xiii) ; it has the name of Isidore prefixed 
to several of the paragraphs, and he is also the autho- 
rity for some clauses which have no name at their 
head.^ The account of Babylon is mostly taken from 
Orosius. Some slight use is also made of Justin, 

' Compare Jul. Valer. lies Gest 
Alex,,]ih, iii. c. 40, 41. (Ed. Mai.); 
Pseudo-Alex, ad Aristot. de Mirab, 
Ind, (Sig. Q. ii., cd. Neap. 1555) ; 
Vine Bel. Spec. Hist, lib. iv. c. 
57 J Mart. Pol. Ckron, lib. ii. c. 4., 
for an account of these wonderful 

^ Higden refers to Giraldus, dist. 
17. for the statement. I do not 
understand the reference, neither 
does it appear likely that Giraldus 
(wkoBe name is written at length in 
our MS. £.) is his authority at all. 
Although there is great confusion 

about Oriental names in the classical 
writers, it does not appear (so far 
as I know) that any of them have 
called Arsaces xv. by the name of 
Mithridates. His father's name, 
moreover, was not Mithridates, but 
Orodes. See Lindsay's Hist, and 
Coinage of the Parthians, pp. 38-50, 
Cork, 1852. 

* Thus the description of the 
boundaries of Syria (p. 100) is 
taken from Isidore, lib. xiv. c. 3. 
§ 16. Compare also §15 with Hig- 
den*s notice of Arabia. 



Petrus Comestor, and Josephus. Judea and Jerusa- 
lem, as might be anticipated, are more fully described 
(c. xiv,). His principal authority is still Isidore, but 
reference is also made to several other writers, as Jo- 
sephus, Augustine, Jerome, William of Mahnesbury, 
Giraldus, Petrus Comestor. There is little in the ac- 
count itself on which it is necessary to dwell. The 
most curious point about it is a change for the better 
which occurs in the text of MS. E., the latest and 
purest form, so Ifar as I know, in which the Chronicle 
has appeared. In the earlier forms of the text. Mount 
Sion is placed at the north of Jersualem, in the later 
at the south.^ In the following chapter (c. xv.) the 
description of the Holy Land is concluded, embracing 
Idumea, Samaria, Qahlee, Cedar, and Phenicia. In 
addition to Isidore, Hlgden quotes from Hugutio and 
Pseudo-Methodius. In the notice of Egypt (c. xvi.), 
Higden refers to Petrus Comestor, Bede, Jerome, and 
Isidore ; from the last-named author he has derived 
some statements without acknowledgment. In common 
with various ancient writers, to whom he makes only 
a vague allusion, he considers that the Nile has its 

* The reference is to William of 
Malmesbury " De Regibvts ;*' the ver- 
sions add falsely libro primo. The 
passage runs thus : ** Fons intra nul- 
" las, sed cisternis ad hoc prseparatis 
** coUigunturlatices, siti ciyiiuiiproo 
'* fatnri ; quod ipsius urbis situs, 
*^ supercilio ah aquilone montis Sion 
" incipiens, ita sit molli clivo dispo- 
** situs, nt pluYia ibi decidens neqim- 
" quam lutum faciat, sed mStar flu- 
" yiorum vel cisternis excipiatur, 
" vel per portas defluens torrentem 
" Oedron augeat." Gest. Beg, Angl, 
lib. iv. § 367 (vol. ii. pp. 561, 562. 
Engl. Hist. Soc). The text of E. 
expresses the sense of Malmesbury: 
" Urbis ipsius situs ab austro (aqui- 

" lone. A, B.) montem Syon habens, 
"moUi cUvo versus boream (aus- 
" frum, A. B.) descendens sic dis- 
'' ponitur ut pluvia stillans nequa- 
" quam lacum Quiuvtiy B.and Malm.) 
*^ feciaty sed instar rivulorum in cis- 
** temis excipiatur, vel saltern per 
" portas effiuens torrentem Cedron 
" adaugeat,*' p. 108. Here again it 
is instructive to observe the varia- 
tions of expression between the text 
of the original author and the text 
of Higden. In the earliest form of 
Higden's text, which some would 
call Boger*s Pclycraticon^ the whole 
passage based on William of Mal- 
mesbury is omitted. 



sources in Ethiopia, not far from Mount Atlas.^ It 
will be observed that Egypt in his cosmography forms 
a part of Asia. 

Higdeii next proceeds to describe Scythia at some 
length (c. xvii,), following Justin ahnost entirely; the 
same chapter contains also brief notices of Bactria, 
the Caucasus^ Hyrcania> Albania^ Gothia, Armenia, and 
Moimt Ararat. For his descriptions of these countries 
he quotes no authorities, except Albertus Magnus for 
some details about Mount Atlas, but his principal 
source of information is, as usual, Isidore.^ His Gothia 
seems to include parts of Scandinavia and of Eussia^ 
both European and ABiatic. 

In the following chapter (a xviii.) he concludes his 
accoimt of Asia, mentioning in a very brief manner 
Cappadocia, (which he distinguishes from Asia Minor,) 
and the following provinces of Asia Minor : Bithynia, 
Galatia, Phrygia, Lydia, Pamphylia, and Cilida. He 
has made much use of the New Testament in his 
notices of these, and also of Isidore,^ whom, however, 

> This is the Tiew of Julius Ho- 
norius, p. 19 (ed. Gronov. ad calc. 
Pomp. Melse), of JSthicus (u, s, p. 
50) } also of SoUnua (c. xxvii. and 
c. xxxii.), and of his original author 
Pliny (lib. v. c. 10, where see Har- 
dnin's note, who refers to Marcianus 
Capella, Anuuianns Marcellinus,and 
Xiphilinos ; also lib. yiii. c. 32, 
where be speaks more positively). 
Since this note was written, I have 
seen Mr. Vaux's paper, On the 
Knowledge of the Ancients on the 
Sources of the NUe, Trans. Boy. 
Soc. lit, Tol. viii. (new series) pp. 
85-66, which contains much curious 
information on a subject which has 
just acquired a new interest 

2 Compare Isid. Hisp., lib. xiv. 
c. 8, § 2 (for the Caucasus) ; c. 3, 

§33 (for Hyrcania); c. 3, § 34 
(for Albania) ; lib. ix. c. 2, § 89 
(for Gothia, where, however, Higden 
substitutes Goihos for GetcLs in his 
text) ; lib. xiv. c. 3, § 35 (for Ar- 
menia). In Higden's account, how- 
ever, are some things not contained 
in Isidore. Thus his short notice 
of Bactria seems not to be taken 
&om him, but it is so unimportant 
that it is hardly worth while to in- 
quire more particularly. Neither 
is it the same as that in the Geo- 
graphia Universalis and ihe Evh^ 

^ Compare Isid. Hisp., lib. xiv. 
c. 3, § 37 (for Cappadocia, who 
also places it to the east of Asia 
Minor) ; § 38 (fqr Asia Minor) ; 
§ 39 (for Bithynfe) j § 40 (for Ga- 


he does not professedly quote. The chapter concludes 
with a more extended account of Amazonia (which 
he makes partly in Europe and partly in Asia), which 
is principally taken from Justin, and partly (with 
some expressions of dissent) from Isidore.^ He also 
quotes from the apocryphal *'Historia Alexandri'* the 
letters of Thalestris, queen of the Amazons, to Alex- 
ander the Great, and that monarch's gracious reply.^ 
These are the original sources of the account of Ama- 
zonia, and which it is important to indicate ; but 
there is no douht that Higden has taken his notice 
of this, as well as of some other countries^ almost en- 
tire from the Oeographia Universalis, of which more 
hereafter, in which the same authorities as he quotes 
are quoted also, and in the same order, or nearly so, 
with some verbal alterations.^ 

The nineteenth and twentieth chapters contain an AMca and 
account of AMoa, from which Egypt is excluded ^p^ 
Still following Isidore, he discusses the etymology of 
the name, and runs rapidly over the provinces of 
Ethiopia, Libya, Tripolis, Gsetulia, and Mauretania, 
dwelling somewhat more particularly on the foundation 
of Carthage and its date, maintaining, against Yirgil 
and Dares Phrygius, that Eneas could not have seen 

latia) ; § 41 (for Phrygia ; makiDg, 
however, Phrygia the daughter of 
^sopus, not of Eiiropa)j § 43 (for 
Lydia, which Higden has copied 
ahnost bodily) ; § 44 (for Pamphy- 
lia, which Isidore also identifies with 
Isanria, though he does not create 
a ^^Seleucos Antiochns" as the 
founder of Seleucia); §§45 and 46 
(for Cilicia and Lycia ; the identi- 
fication, however, of Lycia with 
Lycaonia is an error with which 
Isidore is not chargeable). Some 
of the deviations from Isidore are 
to be found in the Geographia. 

> Just, Hb. ii. c. 4 ; Isid. Hisp., 
lib. ix. c. a, § 64. 

^ ^^Ejusmodi Historic Alexandri 
^ in bibl. Leidensi aliisque servantur 
« MSS." Harl. in Pabr. Bibl Grcec,, 
vol. iii. p, 34 (Hamb. 1783). Car- 
dinal Mai has since published two 
such works, one of which is ascribed 
to Julius Valerius, but they do not 
contain these letters. Martinus Polo- 
nuB, however (Ckron, lib. ii. c. 4,), 
gives the same letters in substance, 
but writes CaUistrata £ot Thalestris, 

^ See Haydon's Introd. to Eulog» 
Hist, vol. ii. xxxii. (note). 



Dido. He maintains the view of Justin, that Car- 
thage was founded 72 years before Eome, and con- 
firms it by the authority of Papias.^ In the course 
of his remarks on these regions he acknowledges his 
obKgations to Josephus, Gregory the Great, Marianus, ' 
Augustine, and Hugutio. His account of the marvels 
and monstrous people of Africa seems to be mostly 
taken from Solinus ^ (or from Pliny, whom . he epi- 
tomizes), though no authority is cited for the state- 
ments made. 
Europe and Higden now proceeds (cap. xxi.) to describe Europe, 
vinc^ which occupies the remainder of the book. He begins 
with an account of northern Europe, which is in 
good part derived from Isidore^ and the Geographia,'^ 
and passes lightly over the provinces of Scythia, 
Alania, Moesia, Sclavia or Sclavonia, and Pannonia. 
In his accomit of the last, he makes mention of the 

* This Papias is the author of the 
Ehmentarium ; in which the pas- 
sage occurs under Carthago; and 
I should suppose that he is the same 
that Grabe mentions, ^'ccgns (Pa- 
*' pise, sc.) Syngrammaia allegantur 
" in Chronica Demonstratione AUa- 
" tii, Hbro de Simeonum scriptis 
« suffixa, p. 22," Routh, Hel Sacr,, 
torn» i p 43 (ed. alt) I learn from 
Br. laghtfoot that the famous pas- 
sage ahout our Lord's brethren, re- 
ferred to Papias, the apostolic &ther, 
by Boiith and others, occurs in the 
JSlementarium of this medieval Pa- 
pias, who, no doubt, takes it from 

* Compare Solinus, capp. 30-31, 
with p. 158 of Higden. 

^ See Isid. Hisp., lib. xiv. c, 4, 
§ 1-5 (for Europe generally, and 
for Scythia, Alania, and Moesia); 
lib. xiii. c. 21, § 24 (for Tanais). 
He says scarcely anything about 

Pannonia (lib. xiv. c. 4, § 5), and 
about Sclavia nothing at all. The 
accounts of Scythia, Alania, and 
Moesia, in the Geographia, do not 
closely resemble those in Higden. 

* lE'or Pannonia and Sclavia see 
Eulog, Sisty lib. iv. c. 66 and 67, 
and Mr. Haydon's preface, vol. ii. 
p. xxxviii., and the notes, where the 
deviations from the Geographia are 
given. The account of the latter is 
generally fuller and more accurate 
than Higden, and there seems to be 
no doubt that the Geographia is the 
parent of much in the Polpchrqnicony 
and not vice versa, I should be 
glad to discover the Herodotus, 
from whom these two works and 
the Euhgivm so often borrow.' It 
might, perhaps, be worth while to 
print the Geographia, as so much 
use has been made of it by other 



Huns, professing to derive his information from an 
author whom he calls Herodotus, but in ti'uth taking 
his notice, citations inclusive, from the Oeographia. 

The twenty-second chapter is taken up with a de- 
scription of Greece and its provinces. The classical 
authorities referred to are Justin, Varro, and Ovid, 
from whom are derived notices of the early history 
of Athens, the contest of Neptune with Minerva, the 
Delphian oracle, Deucalion's flood, and an allusion to 
Tempe ; also an account of the colonization of Tarentum 
by the Spartans after the siege of Messene, which latter 
city he strangely places in Apulia, confusing it appa- 
rently with the Sicilian Messana. In the description 
of the provinces he principally follows Isidore,* and 
gives some details about Constantinople from WiUiam 
of Malmesbury. He refers also for smaller matters 
to Giraldus Cambrensis and Petrus Comastor. 

Higden's account of Italy (c. xxiii.) is for the most 
part taken from Isidore, one citation being also made 
fron^ Pliny. The conclusion of the chapter relates the 
origin and progress of the Lombards, and is derived 
wholly from Paulus Diaconus. 

From Italy generally, Higden proceeds to a de- 
scription of Rome in particular, which is made up 
of a strange assemblage of absurdities. A large part 
of these are derived from a small tract, whose author 
is generally considered to be unknown, though styled 
by Higden Magister Gregorius.^ Its title is MiraMlia 
JJrhis Romce, and so popular did it become, that it 

» See lib. xiv. c. 4, § 7-16. Bat 
some touches are due to the Geo" 
graphia, e.g., the barbarous word 
Helladia, See Haydon» u.«., p. «^ 
xxxix., and the Eulogium, lib. iv. 
capp. 73-77. 

^ I transcribed the following 
extracts from a copy in the British 
Museum, supposed to be printed 

VOL. I. 

about 1473. It consists of six leaves. 
In the description of the palace of 
Peace we read : ** Uhi posoit Bomu- 
'< lus snam statuam dicens : * Haic 
** ' statua non cadet, donee virgo 
" * pariat.' Et statim cum B. Virgo 
" peperit, statua corruit." (fol. 1, b). 
Compare Higden, p. 214. The sec- 
tion JOe agidea (sic) iS'. Petri, con- 



went through more than 30 editions in the fifteenth 
century, apart from the translations into German and 
into Italian which were printed in the same period.^ 
Other marvels are transcribed from the Polycraticon 
of John of Salisbury. The reader^ who has any taste 
for the investigation of such matters, may consult the 
recent work of Dr. Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt 
Bom im» MitUlaLter (of which the first volume ap- 
peared fl?t Stuttgard in 1869), in which the medieval 

eludes ^th six rhyming lines, of 
which the last three are : 

" Begia stmctora, qnanta non extat 

in aula. 
'* Si lapis est unns, [die] qua fhit 
arte levatus : 
'< Et fii sunt plureSy die ubi con- 
geries." (Fol. 2, h.) 
Compare Higden, p. 226, where the 
lines are read differently. Again : 
^ Injra capltolimn fioit palatium pro 
** magna parte anreum et lapidibos 
'* pretiosis omatum, quod dlcebatur 
'* valeie tertiam partem mnndi, in 
" quo tot statu® imaginupi erant, 
" quot erant mundi provincise» et 
" habebat quselibet imago tintinnar 
" bulum in collo per artem mathe- 
" maticam dispositum, ut quando ali- 
^* qua regie Bomano populo rebellis 
'' effieeretur, statim [imago] illius 
*' proyincisB vertebat dorsum imagini 
^'urbis Bomanae, qua major erat 
" super alias imagines tanquam do- 
" mina ; et sic tintinnabulum quod 
'^ habebat ad coUum statim resona- 
"bat. Tunc vates, qui capitolii 
" quoque erant custodes, referebant 
« illud senatui." (fol. 3 b). Com- 
pare Higden, pp. 2 1 6, 2 1 8. Again : 
" Tempore imperatoris Tiberii ve- 
" nerunt Bomam duo philosophi 
"juvenes, scilicet Prasitelis (sic) 
« et Pbidias/' &e., as in Higden, 

p. 226, q. v., but more briefly, (fol. 
4.) The author likewise gives an 
account of the Colosseum and the 
Pantheon, which may be compared 
with those in Higden. It appears 
ftom Mr. Dyer*s elaborate article 
Ronutf in Smith's Diet Gr. and 
Bom. Geography, that this treatise 
'^ was the first attempt at a regular 
*' description of ancient Bome." He 
mentions that it has been edited 
with notes byNibby {Ephemeride 
Letterarie, Borne, 1820). See also 
Montfancon, Diar. liaL, c. 20. 

' See Hain's Bepertorium, vol. ill. 
pp. 414-421 (n. 11,174-211,220). 
Harding, in his Confutation of 
the Apology of Jewel (fol. 166, b., 
Antwerp, 1565), ascribes the Miru' 
bilia to Martinus Polonus. " The 
" like fables and fond lyes he (Mar- 
"tine of Pole) stuffed an other 
**booke withall, which he wrote, 
" entituled MirahUivmvrhtBRomaJ* 
Many of the worst absurdities of the 
Mirahilia are related in his Chroni- 
cle, e.g. the story' of Praxiteles and 
Phidias» Chron. lib. i. c. 7, where 
we further learn that the temple of 
crystal and gold (see Higden, p. 
214) was the Colosseum ! Whether 
however he is the author of the 
treatise is uncertain. 

iirrBODUorioN. xxxi 

legends are recounted with a patience and diligence 
rarely to be found except in a German. Willingly 
passing over these, I have only further to observe 
that Higden makes considerable use of Martinus 
Polonus in his account of the construction of the 
city/ and has also drawn upon Virgil, Livy, Solinus, 
William of Malmesbury,^ and some very late verses, 
whose author does not appear, for various ps^rticulars 
embraced in his account. 

In the following chapter (xxv.) Higden gives some 
account of certain institutions of the Romans, which 
is mostly taken from the Mymologies of Hugutio, 
which seem not to have been printed.* He has 
also used in a much smaller degree Ovid, Valerius 
Maximus, Isidore, aad John of Salisbuiy, md in one 
instance, unfortunately, the Legenda Aurea. Upon 
the whole, this chapter is a much more historical 
and trustworthy compilation than that which went 
before it. 

Leaving the old world, Higden now approaches the 
countries of modem Europe, and, beginning with Ger- 
many, makes his way westward to Britain, with which 
his "Map of the World'' concludes. His somewhat 
meagre notice of Germany (c. xxvi.) is due in part to 
Isidore, also to Paulus Diaconus (&om whom he takes 
the beautiful legend of the Seven Sleepers), to Bede, 
and to Pliny. Numerous particulars of his account in 
this and in many of the following chapters are derived 
from a source to which he has not referred, but which 
exists in manuscript under the title of Geograpkia Uni- 

> See Mart Pol. Chron., lib; i. 
capp, 4-7; lib. iy. cap. Domiiiamts, 

2 The verses, however, of Hilde- 
bert appear thus in William's, fourth 
book (§ 351, p. 537, Hardy) : 

" Par tibi Roma nihil, cum sis prope 
tota ruina ; 

<<Quani magni :foeriB Integra, 

fracta doces." 
^ I have consulted a MS, of this 
work in the Cambridge University 
Library, and foiind that Higden had 
correctiy quoted it in all the cases 
where it seemed worth while to 
I verify his references. 

C 2 




versalis: The author is unknown, but it is quite clear 
that Higden^ as well as the author of the Eulogmm 
Historiarum, is under considerable obligations to 
him.^ The time at which he lived does not appear to 
have been investigated; the manuscript itself is of 
the 14th century, and probably the author himself is 
little, if at all, older.^ 

The opening sentence of his account of France (c. 
xxvii.) is taken without acknowledgment from Isidore.^ 

* Mr. Haydon, to whose valuable 
introduction to the JEnlogium Histo^ 
riorum (pablished in this series) I 
am much indebted, points oat the 
chapters in that work which are 
taken from the Polychronicon and 
from the Geographiay and mentions 
the deviations very minutely. The 
reader who compares those chap> 
ters in the Eulogium borrowed from 
the Geographia with the chapters 
in Higden which treat of the same 
countries, will see at once that many 
of his statements, yor which he gives 
no authority, are taken from this 
book. Thus, to take a crucial in- 
stance, the Geographia (fol. 4 b.) 
says of the Auroch : " Et hoc animal 
•* lingua BoemLca Loz nuncupatur " 
(Intr, to Euhg, vol. ii. p. xl. (note.) 
This is altered in the Eulogium into, 
** In lingua nostra nomen ignora- 
" tur " (vol. ii. p. 72), but in Hig-* 
den, p. 256, we have the identical 
statement: '' Quod lingua Boemica 
<* Leoz (Loz, A) vocatur." This 
clause excepted, most of of his ac- 
<^ount is tacitly taken from Plmy (lib. 
viii. c. 16). It was with no small 
satisfaction that I discovered, with 
Mr. Haydon^s help, the source of 
not a few passages, or parts of pas- 
sages, which I had in vain endea- 
voured to find elsewhere. I now 

perceive also that some of Higden^s 
authorities have been taken by him 
from the Geographia. All the quo- 
tations from Herodotus (so called) 
are, I believe, derived from this work. 
The Geographia also repeatedly 
quotes Isidore, but although Higden 
uses the same quotations, he is 
so familiar wifh him that he cannot 
be said to be beholden to any other 
writer for them. I have now exa- 
mined the MS. of the Geographia 
in the British Museum (Arundel 
MSS. n. 123) since this Introduc- 
tion was in t)'pe, and have traced 
Higden's statements to their origin 
in some cases, where the notes on 
the Eulogium did not conduct me to 

* lie quotes Petrus Comestor, who 
lived at the end of the 12th century, 
and an Alexander, who is doubtless 
Keck ham, who lived a little later. 
See Appendix. The same quota- 
tions are reproduced ia Higden, but 
in this introduction the authors, 
from whom the citations are pro- 
fessedly made, are called his autho> 
rities, even though they may bave 
been taken at second hand. 

^ Higden's mistake in reading 
humectentur for inneetuntur in Vir- 
gil is his own. Lactantlus, the 
fountain head of the account, has 



The more important parts of this chapter, relating to 
the succession of the early French kings, are taken 
from William of Malmesbnry ; other parts are derived 
from Ovid, Augustine, Hugutio, and Giraldus ; also from 
those untrustworthy authorities, Turpin, and Geoflrey 
of Monmouth.* Higden likewise professes to quote 
from Herodotus, and from the second hook of Eutro- 
pius, but the reference is false in each case, and some 
other authors are intended*^ This chapter is mostly 
occupied with an account of the various tribes and 
dynasties of France from the time>s of Julius Caesar 
downwards, and with a general outline of its geo- 
graphy. In that which follows (c. xxviii.) he enters on 
a description of the limits and positions of the pro- 
vinces in particular, which seems to be for the most 
part taken from the Geographiaf but reference is made 
on certain points to Giraldus, Isidore, Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth, Pliny, and also to Herodotus, but falsely as 
always. His observations respecting the woollen cloth 

committed the error about the Sibyl. 
See Isidore, lib. ix. c. 2. § 104, vol. 
iii. p. 414 (ed. Arey.) and the notes. 
I had overlooked this in writing the 
note at p. 266. 

* Warton (Hist Eng, Poetry^ vol. 
1. diss. 1) has many remarks on 
these writers. He thinks that the 
fabnlous history ascribed to Turpin 
is not older than the 12th centory. 
Pope Calixtus II. in 1122, it seems, 
pronounced the history to be ge- 
nuine ! 

2 Herodotus is quoted as giving 
an account of the Picts, p. 294. 
The second book of Eutropius is 
quoted for an account of the Gauls, 
in which it might very naturally 
have occurred ; but there is no such 
passage either in that book or in 
the whole of his history, so fer as I 

know. It occurs, however, in Mart. 
Pol. Chron.f lib. ii. c. 6, who says, 
'' Gain vero, lU Orositis ait, sunt 
" animo feroces, corpora fortiora 
*' aliis hominibus habente^. Sed hoc 
" comprobatum est, quod sicut in 
" primo impetu virtus eorum fortior 
^* est aliis hominibus, ita postea vir- 
" tns eorum minor est ferme quam 
" mulierran." Possibly he has in 
his eye Oros. lib. v. c. 16 (com- 
pare also lib. vi. c. 12), with whom 
Higden's words agree more nearly 
than his own. With the expression 
of Orosius (p. 329 Hav.), •* Post ubi 
<< incaiescente sole fluxa Gallorum 
<* corpora in modum nivium distabue- 
** runt," compare Higden, p. 268. 

* I'or Planders, compare Geogra- 
phiOf fol. 8 (ahnost copied) ; for 
Picardy, Geogr, fol. 1 7(very similar) ; 




of Brabant^ and Flanders (which he includes under 
France) as compared with the scarlet cloth of Lincoln 
are not without interest, and are probably derived from 
his own knowledge and observation. 

His notice of Spain (a xxix.) is but slight, and is 
principally taken from Justin and Isidore. The con- 
cluding remark about the Spanish possessions of the 
Saracens, as they then existed, is found only in the 
later form of the chronicle, and may be original® In 
the thirtieth chapter the islands of the Mediterra- 
nean are described. For a great part of the account 
Higden is indebted to Isidore, not only for those sen- 
tences to which his name is prefixed, but likewise for 
much besides.^ His account of Sicily is partly taken 
from Bede and Giraldus, as weU as from Isidore. He 
also mentions St. Gregory's notion that souls are tor- 
mented in the flames of Etna. The only other author 
quoted in this unimpoiiant chapter is Orosius. 

for Nonnandy, Geogr, fol. 14 (which 
Higden abbreviates) ; for Foitou, 
Geogr, fol. 16,b.; for Aqmtaiae, the 
Geogr, foL 3 (which gives» as the 
sources of the information, Mdore, 
Pliny, and Orosius) j for Gascony, 
the Creogr, foL 22, which however 
has not the latter part of Higden's 
description ; and for Burgundy, the 
Geogr, fi>1.4, b., whichis pretty closely 
copied. The descriptions of Brit- 
tany (p. 290), and Anjou (p. 294), 
do not coincide with those in the 
Geographia, fol. 4 and fol. 3^ 

> The account of Brabant is not 
from the Geograpkia, where it is 
made "a part of Germany (fol. 4). 

^ It does not occur in the a<icount 
of Hispania, given in the Geographia 
(fol. 11). 

■ See Isidore, lib. xiv. c. 6, § 7 
(for Gades) ? § 39, 40 (for Sardi* 
nia) 5 § 41 (for Corsica) j § 19, 20 

(fortheCydades); § 21 (forDelos); 
§ 22 (for Rhodes); § 31 (for 
Samos); § 14 (for CypiHis, in part); 
§ 16, 16 (for Crete) ; § 32 (for 
Sicily) ; lib. xiii. c. 18, § 3, 4, 5 
(for Scylla and Charybdis) ; lib. 
xiv. c. 6, § 36 (for the iEk>lian Is- 
lands) ; lib. Xvi. c. 2 (for the salt 
of Agrigentum). The short notice 
of Aradus haa nothing but what is 
contained in Isidore, lib. ix. c. 2, 
§24,andEzek., xxvii. 8, 11. Hig- 
den, however, took it with little 
alteration from the Aradia sive 
Aradium of the Geographia (fol. 1, 
b.), which refers to the Glossa on 
Ezekiel. Even when Banulpkus 
is prefixed to a sentence the matter 
is taken from Isidore, who writes, 
lib. xiv. c. 6, § 36, thus : ^'Esdem 
•* insuka et Vulcaniae vocantur 
'^ quod et ipss, sicnt ^tna, 
'< ardeant.'^ See Higden, p. 318. 



The islands of the Atlantic (including the Baltic) 
follow upon these (c. xxxi.) The description of the 
Canaries, or Fortunate Islands» is taken from Pliny and 
Isidore. His account of Denmark, which he and other 
medieval writers call Dacia/ is likewise in part taken 
from Isidore, though without acknowledgment. Higden 
however has misapplied his authority, for Isidore un- 
doubtedly intended by Dacia the Eoman province on 
the Danube usually so called.^ 

For his notices of some other parts of Northern 
Europe, Wyntlandia, Islandia, and Norguegia, he gives 
no authority, but there is no doubt that he has again 
made considerable use of the Oeogra/phia Universalis. 
By the first of tiese, which he describes as an island 
lying to the west of Dacia, he seems to intend the 
northern part of Jutland, which is indeed not very far 
from being an island.^ His account of Iceland and 
Norway deals principally with their natural produc- 
tions. The great imperfection of his geographical 

^ See, for example, Henfy of 
Huntingdon, and his copyist, B. 
Cotton (edited in this series), pas- 
sim ; also the Index to Petrie's M(m, 
Hist Brit &c, "When the Danes," 
says Br. Latham, ^* took their place 
'♦ in history, they had not long been 
** known under that name, before 
** they were attributed to Attila, 
" and Scandinavia became a part 
"of Hu^dom. Why? Beeause 
"** the I>aci were more or less Hun; 
*< and because, as early as the time 
<< of Procopius, we find them called 
" Dani, the Dani (in after times) 
«< being called Dad.'* Smith's 
Diet. Gr. and Rom. Geogr., vol. i. p. 
1094. s. v. Hunni. To make con- 
fusion worse confounded Denmark 
is called Danvbia in the Abingdon 
Chronicle (vol. i. p. 46). 

* " Daci autem Getarum soboles 

** ^erunt, et dictos putant Dacos, 
" quasi Dagos, quia de Gothorum 
*' stirpecreati sunt." lBid.,lib. ix. c. 
2, § 90, who copies Justin's words : 
"Dad quoqne soboles Getarum 
" sunt,*' lib. xxxii. c. 3. See Hig- 
den, p. 320. 

' In Spruner's Hist. Ad., t. 57, 
this tract is marked WendUa, which 
seems to be the same word. In the 
Euhgivm Historiarum, however 
(vol. ii. p. 78), Wynlandia or Win- 
landia is thus described : " Winlan- 
" dia est patria juxta montana 
" Norwegi» versus Orientem sita, 
" super littus oceani ; . . . . globum 
«de filo feciunt,'* &c. This is 
taken verbatim firomthe Geographia 
(fol. 22 b.), and is plausibly under- 
stood by Mr. Haydon to mean 
Finland, and I now incline to 
believe that Higden ought to have 



knowledge of these regions at once reveals itself by 
his description of Norway (in which he doubtless 
includes Sweden) as an island, surrounded every- 
where by the sea.* He also conceived Iceland as 
lying to the north of Norway.^ His description of 
Thule, or, as he miscalls it, Tile, is taken from 
PUny, Solinus, and Giraldus ; he also derives some- 
thing, as has been already observed, though without 
acknowledgment, from uEthicus. He thinks it neces- 
sary to distinguish from this another island, near India, 
called Tylos, mentioned by St. Augustine.^ Thule is 
still, as -^thicus long ago said, " vix paucis nota f and 
it is impossible to say where Higden supposed it to 

Hisde. Our author at length approaches the British isles, 

Jf^P*^??J^and begins by Ireland, which begins by the thirty- 
isles, second chapter, and ends with the thirty-sixth. In 
this lengthy account he incorporates almost everything 
which Solinus had written,* and makes one or two 

meant Finland also, but in describe 
ing the island as lying to the west of 
Denmark, he seems to have con- 
fused Wendila with the Winlandia 
whose description he has taken from 
the Geagraphia» Neither Wynt- 
landia nor Wynlandia are ordinary 
forms ; Finlandia, iFinnia, and 
Finnonia are the only Latin ren- 
derings of Finland mentioned in 
Lloyd's edition of the Diet Hist 
of C, Stephens (Genev. 1693). 
Neither does Zedler {Universal 
Lexicon, s. v. Finland) throw any 
light upon the matter. 

^ He has, donbtless, misunder- 
stood his anthority, the Geographia, 
which says (foh 14), "Norwegia 
" latissima est Europse provincia 
^ mari fere undique circnmcincta ;*' 
but Higden omits the^^re and calls 
it insulUj p, 326. Most of his de- 

scription is transferred^ with altera- 
tions, ih)m the Geographia. 

^Onr author was misled by the 
Geographia, which, descrijbing Nor- 
way, says : " Ab oriente habet Ga- 
'< latiam ( !), a septentrione Isolan- 
" diam (sic), nbi mare perpetuo 
" congelatur ; ab occidente et Hi- 
** bemicum oceanum et Britanni- 
^ cum ; a meridie Dacias {i,e, 
*' Denmark) et Gothise finibns ter- 
'^ minatur." The description of 
Iceland, however, in Higden is 
mostly taken from Giraldus Cam- 
brensis* Top. Hib, ii. 13. 

* Aug. De Civ. Dei, lib. xxi. c. 5, 
§ 1 (and the note of the Benedic- 
tine editor) ; Plin. lib. vi. c. 32, 
on which Hardnin observes that it 
is the modem Queximi, 

*C. xxii. He observes : "Illic 
** nuUus anguis." This may well 



remarks on the authority of Bede and a martyrology.' 
But so nearly the whole of his account is taken from 
Giraldus Oambrensis,^ that it is unnecessary to add 
much about it in this place. With regard to St. Pa- 
trick's purgatory in Lough Derg, of which little is said 
by Giraldus>* the following passage from Archbishop 
Usher will satisfy most readers» '* Quae vero de 
Patricii feruntur Purgatorio, non modo Eanulphus 
Cestrensis, Henricus Enighton, et Johannes Bramp- 
ton, sed etiam Matthseus Parisiensis, Vincentius 
" Bellovacensis, et Antoninus Florentinus ex eo mutuati 
sunt libello, quern de Oeni cujusdam militis Hibernici 
in Patricianum purgatorium ingressu, ex Gilleberti 
Ludensis monachi relatione, in lucem edidit Hen- 
ricus, Cisterciensis ordinis in Saltereyensi apud Hunt- 
ingdonienses monasterio coeriobifca/' Britt Eccl, Antiq. 









account for Higden's scepticism 
about St Patiick, who regards tlie 
common legend as '* sufficiently fa- 
" vorable," p. 338. 

1 A Life of St. Brigid, the saint 
referred to, goes under the name of 
Cogitosus, in -which Scolia is used 
for Ireland (See Canis. Thes. Mon. 
EccLy vol. i. 416.), and probably the 
same may be true of her other 
biographies, which are nnmerous. 
{See Hardy, Descr. Cat of Mate- 
rials of British Historyf vol. i. p. 
720.) Mr. Wright thinks it later 
than the 6th century, when it is sup- 
posed to have been written. (Hist, 
of Ireland, vol. 1. p. 29» note.) 

2 The reader may pick out the 
pieces of Giraldus, by comparing 
Higden's sentences in order, thus : — 

Cap. xxzii. of Higden is contained 
in Girald. T(^, Hib, iii. 7; i. 1 ; 
ii. 1 ; i. 2 ; i. 4 J i. 25, 26, 27 ; 
i. 7,8,9,10, 11 ; i, 22; i. 5 (re- 
ferring to Bede and Solinus) ; i. 4 ; 

L 18 ; i. 7 ; i.' 18 (also reading 
pkihrnena for phUomela) ; i. 22, 23, 

Cap. xxxiii. in the same work, 
iii. 1, 2, 3, 4 (reading Sahgandius), 
5 5 iii. 16 (reading Herymm) j iii. 
7, 8 ; iii. 36, 37, 38 ; iii. 40 ; iii. 
43 (reading Sitaracus), 44, 45, 46. 

Cap. xxxiv. (after the reference 
to Solinus) in iii. 10 (reading />Aa- 
lingis, which is perhaps better), 11 ; 
iii. 19, 20, 21 (confirming Gale's 
emendation ars quam Mars), 22, 23, 
24; iii. 26 J iu. 35 ; ii. 19; ii. 1 ; 
ii. 43. 

Cap. XXXV. in ii. 4, 5, 6, 7 ; ii. 
28 ; ii. 9 ; ii. 19 ; ii. 7 ; ii. 42, 43 ; 
ii. 29, (The conclusion of the 
chapter, pp. 370-376, is not con- 
tained in Giraldus.) 
, Cap. xxxvi. in ii. 55 ; iii. 27, 28, 
29 ; iii. 32, 33, 34. (The quotation 
from Augustine, p. 380, is not in 

3 See his Top. Hib. ii 5. 



c. xvii., p. 465 (ed 1687), where a great Ideal more infor- 
mation will be foimd.^ 

A short chapter on Scotland follows (c, xxxvii.), for 
which Bede, Isidore, and Giraldus are quoted, as well 
as the Herodotus before mentioned. Higden has mis- 
understood his authorities to some extent,^ and upon 
the whole his account is of very little value, and for 
the most part legendary.® 

At length Higden concludes with a description of 
his own country, ** on account of which his whole 
" work was undertaken." He takes Wales first, and 
England afterwards. His description of Wales is 
written in a lame kind of thyming verse, occupying 
one long chapter (c. xxxviii.) ; and the only authority 
whom he quotes is Gildas, and him only once. 

'It appears ^m Mr. Hardy^s 
Descriptive Catalogue of Materials 
of British History (vol. 1. p. 859.), 
tliat ibis choice production has 1)eeii 
printed '* in almost every laogoage 
« of Europe.*' 

^ Thus Isidore is represented as 
saying : *' Hujus, Scotiss (Scotland) 
*' incolse dicuntur Scoti propria 
^ lingua ;** bat that author (lib. ix. 
c. 2, § 103) appears to me to mean 
the Irish by Scoti. Elsevhere (lib. 
xiv. c. 6, § 6) he i^ys : " Scotia, 
^ eadem et Hibemia, proxima Bri- 
'* tanniae insula" Further Higden 
appears to have no authority from 
Bede, or from any writer but Gi* 
raldus, for saying that Scotland was 
ever called Hibemia, The Scoti 
of Bede in all the places quoted 
seem to be Irishmen, and the Hi- 
bemia in which they dwell to be 
Ireland. Higden rightly enough 
observed that Ireland was called 
Scotia in St. Brigid's Life ; but the 
converse, that Scotland is called in 

old writers Hibemia, does not seem 
to be correct. 

' For the legend of St Andrew 
Higden refers to Giraldus, but like 
several other citations which pur- 
port to be from him, I know not 
where to find it ''Eadem etiam 
** de re/' i,e., the translation of St. 
Andrew's relics from Constantinople^ 
says Usher, ''scripsisse Giraldum 
'' in Chronica sua, refert Eulogii 
'* auctor ; ad ea respiciens, qnsb ex 
" Giraldo Cambrensi, libro i. Poly- 
'* chronici sui, cap 37, Ranulphus 
'' Cestrensis insemit JE^usmodi ar- 
'' gmnenti commentariolum in ma- 
*' nibus habeo,ab AndreapoUto quo- 
'' dam Culdeo exaratnm ; . . . . ilium 
*' certe fnisse, ex quo sua descripsit 
** Giraldus, res ipsa indicat'' Britt 
Eecles, Antiq,, c. xv. p. 341 (Iiond. 
1687). Usher then gives the docu- 
ment at length, which agrees sub- 
stantially (but by no means verbally) 
with Higden. 


yyy ix 

The whole of his account however, or very nearly so, is 
taken from the Itmerarium Gambrioe and the GambricB 
Desanptio of Giraldus.^ Under these circumstances 
we pass over the account without further remark, than 
that some few touches about the Welsh manners and 
Welsh productions may be due to Higden's personal 
knowledge or to the reports which he had heard from 

The remaining chapters of this book contain an 

^ For Higden's account of the 
veneration of bells, &c. in Wales, 
p. 428, compare Girald. Itin. 
Camhr.y lib. i. c. 2 ; of Brecknock 
and^ts marvels, p. 412, Id. lib. i. 
c. 2 ; for the Welsh bowmen, p. 402, 
Id. lib. i. c. 4. (allusion doubtful) ; 
for Golddifl^ p. 412, Id. lib. i. c. 5j 
for Barry island, p. 414, Id. lib. i. 
c. 6 (very closely copied) ; for the 
three courts (curise) of Wales, p. 400, 
Id. lib. i. c. 9 ; for the Pembroke 
demons, p. 416, Id. lib. i. c 12; 
for Crucmaur (Cruc Mawr, Giraldns) 
and its vonderM tumulus, p. 416^ 
Id. Ub. ii. c. 3 ; for the weapons of 
North and South Wales, p. 400, 
Id. lib. ii. c. 5 ; for the Bardesey 
island, p. 416, Id. lib. ii. c. 6 ; for 
the marvellous stone in Anglesey, 
and Count Hugh's experiment upon 
it» p. 424, Id. lib. ii. c 7 ; for the 
rock of the hearers, p. 426, Id. 
lib. ii. c. 7 ; for the mice and the 
monks, p. 426, Id. lib» ii. c. 7 ; for 
the vindictive character of the Welsh 
and Irish saints, p. 426, Id. lib. ii. 
c. 7 ; for the two Merlins, pp. 418- 
422, Id, lib. ii. c 8 (very closely 
copied) ; for the mountains of bnow- 
don and their rich pastures, p. 422, 
Id. lib. iL c. 9 5 for their lakes and 
one-eyed trout and other marvels, 
p. 422, Id. lib. ii. c. 9 (where Giral- 
dus has trutiB for turtri) ; for the 

well at Buthelan, pp. 422-424, Id. 
Hb. ii. c. 9 ; for the Trojan descent of 
the Welsh, p. 394, Id. Cambr. De- 
script, c. 3 ; for the civQ and eccle- 
siastical divisions of Wales, p. 400, 
Id. c. 4 ; for the names Cambria 
and Wallia, p. 396, Id. c. 7 j for 
the manners of the Welsh, pp. 400^ 
412, Id. c. 8-18 (but Higden has 
some details a|)out dress, &c., which 
are not there contained); for the fer- 
tility of the country and its pro- 
ducts, pp. 396-398, Id. c. 6 and 8 
(but Higden here again has some 
things not in Giraldus). The blood 
in St^ WiniMd's well seems to be 
the only marvel related by Higden, 
not to be £)und in these works of Gi- 
raldus, for which see Camden's notes 
on Girald. Itin, Cambr.^ Ub. ii. c. 10. 
One or two of the absurd stories 
related by Giraldus are also to be 
found in Nennins, as those about 
the wonderM stone of Anglesey, 
and the tumulus at Cruc^uaor, near 
Cardigan. See his Hist, c. 84. and 
0. 87, and the i^otes in Petrie's Mm. 
Hist Brit,, p. 80. Nearly the whole 
of Higden's metrical account is 
transferred into the ^uloginm, but 
very inaccurately. Mr. Haydon 
(vol. ii. pref. p. H.) does not seem 
to have been aware that Giraldus is 
the authority £rom whom Higden 
took almost everything. 


account of England, which must be discussed in the 
following volume. 
Credibility I have thus far briefly gone over the chapters of 
of Hiffden Hig<i6i^'*'5 first book herein-after contained, with a view 
as an his- to indicate the authorities upon which they profess to 
depend ; at the same time, when I could, I have pointed 
out his sources of information when he has himself 
withheld them, as in his chapters on the islands of the 
Mediterranean, on Northern Europe, and on Wales. Such 
cases also as I have observed of erroneous citations, 
those for example of Prisdan, Eutropius, and Herodotus, 
have been pointed out, and in one or two instances 
corrected. At the same time, I fear that there are 
more errors of citation than I have myself discovered, 
and an increased knowledge of Higden has more and 
more convinced me of his inaccuracy. Not, indeed, 
that this fault is to be very severely dealt with, 
when we bear in mind the age in which he lived; 
but it is not the less a cause of disquiet and per- 
plexity to his editor. We have also to regret that 
Higden has drawn so much from untrustworthy autho- 
rities. For recounting the Trojan origin of the 
European nations, and the absurdities which had clus- 
tered about the history of Alexander the Great, and 
a . variety of fabulous narratives relating to distant 
lands and ancient times, we ought not to tax Higden 
severely ; more especially as in some cases, for 
example when repeating the marvels current about 
Rome, he expresses doubts respecting their truth. At 
the same time, we cannot but feel disappointment 
that his account of countries which lay nearer home, 
as Scotland and Wales, should contain so little that 
is valuable, and so much that is utterly worthless 
and absurd. For the rest we need only say, that the 
value of the history and geography varies much with 
the authors quoted ; whose sense Higden has in general 
represented with truthfulness and with much elegance 



of expression.^ His knowledge of letters was for his 
age very considerable ; and any one who examines his 
list of aiithors would find that it conld be no light 
matter, even in an age of printed books and every ap* 
pliance for understanding them, to go through them alL^ 
So far as I have at present observed, there is no ap- 
pearance of any intentional garbling or falsifying his 
authorities, so as to make them mean something else 
than what they do mean. When compared with other 
writers of his time, he is considered by excellent judges 
to appear very favourably. 

The following testimonials to his diligence and in- 
tegrity deserve to be cited : — 

'* Litteris divinis et humanis " (says Bale) " tarn clarus 
evasit, ut inter suae setatis prsBcipuos earum ctiltores 
connumeraretur. In historiographorum lectione multa 

diligentia, opera, et cura usus est Compendio 

quodam in unum redegit historise volumen ea qua? 
ante sparsim et sine lucido ordine apud multos 
" authores in obscuris delitebant bibliothecis ; unicuique 

*' suorum authorum honorem integrum servans 

*' Tamque egregie suam in eo navabat operam, ut a 
*' peritis scriptoribus, Polydoro potissime, egregius his- 
*' toricus diceretur." ^ 

Henry "Wharton observes, ^* ut vix aliam quam com- 
" pilatoris gloriam meruerit, nisi quod libro ultimo 






* It will be understood from 
Higdea's own remarks (pp. 18- 
20), that he does not quote the 
actual words of his authors. His 
later and longer edition deviates 
from them much more than the 
earlier, represented by C. D, This 
is singular, as the commencement 
of D. shows that it is an abbrevia- 
tion of a larger work ; and 1 cannot 
quite satisfactorily account for the 

*At the same time Higden ap- 

pears to have taken his quotations 
not unfrequently at second hand. I 
cannot altogether acquit him of dis- 
ingenuousness in suppressing his 
obligations to the Geographia Uni- 

^ Cent. vi. n. 12, This is taken 
in part from Leland, Ve Script 
Brit, p. 339, who elsewhere (p. 13) 
writes thus : " Kanulphus Higede- 
" nus, Cestrensis,aiitiquarum rerum, 
^* ut ilia ferebant ssecula, non impe~ 




" mtilta e suo penu inseruerit ;'* and then proceeds to 
add these terms of high commendation : " Compilatoris 
** tamen munns tarn egregie prsestitit, ut pauci admo- 
^' dum e nostratibus historici fide^ gravitate, ac judido 
*^ cum eo sint conferendi/' * 
Popularity There is a value, however, to he attached to Higden^s 
Poty^'" ^«* apart from its intrinsic merits. It enables us to 
form a vSry fair estimate of the knowledge of history 
and geography, which well informed readers of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries possessed ; for it was to 
them the standard work on general history. The Latin 
MSS. of the work are prodigiously numerous, and 
amount in aU, I beUeve, to a number considerably 
greater thaa one hundred.^ Moreover it was translated 
into English in the fourteenth and again in the fifteenth 
century ; the earlier of which translations was printed, 
with some modem alterations, by the father of English 
typography, Caxton, in 1482, and again by his scholar 
Wynkyn de Worde iu 1 495 ; and yet once more, in such 
demand must the book have been, by Peter Treveris in 
1527. But of the translations more hereafter. Nor is 
this all; not only were manuscripts of the original 
Polychronicm multipUed, and the English translation 
circulated extensively by means of the printing press, 
but other authors incorporated the labours of Higden 
into their own works, and sometimes with little other 
acknowledgment than by adding calumny to larceny. 
Thus the author of the Eulogium Hiatoriarum, whose 
name is deservedly unknown, not content with pilfer- 
ing a large part of his history from Higden, and with 

^ Appendix to Cave's Hist. Lit 
s. a. 1557. 

^ Mr. Maeray (^Manttal of British 
Historians, p. 39) says : " There 
** are MSS. in nearly all the libraries 
"in England." He then goes on 
to mention " some of them." These 
** some '* are upwards of seventy ; 

and I know from a MS. catalogue 
drawn up by Mr. Stuart Moore 
firom Mr. Hardy's notes, and kindly 
communicated to me, of a good 
many which are not contained there- 
in. This catalogue I hope to pub- 
lish in the last volmne, when I have 
rendered it as complete as possible. 



spoiling not a few things tbat he touches, must needs go 
out of his way to call our author madidua Tnondchus, 
and while following the common legend about St. Pat- 
rick and the snakes, exclaim in pious horror against 
Higden (under the name of *^ monachus Cestrise/') as a 
novus chronogra/phvSy quui dicta antiquorum vilir 

Such was the contemptuous treatment which Higden 
received at the hands of a contemporary thief Another 
writer, who flourished later in the 14th century, Henry 
of Knighton, canon of Leicester, like the author of the 
Suhgmm, incorporates much of Higden into his his- 
tory; but, xmlike that mean writer, handsomely ac- 
knowledges his obligations iH the following terms : 
Igitur opusculum historiolse meae a conqusestu regni 
Angliae cum adminiculo septimi libri Cistrensis (sic 
in Twysden), laudifiui chronographi, perludde scri- 
" bentis; cujus seriem de verbo ad verbum eum aliis 
^' quae aspectui meo sparsim se obtulerant inscribere 
" seriatim propono/'^ 




^ See Mr. Haydon's pre£ to vol. i. 
of the Eulog, Hist, pp. xliy.-xMi. 
It does not appear that Higden is 
quotedby name, but only as '< a monk 
^' of Chester/' I'orthedeviationsfi'om 
Higden which this writer makes, 
either by design, or in carelessness, 
or in ignorance, the reader may con^ 
salt Mr. Haydon, who has detailed 
them with a most laborious minute- 
ness. It is impossible to help wish- 
ing that the author had been more 
worthy of the pains and erudition 
of his editor. Here and there, how- 
ever, aliquid kumani has happened 
to him, in common with us all ; 
thus the Paulus {Inirod. to yoL ii. 
p. xxiii.) of the Polychronicon (see 
p. 64) is not Marco Polo, but Paulus 
Diaconns. (See De Gest, Long», 
lib. i. c. 6.) Similarly the Hugo 
named in the preface to vol. i. p. Iv. 

note, is not Hugo de B. Yictore, but 
Hugo or Hugutio Flsanus. (JEtymoL 
cap. Moio.) 

* P, 2311. (Twysd. ffist Angl 
Script X.) The following passage, 
which quite accords with our notion 
that Higden put out two editions of 
his chronicle, may be quoted now» 
though we hope to recur again to 
the subject at the close of the work : 
" Explicit historia lieycestrensis 
*<anno gratiffi hocozxvi. Nunc 
*^ Cistrensis imponit finem chro- 
** mem suee ; sed postea qusedam 
'* adjecit ei, videlicet de morte an- 
** tiqui Edward! regis, cum quibus- 
" dam aliis eventibus in tempore 
*' regis Edwardi tertii, pront infi^ 
*' patebit in suo loco per singula." 
(^Jd, p. 2550.) Knyghton considers 
that Higden ended his chronicle at 
this point, ^'utrinque discessum est" 



We learn from Bale, that John Rocheforth, who wrote 
in the beginning of the 15th century, made a compen- 
dium of the Polyehronicon in one book.^ 

Henry Bradshaw, in fine, himself "a native of 
" Chester . . . and at length a Benedictine monk of 
" St. Werburgh's abbey/' Higden's own home, com- 
posed before the close of the 15 th century a Idfe of 
St Werhirgh in English verse. He thus acknowledges 
his obligations to Higden : 

'* TJntoo this rude worke myne auctors these; 
'f Fyrst the true legends, and the venerable Bede, 
'* Mayster Alfrydus, and Wyllyam Malmusbuiy, 
'' Gyrard, Polyehronicon, and other mo indeed/'^ 
Several writers, also, as Knyghton himself, Malverne, 
Caxton, and others, undertook the continuation of the 
Polyehrmiicon, both in the 14th and 15th centuries ; 
but of these we say nothing now, reserving our account 
for the close of Higden's work. The reader, however, 
will easily perceive how popular the history must have 
been, to have been so often continued by other hands. 
In the course of these remarks we have had occa- 
sion to quote several authors who mention Higden ; 
but it would be a long undertaking to collect a ca- 
tena of allusions to the Polyehronicon from the writers 
of the 14fch and following centuries. In addition to 
those to whom we have already referred, we may 
mention the names of Wyclifie,^ Purvey,* and Thorpe,^ 

{Id. p. 2569). These words refer 
to the events of year 1340, according 
to the mar^al date in onr MSS. A. 
and E. 'y but Knyghton appears to 
refer them to 1336 or 1337 ; at least> 
we have 1336 occurring in his mar- 
gin a little before them^ and 1338 a 
little after them. 

* Cent, vii. n. 41. This may 
possibly be the same book that is 
mentioned above, p. xii. note, as a 
work of Higden. 

2 Quoted in Warton*s Hist, Engl 
Poetry, vol. ii. p. 178. 

* Fasciculi Zizaniorum, p. 256 
(Ut narrat Cestrensis in suo Poly- 

* Id. 397 (quod narrat Cestrensis, 
libro vi.) 

* Writings of Brute, Thorpe, Cob- 
ham, &c., p. 79 {Pel Tract Society) 
(as " Cisterciensis'* [i.e., Higden, lib. 
vii. c. 37] " tells '*). A MS. memo- 
randun\ in the Annales of William 



among the Lollards; also of John Capgrave,* Richard 
of Cirencester,^ and Thomas of Elmham/ among the 
chroniclers ; all of whom wrote before Caxton's edition 
appeared in 1482. None of these authors, however, so 
far as I know, mention Higden by name.^ To them, - 
I doubt not, others might b6 added.*'* After the Eng- 
lish translation was printed and reprinted, the book, 
of course, became more generally known, and it would 
be useless to collect mere allusions : such passages as 
throw any light upon the author s life or his works 
have been already quoted, so far as they have come 
to my knowledge.* 

WjTcester designates him similarly : 
"Nota etiam Chronica Ranulphi 
" monachi Cisterciensis." Wars of 
the English in France, temp. Henr. 
VI, y vol ii. p. 765, note (in this 
series). This was, probably, written 
at the end of the loth century. 

' De IllusU Henr.y p. 40, &c. (se- 
cundum Follichronicam). Capgrave 
quOTes from the work several times 
in the same manner, without naming 
the author, and sometimes incor- 
porates it without naming it at all. 
See pp. 75, 79, and Mr. Hingeston's 
notes, and the Index. 

2 Spec, Histy lib. ii. c. 51, vol; i. 
p. 204 (Cestrensis, sicut dicit in sua 

® Hist Monast S. August,, pp. 
185, 186 (Cestrensis in sua Pofychro- 
nica, and similarly elsewhere). 

* Those of them who call him 
Cestrensis can have known nothing 
of tu)o monks of Chester, ' Boger 
and Kanulf ; and I believe Bale to 
have been the inventor of the 
hypothesis that there were two. 

^ It is likely enough that Lord 
Cobham and Reginald Pecock ta- 
citly refer to Higden. See Writings 
of Brute, Cobham, &c., p. 126 (as 


above) ; and the Addenda to Pe- 
cock's Repressor. 

* The lieformers frequently quote 
Higden. See the Index to the 
Parker Society's volumes for refer- 
ences to Calfhill, Pilkington, and 
Jewel. I have examined all the 
passages, bat there is little to be 
said of them. Calfhill and Pilking- 
ton simply refer to the Polychronicon 
without naming the author. Jewel 
sometimes quotes thus, "Sir John 
" Trevisa saith," but also refers to 
" Hanulf Cestr.," and, what is more 
deserving of notice, distinguishes 
him from Roger, though, as I con- 
ceive, erroneously. ** This story is 
** recorded by Kanulphus, Rogerus 
** Cestrensis, and Rogerus Hoveden, 
" that lived at the same time.*' 
(Works, vol. iv. p. 697.) I will only 
add that the Polychronicon was re* 
ferred to, both as a book of autho- 
rity, an(2 as a well-known hook, by 
the Reformers and their opponents 
alike. Thus Home, bishop of Win- 
chester, after quoting the Polychroni- 
con, writes : " Polychronicon vult, 
<< quod nullum legatum papse in 
<* suam terram venire permisit." 
To which, Stapleton replies : *< Pal- 




MSS. of 
used for 
this edi- 

The Latin text, however, was never printed before 
the present edition, with the exception of the portions 
relating to British History, which were published by 
Gale.^ These seem to have been taken from a single 
MS., though it is possible that the occasional deviations 
from it may not always be due to accident or conjee- 
ture; it was formerly in his own possession, and is 
now with his other books in the Library of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. (0. 5, 12.) 

In the present edition it has been used only occa- 
sionally, and nearly always for those readings of GaJe 
which seemed to require verification. It is called G. 
in the notes of this volume. It is a folio on veUum of 
149 leaves, paged by a contemporary hand, in double 
columns, each column containing 51 lines, very neatly 
written in a hand of the 15 th century. 

Begins : " Prologus primus in historiam Polocroni- 
" cam (sic.) Post prseclaros,'* &c. 

Ends (under A.D. 1352):,"cannabi, lini, et specierum.^* 

A table of contents in a later hand is bound up 
with it. ^ 

The following account of the MSS. collated throughout 
for the present work may suffice. The letters prefixed 
to each designate them in the notes below the text. 

" sum est» quod ex Polychronico 
^'preetendis desumere, quod papse 
<^ legati/' &c. Elsewhere, on the 
same page, he says : ''Polychronici 
" author refert, quod, &c., quae 
"verha tu omitti5;"axid bye and 
bye goes on to observe, ''non opus 
*^ est ad libros eruditos Lanfranci, 
** benigne lector, remittere. Bogo 
" eos, quibus Polychronicon aut Fa- 
** bianum inspiciendi facultas datur, 
*^ ut ipsa loca examinent.^' See 
StapL, Op,, tom.ii. pp. 1025, 1028 
(ed. Par. 1620). Stapleton's work 
is dated, Iiovanii, I56t. Of other 

writers, John Boss, who wrote at 
the beginning of Henry VIL*s 
reign a Historia Hegum AnglitB, 
edited by Heame ; Caius, who 
styles him ^^snmmse fidei scripto* 
*« rem," Animadv, (p. 371, Hearne), 
though he distinguishes him from 
Eoger ; and Usher, in his Britan- 
nicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates, 
have made more or less use of Hig- 
den as a historical authority. 

' In his Hist Brit Scriptores 
XV. (vol. i. pp. 179-287, Oxon. 


A. This beautifdl vellum MS., in double columns, of 
about the beginning of the 15th century, written by a 
scribe named Arnold, was given to the library of the 
University of Cambridge (where it is marked li, 2, 24) 
by archbishop Parker. It wants the first leaf of the 
contents and two fly-leaves ; now containing 163 leaves. 

Begins (fol. 13, after table of contents): "Post prae- 
" claros/' 

Ends (foL 161, lib. viii. A.D. 1381): '^Mense Martii 
" ejusdem anni Dominus Thomas Hatfield Episcopus 
" Duaelmensis moritur senex multorum dierum/* 

At the beginning, on fly-leaves of parchment, ^re 
pasted two pieces of parchment, in hands of the 15th 
century, inscribed Ranulphus Gkestrensis, and RanuU 
'phus vel Polichronicon. 

On foL 4 is written Cronica que diev/ntur Chester, Sb> 
remark which seems to indicate that the scribe knew 
nothing about two different Chester Chronicles, one by 
Roger and another by Ranulf. 

After which, in archbishop Parker's hand, " qui 
" scripsit ad annum 1341/' 

Below this is written, in a hand of the 16fch century,^ 
on an erasure: "Ranulphus Hygden." 

And below this the anagram, Presenterifi cronicam, 
&a (wrongly written chronicam), about which we have 
already spoken. Below this again, in the same hand 
of the 16th century: *'Hic titulus texitur ex Uteris 
" initialibus capitum primi libri, et vulgo vocatur 
*' Polichronicon sive Policraticon/' This writer, who 
is probably archbishop Parker, evidently knew nothing 
about a Polycraticon of Roger distinct from a Poly- 
chronicon of Ranulp 

At fol. 152 (p. 297 of the red pagination), against 
the words ecdesia libertatem (lib. vii. c. 44, mis- 
numbered 43, AD. 1327), the original scribe has written 
"explicit historia/'* but the history is continued in the 
same hand. In the margin Parker, as it seems, has 
written, ** Nota, quae sequuntur in codice isto et altero 



'* diversos habuerunt scriptores; ut in hac proxima 
*' sententia plane cemitur de morte Edwardi 11/'* 

On fol. 152 b we liave, in Parker's ordinary hand, 
'^ In hoc anno/' i,e, 1330, **incipit continuatio historiae 
*' hujus scripta in coenobio S. Albani et vocari potest 
" Chronica Albanensis, nt in alio libro ejusdem ma- 
" nus et formse/' Also at the bottom of the leaf, 
at the words "utriusque discessum est, A.D. 1340, 
in a contemporary hand is written '^Hic finit Ches- 
« tyr/'* 

At fol. 153, however, is written at the side, in a scrawl- 
ing hand of the end of the fifteenth century, against 
the words sub pena carceris et capitis interdixit (lib. 
vii. c. 44, A.D. 1342), the following note : Alius liber 
scriptus habet in margine '^ Hucusque Randvlphus^' 
below which Parker again has written, Non hie, sed 
superius, referring to his note on A.D. 1327. In the 
upper margin at the same place is written in a different 
hand of the sixteenth century, a long note stated to 
be taken "ex veteri quodam libro/' of which the 
following is a part : " Hie revera Eanidphus monachus 
" Cestrensis suas cronicas terminavit." He goes on to 
" say : " Hie etenim liberalibus artibus eruditus litera- 

turaque insignis quorundam sodalium suorum instan- 

tia pulsatus de famosioribus orbis historiis, scilicet ab 
" initio microcosmi usque ad tempora Edwardi regis, 
" tertii post conqusestum, opus aetemaliter commendabile 
" produxit in lucem. Qiiod opus, quia multorum tem- 
" porum chronicas claudit, Policraticon voluit appellari.'* 
He then goes on to mention the continuation by John 
Malverne, a monk of Worcester, about which nothing 
shall be said at present. The reader is again requested 
to observe that Polycraticon is the title of the ; work 
attributed to Manulphus. The notes which are fol- 
lowed by an asterisk recur (in the same words or nearly 
so) in another MS. of Higden, formerly in Parker's 
possession, and now numbered 117 in the library of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. 


Described in the Catalogue of the MSS. of the Cam- 
bridge University Library, from which this account is 
partly taken. Some additional information will be 
found there (vol. iii. p. 396). 

B. In the library of Caius College, Cambridge. Avery 
fine MS., and earlier than the preceding. Henry Whar- 
ton says of it : " Ex quamplurimis, quos vidi, histori» 
" istius codicibus manu scriptis longe pulcherrimus est 
" qui in collegio Gonvilii et Caii, cujus ipsemet alumnus 
'* fui, asservatur.'* Tanner also calls it ^^ omnium 
" pulcherrimum.'' It is a folio, on vellum, of 191 
leaves, in two columns, each column of about 45 lines, 
written in a contracted hand of the latter part of the 
14th century, and illuminated. 

Begins (fol. 8) : " Post prseclaros.'* 

Ends (A.D..1375) : '^et palam in eorum sermonibus 
" pra^dicantes." 

The MS. has no original title, and no note or notes 
concerning Higden. It contains an index, above which 
(fol. 1) a later hand, probably of the 15th century, 
has written, " Polychrordcon Ran. Hygden usque ad 
" annum Domini 1370/' The notes on the fly-leaves 
show that it was written before the end of the 14th 
century: '^Cautio Magri Henrici Hosbem expos, ciste 
" de Derlynton in vigilia nativitatis beate Marie, A,D. 
" MCCCC.'' " Cautio Henrici Osberne expos, ciste Ling 
" in festo Sei Benedicti, et erit poUicronica pro xxvi. s. 
" viii. d" &c. Numbered 82 in the library. See De- 
scriptive Cat. of MSS. in Caius ColL, p. 36. 

The above notes are not in the same hand as the 
MS. itself 

The scribe of MS. B. was evidently often unable to 
read his original well, for he sometimes leaves a space 
for a word which he cannot understand, sometimes runs 
two words into one, and occasionally distorts the ortho- 
graphy of a word in such a manner as to make it 



C. In the library of St. Mary Magdalen*s College, 
Oxford. One of the earliest MSS. of Higden in exist- 

Folio, on vellum, of 119 leaves, in double columns, 
each column containing about 66 lines, written in a 
hand, abounding in contractions, of about the middle 
of the 14th century. 

Begins (foL 1) : " In historico contextu/' 

Ends (A.D. 1327): "Nam in ejus primordiis recepit 
" terra fertilitatem, aer temperiem, mare tranquiUita- 
*^ tem, Scotia concordiam, ecdesia libertatem." 
After which (all in the same hand) : 
" Scribitur ecce liber, patrias profer mihi liber, 
Virginis o liber, scriptor tibi sit peto liber. 
Qui legit attendat, ne scriptorem reprehendat ; 
" Nam defectiva sit copia saepe nociva. 
" Libro conscripto, scriptor pellatur Egypto, 
" Solvat ut invicto Regi laudes benecUcto/' 

" JExplidunt cronicm v&nerahilis Rannlph% monacKi 
" Cestrensis, in septem libellos distinctoe, dictcB- 
** que Historia PoUcratica!* 

** Penna, quiesce, modo ; finemque laboris ego do. 

** Metro complodo liber claudens quasi nodo.'' 

After this follows the table, consisting of 24 columns 
(complete), likewise in the same hand. * Numbered 
clxxxi in the library. Described in Coxe's Catalogue 
of the MSS. in the Libraries of the Oxford Colleges 
(Magd. p. 82.), where some additional information wiU 
be found. There is nothing to show to whom the MS. 
belonged, or by whom it was given to the College, as 
I am informed by the Rev. J. W. Knight, the librarian. 

D. In the library of St. John's College, Cambridge. — 
A distinctly written MS., on vellum, in double columns, 
of 232 leaves (excluding blanks), each column contain- 
ing 49 lines, the initial letters handsomely illuminated, 
of the 14 th century. 




Begins (foL 1) : "In historico namque * contextu." 
Ends (fol. 220, misnumbered 218, A.D. 1327) " Nam 
in ejus primordiis recepit terra fertilitatem, aer tempe- 
" riem, mare tranquillitatem, Scotia concordiam, ecclesia 
libertatem. Et hie finis ;" below which, in the same 
hand, " Qui scripsit librum, Ion. Lutton (sic) est sibi 
^* nomen/' 

After which follows the table of contents, to which 
Editions have been made by other hands. On the first 
leaf are the following marks of ownership : " Joannes 
^' Dee, 1573, Nov. 13. W. Crashawe, 1609, Novemb. 
**^ 17/' The latter may have written also " Polychro- 
^- nica," the only title that appears in the body of the 
MS., which has, however, lost one fly-leaf at the begin- 
ning and a portion of another at the end, on the re- 
verse of which is written : " Iste liber pertinet ad W, (?) 
^' Hidam.*' The book is now boxmd up with a MS. of 
i^gidius, and has W. C. (i,e., William Crashawe) stamped 
on it, and it is probably in his hand that the follow- 
ing remarks are made on a blank paper leaf at the 
beginning : 

" Polychronica, per Kanulphum Higden Cestrensem ; 
^' Johannes Lutton monachus scripsit circa annum 
'" 1386/; Purchased of W. Crashawe (brother of E. Cra- 
shawe, the poet), by Thomas Wriothesley, earl of South- 
ampton, and presented with many other books to the 
library of St. John's College, Cambridge, where it is 
marked A. 12. It has been described by the Rev. B. M. 
Cowie in the Catalogue of M88, and Scarce Books of 
the Library of St John's? 

These four MS., A, B., C, D., had been selected, 
with the approbation of the Master of the EoUs, by my 

^ The MS. might be thought to 
•commence imperfectly, hut this is 
not so ; several other MSS. begin 
similarly (c.p., Univ. Coll. Oxon. 

177; Mert. 118). Such an open- I 1842). 

ing indicates that the work in this 
shape is an abbreviation of a larger 
* P. 4 {Puhl Camh, Ant Soc. for 



lamented friend the VexL Archdeacon Hardwick, who 
had examined a great number of MSS., and made notes 
upon them, as the materials upon which the Latin text* 
in this edition should be formed, sipecial preference 
being given to MS. A. It appeared, however, desirable 
to take in an additional MS. for the longer form of the 
chronicle, which is exhibited in a very pure form in 
the following MS., our E., whose readings, however, are 
sometimes corrected from the other MSS., A. and B., 
and occasionally also from C. and D., which exhibit 
the chronicle in the shorter form, and differ but very 
little from each other.® 

E, In the University Library, Cambridge. — A folio, 
on vellum, of 276 leaves (a fly-leaf at the end haying 
been cut away), each page containing between 30 and 
40 lines (or a little more than 40 in the last two 
books), the initials very elaborately ornamented, well 
written, in the latter part of the I4th century. 

Begins (fol. 11, after the table of contents, entitled 
Kalendarium Cronicorum) : "Prologus primus. Incipit 
" prologus in historiam polioronicam Kanulphi. Post 
" praeclaros/' etc. 

Ends (fol. 275, imder A.D. 1352): "circa maritimas 
" urbes Anglise et Hibemise/* 


* I should perhaps say here, that 
the marginal summaries are not a 
part of the Latin text : they vary 
much in the different MSS. Usually 
I have taken them from E., but some- 
times from other sources, and have 
occasionally added them myself, 
and more often omitted them. The 
headings of the chapters, however, 
are in aU cases taken from MSS. ; 
these also vary, hut not in an equal 

2 So similar are C. and D., that I 
have often thought it desirable to 
say "C, not B.,'* of particular 
readings. Where, however, it is 

only recorded that D. has a parti- 
cular reading, it is less certain that 
C. has it not. The MSS. A., D., 
E., the standsml MS. of Trevisa 
(called MS.), and Caxton*s edi- 
tion, have been always under my 
eye in preparing the sheets for 
the press, the other MSS. have 
not. . "With regard to B., when its 
readings are not recorded, they may 
be presumed to agree with those of 
E., with whose text the other Latin 
MSS. have been collated, and which 
has been generally followed in this 



After which this note (in the same hand): *' Usque 
'^ hie scripsit Ranuiphus Hykedoun monachus Cestren- 
" sis, istorum cronicorum compilator, qui obi it in senec- 
" tute bona — /' where a later hand has added "Anno 
« Do. 1363^ 

However, at fol. 273 b, in the origiQal hand, under 
AD. 1327, after "ecclesia libertatem/' is written '' Ex- 
" plicit historia/' 

Inside the cover, in a hand of the 17th century, 
probably Mr. Lorton's, " Ranulphi Hikeden monachi 
" Cestrensis Chronica ;** at foL 2, probably in Wheelock's 
hand, "Ranulfi Cestrensis Pol^^chronicon.'^ At fol. 11, 
also in a somewhat late hand: " Gramata (sic) dant 
" prima capitalia nomen agentis.'^ On the reverse of 
fol. 276 (written in a hand of the 15th century): 
" Iste liber constat J. Broke monacho eccKe X^ Canf 
(i.e,y Canterbury Cathedral). 

Described in the Catalogue of MSS, in the Gam^ 
bridge University Library, where it is marked li. 
3. 1. (vol. iii. p. 401). It came into the library 
shortly before 1600.^ 

One other valuable MS. has been consulted for the 
first three chapters. It was given to Winchester 
College by William of Wykeham, with a continuation 
to the en<t of the reign of Edward III. About the 
contiauation we must defer our remarks, and only 
now say that, in common with others, this MS. has 
a note at the end of the year 1342: "Hue usque 
" scripsit RanuLfds."' Its readings are mentioned above. 

For the version of Trevisa,^ which ends with an MSS. of 
account of the treaty of Bi-etigny in the year 1360, ^^ej^l^this 
two MSS. and Caxton's edition have been employed, edition. 

' Some points in the descriptions 
of these MSS. belooging to the 
University have been kindly 
liroTight to my notice by H. Brad- 
shaw, Esq., M.A., Fellow of King's 
College, who has the charge of them. 

* The following account of Tre- 
visa, principally derived from 
Tanner*s Bibliotheca and Dibdin's 
enlarged edition of Ames' Typo- 
graphical Antiquities, may not be 
unacceptable. John Trevisa was a 



One of these MSS. is followed very closely, and 
adopted as the standard, and therefore designated in 
the notes simply as " MS/' It is preserved in the 

natiye of Cornwall, bom at Cara- 
dok, according to Fuller, some- 
time in the Uth century, entered 
the university of Oxford first at 
Exeter College, then at Queen's 
College, of which he became fellow. 
He afterwards became Ticar of the 
parish of Berkeley in Gloucester- 
«hire, and chaplain to Thomas, 
fourth Lord Berkeley of Berkeley, 
(who died in 1416, of whom we 
hare a large account in Collins' 
Peerage by Brydges, vol, iii. p. 606,) 
and, in fine, canon of the Collegiate 
church of Westbury on Severn in 
Gloucestershire, or, according to 
Dugdale, Barotuige, voL ii. p. 360, of 
Westbury in Wiltshire. He seems to 
have resided principally in Glouces- 
tershire (his notes on the Poli/ckr<h 
nican having especial reference to- 
that part of England), and to have 
occupied a great part of his time in 
translating various Latin works into 
his mother tongue. He had, how- 
ever, also seen foreign countries, 
and mentions the hot baths of 
*' Akon in Almayne and Egges in 
« Savbye,*' in which he also bathed, 
*' and assayed them/' (Polychron., 
lib. 1, c. 47.) Being no friend to 
the monks, he finds great &vour 
with Bale. He was living in 1398, 
when he concluded his translation 
of Bartholomseus' Ve Proprietatibus 
JRerum, and most probably as late as 
1408, when the translation of Yege- 
tiuB was concluded ; for it would 
appear that Trevisa is author of that 
work. According to Tanner, he died 
in 1412. He is said to have been 
buried in the chancel of the church 

at Berkeley. Some ancient pieces 
of almost obliterated writing, partly 
in Norman Erench, partly in Latin, 
remaining in the church at Berkeley 
in 1805, when Mr. Hughes, at Dib* 
din's request, examined them, are 
thought to be by Trevisa, or of 
Trevisa's day j but Mr. Hughes in- 
formed Dibdin that '^ not one certain 
" vestige of him remains here, nor 
'* is even his grave in the church 
" known." 

The following works by Trevisa 
are extant : — 

A Dialogue on Translation be- 
tween a lord and a clerk ({.e., his 
patron and himself). Printed by 
Cazton with the Polychronieon, 

This dialogue is composed as an 
introduction to the Polychronicon, 
which is directly mentioned in the 
following words : ^^And so Banul- 
'* phus, monke of Chestre, wrote in 
" Latyn his bookes of Cronykes, 
*' that descryueth the worlde aboute 
^* in lengthe and in breede, and 
^* maketh mencion and mynde of 
'< doynges and dedes of meruayltes 
^ and of wondres, and rekeneth the 
'< yeres to his last dayes fix> the first 
" makyng of henen and of erthe ; 
'< and BO therinne is grete and 
''noble information and loore to 
** hem that can therein rede and 
** vnderstande." (Sig. 1, 2,Caxton*s 

Also another Diaiogus inter Mili- 
tern et Clericum, which Trevisa 
translated firom the Latin of William 
of Occam, which is published (in 
the original) by Goldastus, Mbn. S, 
Bom. Imp,, vol. i. pp. 13-18, and 



library of St. John's College, Cambridge, where it 
is marked H. 1. 

This superb MS. is on vellum, and contains 280 
leaves, one at each end being blank. (See facsimile.) 

The first 18 leaves contain Occam's Dialogue inter 
Milium et Glericum (occupying nearly nine pages), and 

treats "De Potestate Ecclesiastica 
*' et Sseculari/' 

Trevisa's translation of a sennon 
by Htzralf, ardibishop of Armagh, 
preached in 1357 at Oxford against 
the mendicant friars, is contained, 
together with the preceding, in both 
the MSS. of the Pdychronicon used 
for this edition, and in a Harleian 
MS. (n. 1900). 

The last-named MS. contains also 
bis translation of a spttrious pro- 
duction, On the Beginning and End 
of the Worldy ascribed to Metho- 
dins, from which Higden in this 
volume gives extracts. (See Har- 
leian Catalogue.) 

Trevisa's tran^tion of Bartho- 
lomseus de Glanvilla De Proprie- 
iatibus jRerum was finished, as he 
tells us, in 1398. Wynkyn de 
Worde printed it (about 1494), and 
it was more than once reprinted 
in the following century. (See 

His translation of the Pdychro- 
nicon was concluded (as he tells us 
at the end) April 18, 1387, with a 
continuation by himself, and a dedi- 
cation to Lord Berkeley (at whose 
request it was made), of which no 
more here. 

In the Bodleian Library (Digby, 
233) is a translation of Vegetius' 
De Re Militari, composed at Lord 
Berkeley's request, and finished in 
1408. This is reasonably presumed 
to be executed by Trevisa, as wel 

as a translation of j^gidius Boma- 
nus' De Hegimine Prineipum, con- 
talned in the same volume. 

Of his other translations, that of 
the Bible, said, by Caxton, Bale, 
and others, to have been made by 
Trevisa, and possibly stiU extant at 
Rome, is the most important on all 
accounts. It is not, however, cer- 
tain, though at the same time by 
no means improbable, that Trevisa 
ever translated the Scriptures at all. 
(See Mr. Hughes' letter as above.) 
The remark of the lord to the clerk 
(Sig. 1, 3, b. Caxton) : '' Also thou 
♦* wotest where the Apocalips is 
** wryten in the walles and roof of 
*^ a chappel both in Latyn and in 
*' Frensshe,'' has reference of course 
to the decorations of Berkeley 
church mentioned above, but it 
cannot safely be inferred that Tre- 
visa was connected with them. 
They may have been earlier than 
his time. 

Besides these works, his Genea» 
logy of David, King of Scotland, is 
quoted jfrom a MS. by Usher. (See 

According to Bale, who has 
omitted some of these works of Tre- 
visa, he also wrote or translated 
Gesta Regis Arthuri, BritannuB 
DescriptUmenif Hibernics Descrip- 
tionem, De MemorabUibus Tempo- 
rum, e alia plura fedt ac trans-» 



Sermo Domini Archiepiseopi Armachanani. These 
works, done into English by Trevisa, (for which see the 
note,) are followed by a double index to the Poly^ 
ckronicon, one in Latin, one in English, without title, 
or colophon. They occupy 15 leaves. After this fol- 
lows the Polychronicon, also without title or colophon* 
The name of Higden is not so much as mentioned in 
the MS. at alL' At the beginning is this note: "Ele- 
" gantissimum hunc codicem manu script um bibliothecae 
" CoUegii S. Johannis Evangelistse donavit magister- 
" Baile de Newington, in agro Middlesexise, A.D. 
" 1674/' 

This was the only MS. used by Archdeacon Hard- 
wick, (who, with great probability, supposes that it is 
the MS. formerly belonging to Mr. Forster, a member of 
St. John's, mentioned in the Harleian catalogue, n. 1900,) 
but it soon became evident that it was necessary to 
correct its errors and supply its defects by some 
better aid than Caxton's printed edition. The sub- 
sidiary MS. employed for that purpose, called a. in 
our notes, was formerly in Archbishop Tenison's library, 
and when that library was dispersed by public auction, 
in July 1861, it was purchased for the British Museum, 
where it is now marked as 24,194 of the Additional 

It is on vellum, and now consists of 261 folio 
leaves, in double columns. An hiatus of eight leaves 
occurs between the 41st chapter of the third book 
and the beginning of the fifth chapter of the fourth 
book ; and again, in the sixth book, the scribe ap- 
pears to have jumped from part of the 14th chapter 
. to part of the 26th. The volume is otherwise in 
the finest preservation, and contains many splendid 

* Described in Cowie's Catalogue 
(u. s.), pp. 76, 76. 
2 See Sotheby and Wilkinson's 

Sale Catalogue of ArchbisbopTeni- 
son's MSS., lot 42, p. 11. 













In the beginning is inserted this note, on a leaf of 
paper: "Archbishop Tenison's Kbrary, MS. No. 1. Hig- 
'* den's Polychronicon, translated by John de Trevisa, 
" finished 1387. The arms upon the first page of this 
book are nearly obliterated, yet enough remains to 
show that they are those of Beauchamp and Warwick 
quarterly. The latter, being the arms sometimes 
fabulously ascribed to the famous Guy, earl of War- 
wick, appear to have been borne by the Beauchamps 
as feudal arms for the earldom. On the 33rd page 
the same arms occur separately, and in better preser- 
vation. This copy of Higden seems, therefore, to have 
been made, or at least illuminated, for one of the 
earls of Warwick of the family of Beauchamp." To 
this Sir F. Madden has added the following remark: 
'^ The earl of Warwick, for wliom this MS. was exe- 
cuted, is Richard Beauchamp, who died in 1439, and 
who married Margaret,^ sole daughter and heiress of 
Thomas, Lord Berkeley, for whom the translation was 
made by Trevisa. F. M." The MS. begins with the 
Bialogtis inter Militeifn et Clericwm^ which is followed 
by the Sermo Domini Episcopi Armacani (both in 
English). To this succeeds the double Tabula of the 
Polychronicon, and after it the work itself ; on the last 
leaf we have : " This translacioun is y-ended in a Thors- 
day, the ey^te|7e (sic) day of Aueiyl, the ^ere of our 
Lord a ]?owsand |?re hondred foure score and seuene ; 
'pe ten]?e zero of kyng Eichard ]?e secounde after ]7e 
conquest of Engelonde ; Je lere of my lordes age 
Sire Thomas lorde of Berkeley, J^at made me make 
l^is translacioun, fyue and )?ritty. Explicit/' 
The MS. in St. John*s library concludes with the 
very same words, except that it reads "Thomas 
of Berkeley,^' and has Deo Gratias instead of E<cplicit? 











^ Dngdale (Baronage^ yoI. i. p. 
247) calls her Elizabeth, daughter 
and heir of Thomas, Lord Berkeley. 
See also p. 361. 

2 The Harleian MS. (1900) has 
xviij. for eyyteYe-j and this is quite 
light. The Harleian Catalogue 
wrongly makes Tenison's MS. and 



The name of a former owner occurs at the end of 
the tabula/^ WflUam BradweU, A.D. 1610/' We have 
also at the end of the volume, '' Mr. John KnightoD/' 
" "William Knighton," and on the last leaf, "Emanuel^ 
'' anno Domini, 1570" 

It will thus be seen that the contents of this MS. 
are precisely the same as in our standard MS. So very 
similar, indeed, are these two magnificent volumes to 
each other, that they appear at first sight to have been 
executed by the same scribe. I compared the two, 
however, in company with Mr. Bond, of the British 
Museum, and he pointed out differences in the form of 
the 8 and the r in the two MSS., which convinced us 
both that they are not by the same hand. Both, how- 
ever, are certainly of the same period, namely, about the 
reign ot Henry IV. Tenison's MS. was composed during 
the life of the first wife of the earl of Warwick, for whom 
it was made. He was contracted to her in marriage 
in 1393, and she died in 1422.^ It appears, therefore,. 
that both these MSS. are only a few years later than 
the date of Trevisa's translation (1387). To Mr. Bond's 
very practised eye the Tenison MS. appears slightly the 
older of the two. 

the St. John*» MS. read eyghtenthe; 
there is no n in either of them. 

* Having in vain endeavoured to 
ascertain tiiese dates from books, I 
consulted my learned friend, Mr. C. 
H. Cooper, who apprised me of the 
existence of a MS. Life of the Berke- 
leys, by Smytb, in the possession of 
the Earl Mtzhardinge. By his 
Lordship's kindness, and that of 
Mr. J. H. Cooke, who searched the 
volmne,! am enabled to give the 
following information. **I am di- 
« rected," says he, " by Xord Fitz- 
« hardinge to reply to your note to 
** him asking some Information from 
*« Smyth's Berkeley MSS., which 
^ are in my cnstody here. Smyth 

'^ does not give the date of the mar- 
" riage of Elizabeth, daughter and 
*< heiress of Thomas, Lord Berkeley 
'< (fourth of that name) ; but he 
" states that the contract for the 
" marriage (with Richard Beau- 
" champ) was entered into in Sep- 
"tember, 17 Rich^. 11., and the 
" marriage, it is therein stated, was 
^* intended to be solemnized * as soon 
" * as conveniently may be,* and 
" that the bride was then under the 
" age of * seaven yeares.' Smyth 
*' states that her death took place 
"28th December, 1st Hen. VI., 
'< and that she was buried at the 
** monastery of Kingswood." 


The orthography is substantially the same in both 
the MSS., the same word being written in several dif- 
ferent ways in both. In some few cases, more espe- 
cially, where the ^ occurs, the variations in the spelling 
are recorded. The z and,^ are expressed in both MSS. 
by the same character.; and unfortunately the c and i 
also^ so that it is sometimes uncertain which letter is 
intended in such words as widouthy correccioun, &c. 
The same clerical errors likewise frequently occur in 
both MSS., and can sometimes be corrected by the aid 
of Caxton, who certainly did not use either of them as 
his standard.^ 

As respects the text of Trevisa's translation, he 
followed the largeJr form of the chronicle, represented 
by A., B., E. The long passage about the diameter 
of the earth (p. 44), which occurs in E. only, is trans- 
lated by Trevisa, but does not occur in the Harleian 
version, printed in this edition. The section relating 
to Brabant (p. 288) occurs in A, only of our MSS., 
but is translated in both the versions. It is clear, 
that neither translation was made precisely from the 
text of any MS. used for this edition; there is, how- 
ever, little or nothing in either of them which is not 
to be found in one of the three Latin MSS. above 

With regard to the merits of Ti^evisa's translation. Literary 
the following judgment is delivered by Mr. ' Hardy ^^^*^ 
in the general introduction to Petrie's Monumenta version. 
Historica Britamfiica, " This translation by Trevisa 
" is generally strict and literal^ but sometimes confused • 
" from a misapprehension of the author's meaning. 
" Occasionally short notices [to which Trevisa's name 

" is prefixed] are inserted by way of explanation 

" On the whole, Trevisa appears to have been shrewd 
'* and weU-informed " (p. 4). Trevisa appears to have 

^ A Bpecimen of the orthography I ton's printed text, may he seen in - 

of Tenison*s MS., and also of Cax- I the Appendix. 



been puzzled with the Latinity of Higdeii, which is, 
however, in general extremely good for the period, as 
appears by the following words which in liis above- 
named Dialogue he puts into the mouth of his patron. 
" Though I can speke, rede, ^ and vnderstande Latyn, 
" ther is moche Latyn in these bookes of Cronykes 
" that I can not vnderstonde nether thou, without 
" studyeng, auisement, and lokyng of other bookes." 
It must be owned that Trevisa has occasionally fallen 
into the most ludicrous errors, which a very, little 
" avisemenf might have avoided. Thus Higden writes : 
" Terra frugifera maxime tritici, unde et earn veteres 
" Cereris horreum nuncupaverunt f which Trevisa 
renders thus : " Mesia is a prise lond of wine and of 
" whete, ferfore the olde cereris cleped bit a berne^' 
(p. 173). Again, Higden has in his text: " Justinianus 
" postmodum litteris et bellis egregius addidit tertiam 
" ecclesiam in honorem Divinae Sophise, id est, Domini 
** Chiisti, quern ^ hagiam sophiam ' vocavit." The pas- 
sage is thus misdone into English by our clerk: " lus- 
" tinianus fe emperour bulde afterward the )n-idde 
" chirche in worschippe of Diuina Sophia, fat is, oure 
" Lord Crist, that Agia clepel^ Diuina Sophia, in 
" Englisshe 'pe Wisdom of God"" (p. 181). Again, what 
reasonable excuse can we make for a man who can 
render " Consuluit Cecrops ApoUinem Delphicum'' thus, 
" Cecrops axede counsaUe of Appolyn Delphicus ? " 
(p. 193). The reader who is inclined to be malicious 
may find gratification in comparing the obscure Latin 
verses quoted by Higden with Trevisa's rendering of 
them (p. 237). It ought, however, to be borne in mind 
that the age of Trevisa was not. an age of learning or 
of criticism ; the errors which would be disgraceftd in 
our time are in some degree venial in the fourteenth 
century.^ Still it is impossible not to perceive that 

1 Trevisa seems to have suspected 
that his translatioii -was not always 

accurate. In his Dialogue, the clerk 
says : *' Yf a translacion were made 



Higden's scbolarship is very far superior to that of his 
translator. As one of the earliest specimens of English 
prose (A.D. 1387), containing many rare words and 
curious expressions, the version of Trevisa will be 
gladly welcomed by philologists, who will not be over 
severe upon his errors. All remarks on his language 
and idioms must be reserved for the glossary at the 
end of the work. 

The edition of Caxton, which Archdeacon Hardwick Caston's 
had begun to collate for this edition, must now briefly t^^J^^ 
be noticed. Besides Trevisa's translation, he gives, as 
has been abeady said, the Dialogue of the lord and 
the clerk, occupying four pages and a half, and also 
** The Epystle of Sir lohan Treuisa, chapelayn vnto Lord 
'' Thomas of Barkley, vpon the translacion of Poly- 
" cronycon into our Englysshe tongue,'^ occupying about 
one page.' Caxton's own Prohemye occupies nearly 



*' that myght be amended in ony 
^' pojnt, somme men it wold blame ',** 
to which the lord replies : " Yf men 
" blame that is not worthy to be 
'* blamed, thenne they ben to blame. 
" Clerkes knowe wel ynowgh that 
no synfaU man doth so well that 
•* it fhe ?) ne myght doo better, ne 
** make so good a translacion that 
he (it ?) ne myght be better." 
(Sig. 1. 3, 6.) This is quite true, 
yet all errors are not equally excus- 

* The following portions may in- 
terest the reader: " Welthe and wor- 
ship to my worthy and worshipful 
lord sir Thomas, lord of Barkley, 
I, lohan Treuisa, youre preest and 
** bedeman, obedyent and buxom to 
werke your wiUe, holde in herte, 
thenke in thought, and meen in 
mynde youre nedefful menyng 
and speche that ye spak and sayde 
that ye wold have Englysshe 

VOL. I. 

















translacion ofKanulphusofChes* 
tres bookes of Cronykes ; therfor 
I wole fonde to take that trauayll 
and make Englysshe translacion 
of the same bookes as God 

graunteth me grace In 

somme plax:e I shall sette word 
for worde, and actyf for actyf, 
and passyf for passif arowe right 
as it stondeth with6ute chaung- 
ynge of the ordre of wordes ; but 
in somme place I must chaunge 
the ordre of wordes, and sette 
actyf for passyf and ayeuward ; 
and in somme place I muste sette 
a reson for a worde, and telle 
what it meneth ; but for al such 
chaungyng the menyng shal 
stande and not be chaunged. But 
somme words and names of coun- 
treyes, of londes, of cytees, of 
waters, of ryuers, of montaynes 
and hilles, of persons, and of 
places muste be sette and stonde 




four pages, the early part of which consists of a re- 
coimneiidati6n of the study of history, after which 
he goes on to say that he **haa delyvered to write 
'^ twoo bookes notable,*' via., the Golden Legend and 
the Polycronycon, in which are comprised, ird&t alia, 
" the historial actes and wonderful dedes, syth the 
" fyrst makyng of heuen and erth vnto the begynnyng 
** of the regno of kyng Edward the fourth and vnto 
^* the yere of our Lord hoccolx., as by the ayde of 
Almyghty God shal folwe al a longe after the com- 
posynge and gadexynge of dan Banulph, monke of 
Chestre, fyrste auctour of this book, and afterward 
englisshed by one Treuisa, vycarye of Barkley, (which 
atte request of one Sir Thomas Lord Barkley trans- 
lated this sayd book, the byble, and Bartylmew de 
proprietatibus rerum out of Latyn into Englyssh,) 
and now at this tyme simply emprynted and sette 
in forme by me William Caxton and a lytel em- 
belysshed fro tkolde Toakyng, and also haue added 
suche storyes as I coude fynde fro thende that 
the said Banulph fynysshed his book, which was 
the yere of our Lord MCCCI4VIJ., vnto the yere of the 
same mcocclx., whiche ben an honderd and thre yere. 
. . . And where the sayd auctor hath alle his werke 
in seuen bookes, I haue sette that whiche I haue 
" added to after a parte, and haue marked it the laste 
" booke."* Caxton elsewhere informs us more par- 

















" for hem self in her owne kynde, 
'* as Asia, Europa, Affryca, and 
u gyrya ; Mount Athlas, Syna and 
'^ Oreb,MaraclL,Ioidan,andAmon, 
^* Betbleem, Nazareth, Ihemsalem, 
'^ and Pamaseus ; Hanybal, Basyn, 
" Assneros and Oyros, and many 
'< suche wordes and names. Yf ony 
" man make of these bookes of 
'< Cronykes abetter Bnglissh trans- 
*' lacion and moore pron%table^ 


God do hym mede.'' (Sig. 1, 4. 
Caxton, -who has taken his usual 
liberties nith the orthography.) 

> Caxton (foU 389 b.) &lsely 
makes Treyisa's translation end in 
1357. '<This translaeion is ended 
** on a Thursdaye, the eyghtenthe 
« daye of Apryll, the yere of our 
'^ Lord a thousand thre hondred 
^ and Iy^., the xxxj. yere of kyng 
" Edward the thyid after the con- 

iiirrBODXJCTiOKr. Ixiii 

tieularly wbat these . little embeUishments were : <' I^ 
" William Oaxton, a symple perscm, haue endeuoyred 
*^ me to wryte fyrst ouer all the sayd book of pro- 
" loconycon (aic)^ amd somwhat ham dimmged the 
" rude and old Englyssh, that is to wete ceriayn 
" wordea which m these days/' (ie., in 1482), " be 
" neither vsyd ne VTidersta/ifiden, and furthennore 
^^ haue put it in emprynte to thende that it maye 
« be had and the maters therin comprised to be 
" knowen.^^* 

Nothing need be said here about Caxton^s continuation 
of Higden, but a few words may be necessary about 
his manipulation of Trevisa. Not only are certain 
words replaced by others, but the whole orthography 
is changed, so that the English is no longer the language 
of the 14th, but of the 15th century. In parti- 
cular the ^ has vanished altogether; so also has the 
]? in almost every instance ; but this last is of less 
moment, as the MSS, of Trevisa are very inconstant in 
the use of the letter. A minute collation of Caxton's 
text, therefore, with that of the- MSS, used for the 
present edition is well-nigh impossible ; it must be 
sufficient to note in general those readings in which 
there is a difference of words^ and not merely of 
forms and inflections. The reader is requested to 
observe in this place, that there are certaifL words in 
Trevisa which Caxton in general (but not uniformly) 
replaces by others, as wiU appear from the following 

" quest of Englond, the yete of my p. 4. The last date mentioned in 

*' lordes age, Sir ThomaB Lord of 
" Berkley, that made me make this 
^ translacion fyue and tkyrtty." 
The tme date is 1387, and Caxton'g 
error has been corrected in the Har- 
leian MSS. Catalogne (n. 1900), and 
in the general introduction to the 
Honmuenta Historica Britannica, 

Trevisa's text is 1357 ; hence, per- 
haps, Caxton's mistake; hut the 
chronicle is continned to the year 

' Fol. 390 a., 'irhere he again men- 
tions Trevisa hy name, but giyes no 
information "which has not been 
already set down. 

e 2 



able, of variationa iu word» and expressions taken 
from our first volume.' 

^ Trevisa^s word or expression, Caxton*s substituted word or expression. 

plepe>— i-cleped 

- callith, p. 7 ; called, p. 31 (a frequent sub- 
stitation, but see p. 111). 



- embelysshers, uf. 

schalle> fonge— feng - 

- shall resseyae, id, (frequent) ; resseyued , 

p. 163. 



- vnwynde, p. 9. 

wonder (adjective) 


- -wonderful, id. 



- laboure, p. 11. 

ich - 


- Ijid. See Addenda, 

lose - 


- leese or gleyue^ id. 

eche - 


- encrece, p. 15. 

for me scholde hem knowe 

- by cause men, &;c., id, (frequent.) 

lore - 


- doctryne, p. 27 (frequent). 



- named, p. 31 (frequent, see p. 107). 



. dwelle, p. 45 (frequent). 



- departe, id, (frequent). 



- a sounder, p. 49 (frequent). 

pere - 


- lyke, p. 49. 



- melte, p. 63. 

to menynge - 


- to say, p. 69 (frequent) ; or, as moche to 
saye as, p. i03. 

efte - . 


- after, p. 71 ; ako, agayn, p. 173. 



- teke away, p. 73. 



- fade, p. 77. 

firen (adj.) - 


- brennyng, id. 

al arewe 


' al along, p. 79. 

eiiele> nou)t - 


• wexe not seke, p. 81. 



- wexe horc, id. 



- egge8,«rf. 



- obedient, p. 87. 



- disposed, id. 

rese - 


- fyghte, p. 91. 



- to fore, p. 93 (frequent). 

hatte— hi^t - 


- is named, p. 99 ; was named, p. 115. Sec 
p. 131. 



- fylthe, p. 109. 

as me trowe)> - 


- as men suppose, p. 111. 



- ascended, p. 113. 



- wylleth, p. 119. 

ouer (his lotte) 


- abone, p. 125. 



- helthfnl, p, 127; holsom, p. 305. 



- tents, id. 

lesae, lese 


' pasture, p. 131. 



It has not been deemed necessary to warn the 
reader every time that the more common changes 

Trevisa^s word or expression 

to schedej» and to falleb 

a^e . - - 



toke hem to rede 



happed • • 


grisbaytTDge • 

fette (to hem) 


wem - - • ' 




were twynnes 


(>e i»ridde) deel 


com hepe 

)ede - - - - 



(sixty) wynter 

chast(yerb) - - - 

fey - , .. - 

for to )>ey amende 

skymours - - - 

ontakyn tyn - . - 

mynystre - « - 

to wyfe - - . • 

vorschippe * - r 

wood "wroth - 

a payed - - . - 


keste - - - 

copy and plente 

at >e best - 

sprankele^ - - 

(as it is declared) wil>ynne - 

outlawed . - - 

CaxUnCs substituted word or expression, 

' departe and be&lle, p. 133. 

- agayn, id, (frequent). 

- dyches, p. 137. 

- nature and kynde, id. See p. 359. 

• concluded, p. 139. 

- shameful, p. 141. 

• redylyer, p. 145. 

> happened, p. 151. 

- ylle disposicionn, p. 153. 

- gruniynge, p. 159. 

. toke (with hem), p. 173. 
' ayentured, p. 177. 

- hurtynge or wemme, p. 185. 
' nose thirles, id, 

■ drowned, p. 195. 

• o^Gsprynge, p. 203. 

were bom at one burthon, p. 211. 
besette, p. 217. 

> part, id, 

- space, p. 223 ; also clyfte or hoole, pi 233. 
com hupple, p. 225. 

went, p. 227. 

remembraunce, p. 233. 

milting, p. 235. 

yere, p. 247. 

chastyse, p. 249« 

feyth,p. 251. 

ynto the tyme, &c., p. 253. 

scommers or theuys, p. 261. 

reserued (i.e. except) tin, p. 261. See 

p. 337. 
monasterye, id. 
to marie, p. 263. 
worship and reuerence, p. 265. 
sore wrofh, p. 275. 
paid and content, p. 283. 
is right good, p. 293. See p. 343. 
purposed, p. 297. , 
plente, p. 301. 
wel in the best wyse, p. 317. 
sperdyth, p. 319. 
afiter, id, 
exyled, p. 319. 



have been made; but the words in the notes ^'cmd 
** 80 frequmiily^" " avd so elsewhere/' will suflSeiently 
apprise him of the fact. Conversely it has been some- 
times thought worth while to add that Caxton has 
in certain places, contrary to his more general usage, 
retained some of these words in particular passages of 
his text. 

But besides these ^noteworthy changes by Caxton, 
there are likewise many others where a clause or even 
the greater part of a sentence has been re-cast more 
in accordance, it must be presumed, with the phrase- 
ology of his own day* In the more remarkable in- 
stances Caxton's text is given in the notes,' in others 
it has been considered enough to say *^ slightly varied 

Trevisa^s word or expression, CaxtofiCs substituted word or expression. 

(men) myslyleaed - 


vsej> - - - 







pi>t - 



biddef» meny bedes - 


heste - - - 


be and al bis meyny - 

gree - - - 


oute of byleue, p. 323« 

soft, p. 333. 

drinen, p. 339. 

capitayns, p. 345. See p. 349. 

bedeS) p. 355. 

aoenge, p. 357. 

marketds, p. 359. 

^thges, p. 365. 

coueredy p. 367* 

pigbt and stycked, p. 369. 

goo, p. 373. 

sbette, p. 377. 

sayen many prayers, id, 

fltanes, p. 381. 

comanndement, p 383. 

promise, p. 391. 

be and bis men, p. 393. 

degree, p. 409. 

spereled, p. 429. 

Tbese are by no means tbe only 
substitutions made by Caxton, but 
ihey comprise fbe principal ones, so 
far as this ydnme is concerned, and 
they will be quite sufficient to ap- 
prise tbe reader of the general cha- 

racter of bis embellishments. Tbe 
subject will be more minutely 
handled in the Glossary. 

» See pp. 91, 141, 177, 179, 303, 
305, 311, 313 (especially), 315, 333, 
335, 369, 393 (especially). 



m Cx." * Without wishing to say anything in deroga- 
tion of the great patriarch of English typographers, I 
am compelled to observe that his edition is not of 
much critical value,^ and I could now almost wish 
that it had not been employed at all in this edition, 
but that another good MS. had been used in its place.^ 
However, when the two MSS. diflfer, and when Caxton 
agrees with one of them, his authority is frequently 
sufficient to determine the true reading ; and there is 
also some considerable interest in perceiving what 
words and phrases were falling into desuetude in Cax~ 
ton's time, even though some of them be used by the 
poets, by Spenser in particular, in times much pos- 
terior to Caxton. 

The Harleian MS.> n. 2261, which contains the more The Har- 
recent English translation, now for the first time j^^j^^^^^' 
printed in this edition, is a moderate-sized quarto, 
on paper, and contaiidng 449 leaves, having lost at 
the commencement two or three leaves, viz., that part 
of the tabula which contained the letter A. Each page 
contains from 30 to 40 lines, neatly written in a hand 
of the 15th century. The capital letters and headings 
of chapters and sections are rubricated, and various 

^See pp. 261, 313, 331, 333, 
335, 349, 355, 359, 361, 363, 369, 
371, 373, 375, 379, 381, 387, 391. 

2 Caxton, it has been very jnstLy 
observed, '< exercised the part of 
"-*■ editor of his various publications, 
** by no means after the fashion of 
<< Madden and Forshall. Lollard 
*< works were not patronized by 
" the Boyal Caxton press ; or the 
« Wycliflfe Bible, the greatest au- 
" thority for the history of old 
" English, would have represented, 
<< as it came firom his hands, the 
'' spelling and even the granunar 
" of the reigns of Edward IV. and 
" Henry Vil. He cared Toothing 

^^ for philology; his books were 
*^ printed for the sake of their 
'^ matter, and he was not willing to 
'^ allow the interest of the subject 
" to suffer from the presence of in- 
*^ stances of obsolete spelling, though 
^^ he is strangely inconsistent in his 
" orthography,*' — Christian Rement" 
hrancer (vol. 48, p. 220> These 
words suggest a true notion of his 
treatment of Higden. 

' Such, for example, as that at 
Glasgow, which Mr. Hardwick has 
called in his MS. memoranda '' the 
*^ finest in existence." The Har- 
leian MS. (n. 1900), and another 
in the Bodleian, are also very fine. 


ornamentations occur at the ends of books, &c. A few 
remarks are added in later hands. The chronicle ends, 
foL 445, with an account of the spoliation of the shrine 
of Hayles, and of St. Edward at Westminster. This 
appears to have taken place in the same year as the 
death of Edmund Langley, duke of York, and the 
expedition of Henry IV. to Wales, and the battle with 
the Scotch (A.D. 1401), which are mentioned just 

The last words of the chronicle are: "And soone 
*' after the shryne of Seynte Edward at Westmonastery 
*^ was spoylede of grete rychesse and iewells, and 
" sjiecially of oon table of golde.'^ 

After this follows, in the same hand, some verses 
on the kings of England since the conquest, Henry VI. 
being the last named. It is evident, from the follow- 
ing lines, that they were composed in his reign. 

In speaking of Henry VI., he says : 

" The sixte Henry, brou^te furthe in alle vertu, 
** By iuste tituUe borne to enheritaimce, 
'^ Afore provided by Criste Jftu, 
" To were ij. crownes, of Ynglonde and of Fraunce, 
** To whom God hathe ^iffe souereigne sufficiaunce, 
" With vertuous life and chose hym to his kny^hte, 
*'Longe to reioyce and reigne here in his ry^hte. 

After mentioning the exactions of Pope Benedict 
and the Statute of Provisions (1342), "that noo man 
" scholde brynge suche prouisions in to his realme fro 
" the pope in peyne of prisonment and of hongynge,^' 
the translator adds, " The copilator of this booke wrote 
" vn to this tyme " (foL 389. b). 

From this point the Harleian additions are much 
fuller than those of Trevisa, which oceupy only two* 
pages and a half, whereas those in the Harleian MS. 
go on to the time of Henry IV., filling 55 leaves (fol. 



The name of " Jacobus Kavenscroft '* occurs on 
foL 1, 

Of the author of this translation I know nothing, 
and therefore will saj little. It would appear that he 
executed his translation some time in the reign of 
Henry VL, between 1432 and 1460, and therefore some 
years before Edward IV. was raised to the throne.* 

In this MS., as well as in both the MSS. of Trevisa, 
the ^ and are expressed by the same character. The 
I? also occurs, but less frequently. (See facsimile.) 

This translator, like Trevisa, follows the longer 
form of the chronicle ; numerous omissions, however, 
occur, and for some of these we need, I believe, seek 
no more profound explanation than this, that when 
he could not construe a sentence he passed on to the 
next. Thus he has whoUy omitted to translate the 
verses quoted at p. 236, which occur in every MS. 
collated for this edition ; and it must be owned that 
the temptation so to act was in this case not easy to 
overcome. The translation itself is often bombastic, and 
can hardly represent the spoken English of any period, 
being, in fact, frequently unintelligible to persons un- 
acquainted with Latin. It seems scarcely necessary to 
dwell upon it at greater length.* 

After .the death of my lamented friend. Archdeacon Archdea- 
Hardwick, the task of editing the Polychronicon was ^^ck^"^* 
committed to me by the Master of the RoEs in terms very labours on 
kindly expressed, and his MS. notes were placed* in my ^^^^^* 
hands by our common friend, the Rev. F. Procter, M.A., 
who did all in his power to facilitate my operations. 
The Rev. G. E. Corrie, D.D., Master of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, also liberally allowed me to keep a copy of 

* Henry VI. was crowned in Nov. 
1431 at Notre Dame ; and by 1460 
his power in France was completely 

^ As only one MS. of this trans- 
lation seems to be known, I have 

been unable to correct its readings, 
except occasionally by conjecture. 
Bnt I suspect it to be corrupt in 
many other places, where I have 
neither guessed nor said anything. 



Macray^s British Histoncms, Ml of MS. notes by the 
ArcMeacon. He had proceeded but a little way, as 
far as p. 89^ with the text and versions ; and as the 
sheets were not struck off, I made such corrections and 
additions as seemed desirable^ and must consequently be 
held responsible for any errors which may be discovered. 
It must be borne in mind that I have taken in two 
MSS. in addition to those which he used ; viz. E. for 
the Latin text, and a. for Trevisa. All the MSS. which 
he, after an inspection of a great number, selected, 
have been used for the present edition.^ 

It now remains that I should express my thanks 
to the Senate of the University of Cambridge for per- 
mitting me to take out of the University Library 
MSS. A. and E. ; to the Master and Fellows of Caius 
College, Cambridge, for granting me the like privi- 
lege with respect to their MS. B. ; to the President 
and Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford, for allowing 
me to take out their MS. C, and to retain it for a 
long time till the collation was completed ; to the 

» Ayrotd or two may herebe said in 
ezplaiiation of the mode of editing. 
In theLatin text Hie orfhograpliyliafi 
been freely corrected in accordance 
wiHi common use, and &lse spell- 
ings are bnt occasionally recorded. 
In the Englifih, except in the case 
of proper names, I have been very 
unwilling to change the text or or- 
thography from coijectnre; wher- 
eyer letters or words are in bi^kets 
the reader will at once be apprised 
they do not occur in the standard 
MS.> bat are usually added from a. 
or Cx.y or both. The proper names 
in the versions haye given me much 
trouble and perplexity. Whenever 
the word has been changed into an 
!English dress, as Alisaundre, the 
MS. reading has of course always 

been retained, and when it is in a 
manner naturalized, like Afiricaand 
Babiloun, it has been half reluc- 
tantly allowed to stand $ in the case 
however of a Latin word merely 
barbarised, the MS. reading has 
been changed into the classical form, 
except that diphthongs are excluded, 
which I could wish were baiushed 
firam the language altogether. Thus,, 
in the English, I write (following 
the MSS.) « Cesar, Phenida," &c. 
both of which are sanctioned by 
the authorized version of the Bible. 
Still in many cases it was difficult 
to judge what course was best to be 
followed, and the reader is informed 
in the notes what the MSS. read in 
all cases where it seemed necessary 
to mention their orthography. 


Master and Fellows of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
for aUowing me to retain in long continued possession 
their MS. D., as well as the standard MS. of Trevisa, 
and their fine copy of Caxton's edition ; also to the 
Rev. J. B. Lightfoot, D.D., Hulsean Professor of Di- 
vinity, and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, for 
allowing me free access to MS. G. ; and, in fine, to the 
Eight Hon. S. H. Walpole, M.P,, for caUing my atten- 
tion to the valuable Winchester MS. (W.) ; and to the 
Rev. G. Moberly, D.D., Head Master of Winchester 
College, for politely collating, at my request, certain 
portions of that MS. 

Nor must I omit publicly to acknowledge the alle- 
viation of my labours by S. A. Moore, Esq., of the 
Public Record Office, by whom the collation of MSS. 
B. and C. for the latter part of this volume, and for 
the remainder of the work, has been made, and who, 
in conjunction with T. Dufius Hardy, Esq., has much 
assisted me in various other ways. To E. A. Bond, 
Esq., of the British Museum, I am also under obliga- 
tions for the ready aid of his great paleographical 
knowledge. In conclusion, I must beg the indulgence 
of the reader, who may detect errors and oversights 
which are in some degree unavoidable in the execution 
of a difficult and laborious undertaking. 

St John's College, Cambridge, 
October 21, 1864. 



The Map of the World. 

Cap. I. 
The Prologue. 

Praise of the writers of history. Letters alone keep alive the 
memory of great actions in past times, and sustain laws and 
arts in onr own. Emperors, philosophers, and apostles would 
be almost unknown but for written monuments. Of all kinds 
of writing, history is the noblest, and brings the most honour 
to its professors. Accordingly the author proposes to hand 
down the praises of his native land to posterity in a treatise 
culled from the labours of various historians. His friends 
urge him to enlarge his work into a general history of the 
world in regular chronological order. He distrusts his own 
powers and attainments. However, he will endeavour to be a 
gleaner after the reapers, through following them at a humble 
distance. Eeaders who may not have access to large libraries 

. may at least be instructed by this compendium^ Equal 
certainty in all its parts cannot be looked for in a history. 
At the same time all wonderful accounts are not to be 
discarded as incredible. Consequently the author cannot 
guarantee the accuracy of every statement, but only faith- 
fully reports what he finds in his authorities. At the same 
time he makes their labours his own, by expressing their 
meaning in his own words. Their names precede the sen- 
tences which are derived from them; when the compiler 
himself speaks, he prefixes his own name* - - pp. 2-20. 

Cap. IL 
The names of the authors alleged in this booh. 

Catalogue of the writers and their works. - - pp. 20-26. 


Cap. in» 

The division of the worh into seven books. 

The title Polychronicon indicates its character. Its sevenfold 
division follows the example of the work of Creation. The 
first book contains a map of the world, being a description 
of its principal divisions and countries, ending with BritaiQ. 
The second book contains a brief summary of universal 
history from the Creation of man, till the destruction of the 
Jewish temple. The third book continue» the history from 
the return from Babylon to the advent of Christ. The fourth 
book goes on to the arrival of the Saxons in England. The 
fifth thenceforward to the invasion of the Danes. The sixth 
thenceforward to the Horman conquest. The seventh pro- 
ceeds from the conquest till the author's own time in the 
reign of Edward the Third. - - - pp. 26-28. 

Cap. IV- 

Preliminary observations useful to readers of the present 


On the descriptions of places, of which more hereafter $ also 
on the states of the world ; on the distinctions of dispensations ; 
on the successions of empires ; on the forms of religions ; on 
the courses of ages ; and on the qualities of actions ; and on 
the various modes of computations of years. Modes of com- 
puting years among the Hebrews^ Greeks, BomauB, and 
Christians. The chronological systems of Dionysius Exiguus, 
and Marianus Scotus. Errors of Dionysius. The method of 
noting dates adopted in the present work. * pp. 30-40. 

Cap. V. 
On the dimensions of the world* 

The survey and description of the world undertaken by com- 
mand of Julius Cassar. The length and breadth of the 
habitable world. The diameter of the earth ; distance of hell 
from the earth's surface. - - - - pp. 40-46. 

Cap. VI. 
On ^ divisions of the Earth. 

Boundaries of Europe, Asia, and Africa. - - pp. 46-48. 


Cap. Vn. 

Description of the parts of the Earth. 

Population, temperature, and 'extent of Europe, Asia*, and 
Africa. Some geographers reokon only Europe and Asia as 
the divisions of the world, counting A&ica as a part of 
Europe. - - - . . - pp« 48-52, 

Cap, VIIL 

The Mediterranean Sea, 

Description of the limits and extent of this sea ; names of its 
bays, straits, and other parts. On the Euxine, Froj)ontis, and 
Hellespont. ------ pp. 62-58. 

Cap. IX. 

The Ocean, 

The ocean encompasses the earth like a circle. The tides most 
felt near the shores. The probable eauses of this. The three 
great bays of the ocean are the Mediterranean, the Caspian, 
and the Eed Sea. The red dye of that sea deriyed &om the 
shore. The Caspian gates; legendary stories about them. 
On whirlpools in the Mediterranean and in the Atlantic. 

pp. 58-64. 

Cap. X. 


The provinces of the Earthy and first of Paradise. 

Three points to be considered concerning Paradise ; its exis- 
tence, situation, and character. The four rivers of Paradise. 
Paradise is not, as some suppose, a region elevated above 
the surface of the globe. Astronomical considerations dis- 
prove this. Paradise is with probability placed in the ex- 
treme bounds of the east, and considered to be a large 
tract of country, not less than India and Egypt. Its name 
signifies a garden of delights ; there beauty and loveliness, 
salubrity and security are perpetual. The waters of Noah's 
flood did not reach it. A fiery wall and cherubim above 
it guard Paradise against the approach of men and evil 
angels. ------ pp, 66-78. 


Cap. XI. 

Asia and its provinces, 

Asia, whence so called. India; its natural prodnctions, cli- 
mate, tribes. Habits of the people ; institutions of caste. 
Monstrous and strange kiuds of men: Pigmies, gymnoso- 
pbists, cynocephali, <fcc. Trees of the sun and moon ; they 
forbid Alexander to enter Babylon. - - pp. 78-84. 

Cap. XII. 

Extent of Parthia, Signification of Parthi. The Parthians 
originally exiles from Scythia. Their history obscure till 
the Macedonian period. Manners of the Parthians. Dynasty 
of the ArsacidjB. The Parthian mode of warfare, pp. 84-90. 

Cap. XIII. 

Assyria and the adjacent regions. 

Etymology of Assyria, Media, and Persia. Their boundaries. 
Babylonia. Description of Babylon. Ohaldea. Description 
of the Tower of Babel. Arabia, its boundaries and natural 
productions. Description of Mount Sinai. Mount Libanus 
described; its natural productions. Syria, its etymology 
and boundaries ; notice of Damascus. - - pp. 92-102. 

Cap. XIV. 

The region of Jtidea, 

Judea, whence so called. Different significations of the word. 
Its extent ; its length and breadth ; it»s boundaries. JN'atural 
productions of Jndea. Jerusalem, anciently called Salem. 
Also called by Solomon Jerosolima, and by poets Solyma. 
Afterwards called -^lia by Hadrian. St. Jerome thinks 
however, that Salem is Scythopolis or Bethshan. Situation 
of Jerusalem. Has no fountains. Mount Sidn. Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre. The miracle of the Holy Fire. Orna- 
mentation and fortification of the city by Solomon. The 
Mount of Olives. The brook Oedron Grethsemane. Mount 
Calvary, The Dead Sea ; its qualities. Pentapolis. Apples 
of Sodom. - - - - - pp. 102-118. 


Cap. XV. 

The region of Canaan, 

Canaan, whence so called. Palestine, its limits. Idumea, its 
limits ; the fountain Jobyn. Samaria formerly included in 
Palestine. It lies between Judea and Galilee; signification 
of Samaritce, Le,, keepers* Sichem, now Neapolis. Histo- 
rical notices of the city. Galilee lies between Judea and 
Palestine. Upper and Lower Galilee. Lake of Galilee. 
Ptolemais or Acre. Cedar, its position : seat of the Ishma- 
elites. Otherwise known as Hagarens or Saracens. Their 
habits. Phenicia ; its boundaries. Phenicians the inventors 
of letters. - - - - « pp. 120-128. 

Cap. XVI. 


Egypt, whence so called; its limits; its natural productions. 
The Nile. Cause of its overflowing. Various opinions on 
this subject. « - - . « pp. 130-134 

• Cap. XVII. 

Scythia and the adjacent regions. 

Scythia partly in Europe, partly in Asia; its boundaries. 
Ifabits of the Scythians. They conquer Egypt, Persia, and 
the army of Alexander. They found the empires of Parthia 
and Bactria, and their women that of the Amazons. Their 
three conquests of Asia. The servile insurrection, and its 
suppression. Boundaries of Bactria. Description of Mount 
Caucasus. Boundaries of Hyrcania ; its inhabitants and 
productions. Boundaries of Hiberia and Albania. The men 
and dogs of Albania. Boundaries of Gothia. Character of 
the inhabitants; their descendants in Europe, Asia, and 
Africa. Origin of the Armenians. Boundaries and extent 
of Armenia. Moimt Ararat, - - - pp. 134-146. 

' . Cap. XVIII. 

Cappadocia and Asia Minor, 

liunits of Cappadocia. Definition of Asia Minor. The pro- 
vinces of Bitbynia, Galatia, Phrygia Minor or Dardania, 

VOL. I. f 


Lydia, Pamphylia or Isauria, Oilicia, including Lycia or 
Lycaonia. Amazonia partly in Europe, partly in Asia. Habits 
and goyemment of the Aiuazons. Queen Thalestris and her 
correspondence with Alexander. - - pp. 146-154. 

Cap. XIX. 

Africa and its inhabitants. 

Etymology and definition of Africa. Its provinces enume- 
rated. Ethiopia described; character and habits of its 
monstrous inhabitants; the Garamantes, Troglodytae, &c. ; 
the animak of Ethiopia; its fountains. LiiMts and ety- 
mology of Libya. Boundaries of the' Tripolitana. Grastulia. 

pp. 154^-162. 

Cap. XX. 

The same, continued. 

Boundaries of Kumidia. History of the foundation of Car- 
thage. Chronological difficulties about YirgiVs account of 
Eneas and Dido. Dimensions of Carthage. Etymology of 
Mauretania. Its two divisions, Csesariensis and Tingitana. 
Description of Mount Atlas. ... - pp. 162-168. 

Cap. XXI. 

Europe and its provinces* 

Europe, whence named. Its boundaries. The river Tanais. 
Boundaries of the lower Scythia. Short notices of Alania, 
Moesia, Sclavia, and Panuonia. - - pp. 168-174. 

Cap. XXII. 

Greece and its provinces» 

The ancient and modem names of the inhabitants of Greece. 
Degeneracy of the later Greeks. Enumeration of the pro- 
viQces of Greece. Description of Thrace or Epirus, and of 
its metropolis, Constantinople. The churches erected by 
Constantine and Justinian. Eeliques of the Saints preserved 
there. ITotice of the Lacedemonians or Spartans; they found 
Tarentum. Boundaries of Macedonia. Description of Moimt 
Olympus and Mount Athos. Boimdaries of Dalmatia. De- 


scription of Achaia, with notices of Corinth. Description of 
Arcadia, and notices of its products. Thessaly ; its inhabi- 
tants and natural curiosities. The Lapithss and Centaurs 
explained. Mount Parnassus. Tempe. Deucalion's flood. 
Helladia, whence so called. Comprises Attica, Boeotia, and 
Peloponnesus. Oecrops founded Acte, afterwards called 
Athens. Contest of Minerva and Neptune. Notice of the 
Hellespont. Early civilization of Athens. Notices of her 
kings. Etymology of Boeotia ; its natural curiosities* Notice 
of Thebes. pp. 174-196. 


Italy and its provinces, 

Italy, anciently called Magna Grsecia, Hesperia, Satumia, and 
Ausonia. Why afterwards called Italy. Its boundaries ; its 
rivers and natural curiosities. Enumeration of its provinces. 
Notice of Apulia, and its metropolis, Brundusium. Notices 
of Campania Major and Minor. Capua, Neapolis, and Virgil's 
'baths. Ancient inhabitants of Italy before the Lombards 
enumerated. Origin and progress of the Lombards. 

pp. 198-206. 

Cap. XXIV. 

The city of Home, 

Modem writers on Eome. Legendary accounts of the building 
of various parts of the city by Noah, Janus, Saturn, Italus, 
Hercules, and EvEtnder. Romulus confined them all within 
the walls of one city. Date of his foundation. Enumeration 
of the city gates ; circumference of the walls. The palaces 
of Eome. The central palace ; the palace of peace, biiilt by 
BomuluB ; the palace of Diocletian ; the palace of sixty em- 
perors. The Pantheon; the arch of Augustus; the arch of 
Scipio; the holovitreum destroyed by St. Sebastian. The 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Origin of the word jktm&n. 
The magical wonders of the House of Gold. The statue of 
Bellerophon suspended in mid air. Notices of theatres, 
aqueducts, and baths; The giant Pallas and his epitaph. 
Statues of Jupiter and Venus in Rome. Pyramids of Romu- 
lus and of Julius Caesar. The marble horses. Legend of 
Praxitelkts and Fibia (Praxiteles and Phidias). Account of 
the statue variously said to represent Theodoric, Constan- 
tine, Marcus, and Quintus Curtius. Account of the Colossus 
removed from Rhodes. Its magical properties. How de- 

f 2 


Btroyed by pope Gregory. Statue of the City of Eome ; its 
miraculous destruction. Palace of Vespasian, and verses 
inscribed on a tablet hard by. - - - pp, 206-238. 

Cap. XXV. 

On certain institutions of the Romans, 

A Eoman triumph ; the ceremonies observed ; the licence per- 
mitted. Ceremony at an imperial coronation. Mode of pro- 
claiming war among the Eomans. The diflferent kinds of 
toga worn by different persons. On the dies fasti and nefastu 
The Quinguatria. The division of the Boman people into 
two classes by Romulus. Subsequent division into four 
classes. On the ides, kalends, &c. On the milites emeriti. 
NonaricB, why so called. The Proletarii, Origin of divorce 
among the Bomans. Character of the Boman emperors and 
people. - - • - - - pp. 238-252, 

Cap, XXVL 

Germany and its parts. 

Limits of Germany, according to Isidore. Upper and Lower 
Germany. Their various provinces enumerated. The north- 
ern regions more populous and hardy than the south ; hence 
the vast swarms of barbarous tribes that have poured down 
from them, Huns, Gt>ths, Vandals, Saxons, &c. Limits of 
Bohemia. Its natural productions. The Bison. Limits of 
Thuringia, of Franconia, of Bavaria, of "Westphalia, of Sue- 
via, of Saxony. Character of the Saxons. Natural produc- 
tions of Germany. Ancient government of the Saxons. Limits 
of Frisia. Manners and government of the Frisians. Limits 
of Seland. Character of the country and its inhabitants. 
The Scribonii, a people of north-west Germany. The Seven 
Sleepers. - - - - - - pp. 254-266. 

Cap- XXVII. 

Gauly or France. 

Gallia, why so called. The Galli, the priests of Cybele, not 
named from Gallia, but from the river Gallus. Character 
bf the Gauls. Limits of Gallia. Its divisions in the time 
of Julius Caesar, Bivers of France. Its minerals ; plaster of 
Paris. Praises of Paris. Tl^e Franks, like most nations of 


Europe, took their origin from Troy. Antenor, their ances- 
tor, founded the city of the Sicambri in Pannonia. Their 
leaders after his death, Trogotus and Franco 5 whence the 
nation took their name. Another account makes Charle- 
magne the author of the name ; he released slaves through- 
out Gaul in honour of St. Denys, and made them freemen or 
Franks of the saint. From that time Grallia was called 
France. Others say that the emperor Valentinian called 
the Sicambri feranoly from the ferocity of their manners. 
The succession of the French kings. The Merovingian dy- 
nasty, and nolbices of the separate kings. Charles Martel ; 
Pepin ; Charlemagne. The Carlovingian dynasty, and notices 
of the separate kings. Hugh Capet, duke of Burgundy, and 
his successors reign in France. Charlemagne's successors 
reign in Italy and Germany till the time of Conrad. Enume- 
ration of the tribes who successively occupied Caul. The 
provinces of France recounted. - - pp. 266-286. 


Description of the Provinces of France, 

Brabant, famous for its wool. The waters of England not so 
favourable for dyeing ; Lincoln however and London pro- 
duce good scarlet. Flanders, how bounded; its inhabitants 
and natural productions. The limits of Picardy ; Upper and 
Lower Picardy. Normandy, peopled by Danish and Nor- 
wegian sailors ; its capital city Bouen. Britaimy, twice 
occupied by Britons, once in the time of Belinus, and again 
in Vortigern's reign j how bounded. A marvellous fountain 
in Britanny. Poitou and Poictierfe, how peopled; the cha- 
racter of the inhabitants. Aquitaine or Guienne, its boun- 
daries defined. Anjou, its situation. Gascony, formerly 
counted., to Guienne ; the Vascones formerly located there by 
Pompey the Great ; the inhabitants now known by the name 
of Basques. Burgundy, why so called ; its inhabitants suffer 
from goitre. - - - - - - pp. 288-298. 

Cap. XXIX. 


Limits of Spain defined. Hispania Citerior and Ulterior; 
formerly called Hesperia and Hiberia. Provinces of Spain 
enumerated. Notice of Carthago Spartaria. Occupation of 
Spain by the Carthaginians, Goths, and Saracens. The last 
now coiifined to the eastern districts of Spain, pp. 298-302. 


^ 4 '«^ "V V XT 

The Islands of the Mediterranean* 

Gades or Cadiz described. Signification of tlie name. Columns 
of Hercules. Majorca .and Minorca. !N"otice of SsCrdinia; 
its marvels. Corsica, its situation described; its extent; 
named from a woman Oorsa; fertility of its soil. Aradus, 
near Tyre, famed for its sailors. The Cyclades, why so 
called. Among them are Ehodes and Delos. Derivation of 
Delos; formerly called Ortygia. The island of Samos; 
historical notices. Samian ware. Cyprus described. Crete 
described; its natural productions, arts and scieuces; the 

Sicily described; anciently called Trinacria and Sicania; for- 
merly joined by land to Italy at Ehegium ; derivation of 
Ehegium, Scylla and Charybdis. The plough first used 
in Sicily; comedy invented there. The country abounds in 
volcanic rocks. Description of Mount Etna; supposed by 
St. Grregory to be the place of tormented souls. Marvellous 
wells in Sicily, Crickets, which sing best when dead and 
without their heads. The city of Palermo. Sal Agrigen- 
tinus. The j^olian Islands. 

Other islands in the Euxine, which is a part of the Medi-^ 
terranean, as Colchos and Patmos. - - pp. 802-^18. 

Cap. XXXI. 

The Islands of the Atlantic* 

The Canaries or Fortunate Islands ; considered by the heathen 
to be Paradise by reason of their extraordinary fertility. 
Denmark (Dacia) peopled by Goths; character of the in- 
habitants; Britain and Gaul invaded by them; they intro- 
duced habits of drunkenness into Britain. "Wyntland, cha- 
racter of its inhabitants ; they sell wind to sailors, Iceland, 
its situation described ; its natural productions ; character 
and occupation of its inhabitants. Island of Thule (Tile), or 
Island of the Sun; its climate described; six days* sail 
distant from Britain. Tills not the same as Tile. N'orway 
described ; its climate and natural productions ; its inhabit 
tants hunters and pirates. hi* pp. 820-328 




Ireland largely described by Giraldus Cambrensis, the prin- 
cipal authority for this account, which embraces the follow- 
ing subjects : < the position and character of the island ; its 
productions and defects ; its inhabitants, ancient and modem ; 
its miracles and saints. Ireland, the last island of the West, 
called Hibernia from Hiberus, brother of Hermon (Hermo- 
nius), a Spaniard, or from Hiberus the river. Also formerly 
«ailed Scotia, Position of Ireland defined. The Irish sea 
rough and almost impassable. From the Brendan hills to 
St. Oolumba it contains eight days' journey in length, of 
forty miles each, and from Dublin to Connaught four days'. 
Mountainous and marshy character of the country. Great 
fertility of its pastures. Salubrity of the climate. Beef 
wholesome there, pork unwholesome, l^o poison produced 
there. The beasts, birds, and fishes of Ireland. The ber- 
nacle goose ; its strange production from firwobd ; eaten by 
religious men on fasting days, as not being properly fl^sh. 
This opinion refuted. Errors of Bede and others respecting 

, the natural productions of Ireland. The precious stones and 
pearls of Ireland. The defects of the country. The wheat 
produces very small corns; and in general most animals, 
man excepted, are smaller here than elsewhere. Fresh- 
water fish for the most part wanting. Certain kinds of 
falcons and of game and other animals also wanting. 
Yenomous beasts said to have been expelled by St. Patrick. 
More probably the island never had any. Poisonous crea- 
tures die in Ireland; and poison as it approaches the Irish 
<5oast loses its force. Irish earth-mould , kills venomous 
creatures. Ii*ish cock-crowing. * ». - PP» 328-338. 

Cap. XXXni. 

Ireland, continued* The original inhabitants* 

Inhabitants of Ireland before the Deluge. Casera and her 
company. Arrival of Bartholanus, descended from Japhet, 
three hundred years after the Deluge. His family increased 
to nine thousand men, all of whom, except Euanua, died 
from the stench of the carcases of the giants whom they 
slew. He lived for fifteen hundred years, till St. Patrick's 
time, and related to him the history of the nation. Scythian 
colony under Nimeth; its destruction by war and pestilence 


after two hundred and sixteen years. Ireland without in-» 
habitants for two centnries. Greek colony under five generals 
of Nimeth's posterity. They divide the land into five parts, 
and set up a pillar in the centre of the country ; Slanius 
at length becomes the sole governor of the island. Spanish 
colony under Hiberus and Hermon, sons of king Milesius. 
Hermon kills his brother and becomes sole monarch. A 
hundred and thirty-one kings reign from his time to the 
arrival of St. Patrick. From the arrival of the Spaniards 
to the death of St. Patrick are eighteen hundred years. 
The Irish also called Graitels and Scots. G-aytelus, a grand- 
son of Phenius, married Scota, Pharaoh's daughter. Came 
to Ireland after the Confusion of Tongues, and composed 
the Irish, or G-aelio language. Afterwards Gurgentius, son 
of Belinus, king of Britain, introduced some Basques of 
Spain, whom he found in the Orkneys without a habitation, 
over whom he placed a governor. Consequently Ireland 
belongs, of right, to Britain. From the time of St. Patrick 
to Fedlimidius, thirty-three kings reigned in four hundred 
years. Turgesius, a leader of Norwegian pirates, then 
invaded and conquered the country. They construct many 
fosses and castles. This Turgesius was sent over from 
Britain by Gurmund, who reigned there by right of conquest. 
Gurmund known in England as the only conqueror of Ireland. 
Turgesius, in like manner, in Ireland. After Gurmund's 
death, Turgesius fell in love with the daughter of the king 
of Meath. The king murders him by stratagem, after he 
had reigned thirty years. Soon afterwards other l^orwe- 
gians come to Ireland for trading purposes; they build 
Dublin, Waterford, and Limerick. They at length quarrel 
with the Irish. They introduce the Sj^artlu Seventeen kings 
in Ireland, from Turgesius to Rotherick, the last king of 
Connaught,-whom Henry the Second conquered. From Her- 
mon to Rotherick, eighty-one kings reigned, not crowned nor 
consecrated, but raised to the throne by lawless violence. 

pp. 340-350. 

Cap, XXXIV. 

Ireland^ continued. The manners of the natives. 

The ancient Irish, according to Solinus, lawless, brutal, and 
idle barbarians. Their manners in the time of Giraldus 
Cambrensis not much better. Their dress, arms, music. 
Their dissolute habits ; they refuse to pay tithes ; tteir cow- 
ardice, perfidy, &c. In Ireland and Wales old hags change 
themselves into hares. Some Irish conjurers can change 


dead matter into live swine ; if they cross water, they revert 
to their original substance, and in no case last more than 
three days. Marvels -always- abound most in the extremities 
of the world ; and for that reason in Ireland also. 

pp. 350-360. 

Cap. XXXV. 

Ireland^ continued. The Marvels of the country* 

The island of immortality. Other marvellous islands. Island 
in a lake of Ulster containing the Purgatory of St. Patrick, 
Marvellous fountains in Ireland. Bound towers visible below 
the surface of a lake in Ulster (Loch !N"eagh). In Ossory every 
seven years a man and woman are changed into wolves. 
Petrifying and other wonderful lakes. St. Colman's birds. 
Large account of the Purgatory of St. Patrick, and of the 
ceremonies observed by those who do penance therein. 

pp. 360-376. 


Ireland^ continued. The Saints of the country, 

Irish saints more vindictive than others. Character of the 
Irish clergy; chaste, but deep drinkers, 'Their bishops 
almost wholly taken from the monastic orders; hence they 
are more given to contemplation than to the active duties. 
Many confessors, but no martyrs, in Ireland. The bishop 
of Cashel's satirical explanation of this. Bells and pastoral 
staves much venerated in Ireland. The staff of Jesus at 
Dublin, by which St. Patrick expelled snakes. Various ways 
of accounting for the appearance of animals in islands. 

pp. 376-382. 

Cap. XXXVn. 

Albania f or Scotland, 

Scotland, its bojjndaries. Anciently called Albania, from AJ- 
banactus, son of Brutus, or from Albania, a province of 
Scythia, whence the Scots also derive their name. Then 
called Pictavia, from the Picts, and then Hibernia. Its 
connexion with the Irish the reason of this designation. 
Proofs from Bede that Scotland is called Hibernia. Bar- 
barous habits of the Scotch. Their soil and climate. Their 
kings not crowned. St. Andrew their chief saint. His his^ 


tory. Legend of Ms appearance to Ungus, king of the Picts, 
at Corcenan, and of the monastic foundations of Eegulas in 
the same place. - - - • - pp. 382-394» 

Cap. XXXVni 

Cambria^ or Wales. 

The reason of the name. Camhria derived from Camher, son 
of Brutus, who reigned here ; afterwards called Wales, from 
Gwalae, daughter of king Ebrancus, who was married here. 
The praises of the country. It aboimds in meat, fruit, and 
fish; horses, ozen, and sheep ; all kinds of grain j metals, coal, 
minerals ; honey, milk, meath, ale, &c. In a word, Wales is 
the pantry of the earth. G-eographical and political divisions : 
Demetia, Yenedocia : the three courts of Caermarthen, An- 
glesey, and Pengwem. The manners of the natives: their 
clothing, arms, food. Their character: fickle, intemperate, 
lazy, predatory, dirty. Their music, clan customs, supersti- 
tions. Their state improved of late by intercourse with the 
English. They now acquire property, and apply themselves 
to agriculture, and live in towns. The marvels of the country. 
A pool at Brechnockhas strange sounds and forms of buildings 
below its surface. Birds sing in honour of the prince of the 
country, at his bidding. Goldcliff near Oaerleon. The island 
of Barry, near Cardiff; strange sounds heard there in a 
crevice. Pembroke; its earthquakes produced by demons» 
A wonderful tumulus at Crucmaur. The island of Bardesey, 
its salubrity. Merlin Silvestris, who lived in Arthur's time, 
buried there. There was another Merlin, named Ambro- 
sius, the son of a goblin, as it is said, in the time of Yorti- 
gern. Yarious particulars about the two Merlins. Snowdon 
and its lakes, a floating island in one of them; one-eyed perch 
and trout live in the other. The spring of Tegengil. Mira- 
culous stone in Anglesey. The rock of Hearing, so called 
by the rule of contrary. An island near it, where mice eat 
the viands of discordant monks. Bells and staves here vene- 
rated as in Ireland. The spring of Basingwerk. The well 
of St. Winifrid. . - - . pp. 394-430. 


Iiitrod.p. xn,, note 4. Add: It is remarkable that Bale, in the earlier edition 
(1549) of Hie lUustr, IScriptorea, does not mention Roger of Chester at 
All, and in bis account of Hugo Vyrley (fol. 141 b.), says that he makes 
nse of 'Bannlphus GestriensiB/ for -whom in his later edition (1559) he 
sabstitates 'Bogeros de Cestria.' I now very much doubt whether 
Yirley ever quotes Boger by name, though he doubtless uses the shorter 
form of the Polychronicon, 

Page 2, line 2, quo ctdviverent] This is the reading of the MSS., and. 
except that advivo seems to be a new word, might well stand ; but 
there is very little doubt that quoad tnverent is the true reading. Com- 
pare p. 374, note 1. In Gale's MS. (G.) a later hand has joined quo-ad^ 
Compare Trevisa's translation. 

Page 6,line 14. The various reading quadrivialiSj supported also by G., 
18 better, and should be read in the text. 

Page 8, last line, Provide] Bead Proinde ; both words make sense, and are 
usually undistinguishable in the MSS», Wt proinde is doubtless right, and 
is very distinct in G. 

Page 9, line 11, for unwraUe read vnwraUe; and similarly in note 11 for . 
iinwynde read vnwynde. 

Page 11, line 14, tcA] Add in a note /., Cx 

Page 13, line 9, the] Bead (with MS.) W, and so at p. 15,1. 14 } p. 17, L 7; 
p. 29, 1. 11. But the at p. 29, 1. 1 $ p. 41, 1. 6 ; p. [59, 1. 16, is correct. 
Our MS. is not constant in the use of the letter. 

Page 18, line 1, veri] Bead (with the MSS.) uhi; the contraction (^ 
was misrendered. 

Page 24, WtUielmus] I could wish that here and eveiywhere else the word 
were printed WiSe/mu^, which is supported by most MSS., when given at 
length. In this edition it is sometimes (p. 178, &c.) printed WUHebnus^ . 
All three forms are more or less supported by authority. Coins de- 
cidedly preponderate in favour of WiUehnvs, 

Page 44, line 16, Ptolomaum] Bead Ptoiemaum. (The barbarous reading 
vetsdned per incuriam,) 

Page 54. Cancel nots 13, and insert: The true reference is to Gir. Cambr. 
De Instr* Princ, lib. ill c. 20, p. 131. Ed. Brewer. 

Page 64. These absurd stories about Alexander are told also by Pseudo- 
Methodius Revel Sig. b. iiu. Ed. Basil, 1504, 

Page 80. The reference to Pliny is correct according to the capitulation of 
some ; but in Harduin's edition the chapter is numbered xxii. 

Page 84. Below cap. xii. insert in italics De Parthia. 

Page 93. Here and afterwards the marginal notes in the Harl. MS. had 
better be cancelled^ except when they are in English. 


Page 106, 1. 1, hit] Read hi. The same barbarous orthography occurs at 

p. 126 (bis). 
Page 120, Capitulum guintumdecimum] This should have been printed 

uniformly with the other headings in the Latin text, Cap. XV. 
Page 121» line 10, yerof] Read \>erof (typ. error). 
Ibid., note 12, Philisti] Read Philistym. 
Page 126, line 11. See Pseudo-Methodius i?€r«?. Sig. d. ii. The following 

reference (p. 128) to Methodius is erroneous : the information is sub- 
stantially contained in Isidore, lib. xir. c. 3, 
Page 162, line 4, for xxi. read xx. ; and at p. 168, for xxii. read xxi ; 
^ and at p. 1 74, for xxiii. read xxii. ; at p. 206, for xxy. read xxir. ; and 

at p. 26i6, for xxr. read xxvii. The capitulation in the versions is 

«orrect in each case. The numbers of the chapters of the text are given 

correctly in the summary of contents. 
Page 166, note 10, add : Orosius also (lib. i. c. 2, p. 31, Hav.) has Malua, 
Page 174, last line (compare the versions), add this note on GiralduSf can^ 

celling note 13 at p. 175): The true reference is to Girald. Oambr De 

Instr. Princ.f lib. (or dist) iii, c. 19, p, 129. Ed. Brewer. See also c. xii. 
Page 178, note 9, cancel most probably. See Will Malm.X>e7?€^., lib. iv.p. 

548, where the reference to Virgil shows that his text should be Mysiee, 

not, as Mr. Hardy edits it, Mcesia, 
Page 183. Cancel note 11; sede is quite right, being the rendering of 

Page 197. Harl. version, line 7, Boetia] Correct the MS, reading to Beotia. 
Page 208, line 2. For * secundum Estodium/ Martinus Polonus (lib. ii. 

c. 4.) has * demonstrat Methodius.^ 
Page 210, line 9. The true number, according to Martin, is not 454, but 

432. See Mart. Pol., Ub. i. c. 2, and c. 4. The omission of a line drawn 

at an angle to three others makes the difference when written in Roman 

nnmerals (ccccliiij,, ccccxxxij.) 
Page 222, line 10, Itanulphus] Taken from Mart. Pol. s.a. 1041. 
Page 292, note 3, add: Here, as usual, CD. agree better with the original 

authority. Compare Girald. Camb. Top, Hib., lib. ii. c 8. See c. 7 for 

the latter part of Higden's article. 
Page 300, line 1, add a comma after plana. 

Page 314, line penult., s^timo'] Higden should have written octavo. 
Page 316, Giraldus in Topographia'] Made up from Top. Hib,, lib. ii. c. 8 

and lib. i. c. 16. 
Page 362, note 4, add: In Camden's edition of Giraldus, Top, ffib,, lib. ii. 

c 5, the same error occurs. 
Page 384, line 13, Giraldus^ Add in a note: See Giraldus De Instr, Princ,, 

lib. i. c. 6. 
Page 388, line 10, Giraldus'] Add in a note: The true reference is to 

Girald. De Instr. Princ, lib. i. c. 13. 
Page 398. Cancel last sentence of note 6. Tiwy in the text is right. 

See Girald. Descr. Cambr. c. 5. 


VOL. I. 





Cap. I. 

1. Post prseclaros adiium scriptores, quibus circa 
reram notitiaim aut morum modestiam dulce foit, quo 
adviverent, insudare, illi meiito, velut utile dulci com- 
miscentes/ grandisonis sunt pneconiis attoUendi, qui 
magnifica priscorum gesta^ beneficio scripturae posteris 

» The title varies in the MSS. 
See the Introduction. 
2 This vord is wanting in A.C.D. 

^ gesta] om. A. 

* The whole of this sentence 
wanting in CD, 


Crontkes by Sir Iohan Trexjisa, Chapelayn ' 
VNTO Lord Thomas of Barkley.* 

!• After solempne and wise writeres of arte and of 
science, ]>at hadde swettnesse and 1 jkynge al hir ^ 1 jf tjine 
to studie and to tranaille aboute konnyng and knowleche 
of kjndeliche ^ ]>inges and aboute sobemesse and redinesse of 
pewes, fey be worthy to be'* hiteliche and solemplicbe^ 
i-preysed,^ as pey it were putting and medlynge to gidre 
profi^tes^and swetnes, fat^ write and left vs write ^ mer- 
uailles and wondres, greet berynge and dedes of oure forme 
fadres/^ of stalworthe wyt,^* wise and worthy, and of dyuerse 
manere men fat were in olde tyme. 



The Firate Prolog higynnethe here i/n to yis Story of 

mony Gronides. 

1. After the nowble wryters of artes, to whom hit was 
a pleasure in this life presente to fixe theire studies and 
laboures abowte the knowlege of thynges and virtues mo- 
raUe, thei ar to be enhaunsede and exaltede by merite 
with grete preconyes, as inakenge a commixtion of a thynge 
profitable with a swetenesse mellifluous, whiche haue de- 
riviede to men succedenge thro the benefite of scripture 
thexcellent gestes of men precedenge. 

^ Ko title to l^eyisa's translation 
in MS. or o. The title given aboye 
is supplied by parts of lYevisa's De- 
dicatory Epistie, printed by Cx. 

* her, a., Cx. 

^ kyndley, Cx. (not a.) 

* ben, Ox, where the same nse of 
n is frequent, both in the infinitive 
and indicative. 

* and solempliche] Wanting in Cx. 

« upreysed] Ipreised, MS., and o, ; 
«nd simiWly elsewhere. The prefix 
wanting in Cx., both here and ge- 

''profiyt, a. 

* Wt] Wanting in Cx, and placed 
in our MS. and a. immediately aiter 
* J>ey * (theugh), just preceding. 

® i write, a. 

*• fom-JftiderSf Cx. 

" wight, Cx. 

A 2 


2, In historico namque' contextu chronographorum 
jiobis* diligentia^ delegato relucet clarius* norma mo- 
rum,'' forma vivendi, probitatis incentivum, trivium 
quoque * theologicarum virtutnm et quadrivium cardina- 
Hum trabearum, quorum notitiam apprehendere sen'' 
vestigium imitari nostra modicitas non sufficeret, nisi 
sollicitudo scriptorum nostrsd transfunderet imperiti» 
memoriam transactorum. Siquidem vita brevis, sensus 
hebes, animus torp^xs, memoria labens, inutilis de- 
mum occupatio nos impediunt multa scire, novercante 
semper oblivione memorisd inimica. Sed et® in prae- 
sentiarum artes et jura prorsus ruerent, spectabilium 
actionum exemplaria^ non paterent, loquendi quoque 

tropi et schemata penitus deperirent, nisi in remedium 
imperfectionis humanae litterarum usum divina mise« 
ratio providisset.*** 

S. Quis, quseso, Csesares hodie sciret, philosophos 
miraretur, apostolos sequeretur, nisi eos insignirent 

^tm^^^wm'm «^ 

> namque] Wanting in C. 
* nobis] A&er diligentia in CD, 
^ dUigentia] om. E. 
*planius, E. 

^ norma monm]. noima, (only) 
D. ; 1)oth words wanting in C. 
»9tte, E. 
' sen] ant, O.I). 

^eQ Wanting in B.O., added 
aboye the line in "D, 

^actionum exemplaria] actionum 
exempla, B : gestorum ' exempla, C. 
D. ; but in 0. exempla is qorrected 
into exemplaria. 

^^ pravidisset, A. ^ 


2. For in pe makynge and ^ bookes of stories, fat is to vs Tbbvisa, 

i-sent and hjquepe hj grete besynesse of fe writers of cro- • 

nicies,^ blase)? and schynej? clerliche pe ri^t rule of pewes, 
ensaumple of leuynge, clensynge^ of goodnes, pe metynge 

of ]>e pre waies of pe pre vertues of deuynyte, and pe 
metynge of foure weies of pe fours chiefs vertues of pewes 
of real clopynge. Of pe whiche pinges our litel konnynge 
my^te nou^t take knowleche, noper^ folwe pe foure,^ but 
besines of writers to oure vnkunnynge hadde i-holde and 
i-streyned^ mynde of olde dedes. For why schort lyf, dul 
witte, and slowe vnderstondynge, and ydel occupacioun 
lettep vs. to knowe naany pinges; foi'tetingnes all wey 
kypinge pe craft of a stepdamme, he^ is enmy of mynde. 
Also now, in our tyme, art, sciens and lawe al were i*falle, 
ensample of noble dedes were noutt i-knowe ; nobilite and 
faire manere of spekynge were all i-lost ; but pe mercy of 
God had i-ordyned vs of lettres. in remedie of ^ vnparfi^t- 
nesse of mankynde. 

3. I praye who schulde now knowe emperours, wonder of 
philosofres, oper*** folwe pe apostles, but hir*^ noble dedes 
and hir wonder werkes were i-write in stories and so i-kept 

2, For in the contexte historicalle the rewle off ly venge MS. Habi. 
and forme of vertues moralle, and the incentiue of manhode, 2261. 

Jiffe grete resplendence thro the diligence of croniclers» Also 

the triuialle of the vertues theologic^le and quadriuialle of the 
Cardinalle vertues, to comprehende the knowlege of whom oure 
insufficience sufficethe not, withowte the sollicitude of writers 
scholde ti*ansfude to vs the memory of thynges of antiquite. 

For schort lyfe, a slawe sawle, and a slipper memory lete 
vs to knowe mony thynges, obliuion schewenge helpe, an 
enmye alleweies and a steppe moder to the memory. For 
in this tyme presente artes and lawes scholde falle vtterly, . 
thexemplares of acciones spectable scholde not be patent, 
the ornate eloquence scholde peresche, but that diuine mi- 
seracion hath prouided vse of letters in to the remedy of 
the imperfeccion of man. 

3. What man scholde haue perfecte knowlege of em- 
peroures, meruaile of philosophres, and folowe thapostles, 
but that the actes of writers made theym nowble? There- 

» of, Gx. 

^ cronykes, Cx. «♦ 

' knowyng., Cx. 

* prineipal, Cx. 

* ne, Cx. 
^fourth, Cx. 

' shadde and abremed^ Cx. 
B he] wanting in Cx. (not «.). 
» o/K o. 
^* or eUys^ Cx. 

'^ theyr, Cx., here and frequently j 
here J a. 



monumenta scriptorum? Quis denique Lucilixun cognos- 
ceret, nisi eum Seneca suis epistolis illustrasset ? * Plus 
profecto scripta poetarum ^ CsBsareis laudibuis addiderunt 
quam omnes mundi divitisa quaa tiderunt. Historia 
igitur^ cum sit testis temporum, memoria vitae^ niincia^ 
vetustatis^ dotes po'ssidet prseminentes^ suosque quam 
plurimum praBrogat professores. Historia namque qua- 
dam famae immortalitate peritura renovat, fugitiva 
revocat, mortalia quodammddo perpetuat et conservat. 

4. Cur * igitirr,* inter cseteros trivialinm tramittim 
protritores ac sesqiripedalium verborum efflatores, qui 
Hon minimum ^ stadii '^ sui bravium sunt adepti, nostri 
non erunt laude digni* orbis quadrifidi dimensores, 
quadriviales ® bistdrisg descriptores; immo proculdubio, 
velut**^ tetragoni, sine vituperio triumphalis erunt 
lauresD comprehensores ? 

5. Horum nempe merito provocatus et exemplo, non 
mea jactanter jaculans nee aliena joculanter jugulans," 
decrevi^ ut potui^ geniale solum meum profusioribus 
extollere laudum titulis^ ac sic ^^ tractatum aliquem^ ex 
variis auctorum decerptum ** laboribus, de statu insulae 
Britannicae ad notitiam cudere futurorum. 

' Quts, ^.ilittsfyx^et'] Wantiiig; 
in CD. 

^ scripta poetarum] Afb&r laudibus 
in B. ; scriptura prophetarum, £. 

^ nunciuSf C.D. 

* Cur] Et at, D. 

* So B.C.I). ; erffo, A.E, 
^ minimi, A. 

* studii; B. 

^ digni hudci B. 

' qttadrwudi^ B. ; quadrivialis, 

^* vehit} Wanting in A. 

^^jdciens^ C.) hvAjugulans written 
above ; jocuhns, A. 

" ac «c] et sie, CD. ; ac si, B, 

^^ excerptumy CD. j but corrected 
to decerptum in the former. 


in mynde ? Who schulde knowe Lucilium^ but Seneca in Teevisa. 

his pistles hadde i- write his dedes ? Writinge of poetes 

is more worthy* to preisynge of emperoures pan.^ al fe 
wel]>e of ]?is worlde, and riches ^ j>at fey welde^ while fey 
were alyue. For storie is wytnesse of tyme, mynde of lyf, 
messager of eldnesse ;* story weldef passyng doynges, storie 
puttef for]? hire 6 professoures. Dedes fat wolde be lost 
storie rulef ; 7 dedes fat wolde flee out of mynde, storye 
clepef* a^en;^ dedes fat wolde deie, storye kepef hem 



4. Wherfore, among ofere tioble trauaillours of fe fre 
pathes^i* and faire florischers and hitteres ^^ of wordes and of 
metre, fat hauef of here trauaille greet pryse i-gete, we mowe 
nou^t ful preyse hem, fat in stories i^ metef and discryuef 
all fe worlde wyde. But wifoute eny drede fey schuilef 
fongei^ her mede of hym fat rewardef and qiiytef al fat 
wel worchef .^^ 

5. By f e worfynesse and ensaumple of so worfy writeris 
i-spi^t and i-egged,*^ nou^t bostynge of myn owne dedes 
nofer skomynge ne blamynge oi^'^ ofer men dedes, I haue 
y-kast and y-ordeyned, as I may, to make and to write a 
tretes, i-gadered of dyuerse bookes, of f e staat of f e yldndd 
of Britayne, to knowleche of men fat comef after ts. 

fore a stoty is the testimony of tymes, the memory of life, MS.HAnt, 
hauenge in possession dowerys preeminent, renewenge as ^^^' 
thro immortalite thynges like to peresche, beynge as in a 
maner a conseruatiue perpetualle to thjmges mortalle. 

5. Wherefore y, wyllenge to folowe the descriptores of 
the storye quadriuialle, and as provocate thro thexemple 
of theim, intende to compile a tretys of the state of the 
yle of Breteyne, excerpte of diuerse labores. of auctores* 

^ worth, Cx.) a. 

^ jiatf MS. ; than, Cx. 

* rychesses, Cx. 

* welded, Cx. 
^ oldnesie, a. 

* her, Cx. 

^ reneweih, Cx; ; rehwetk, a. 

^ callithf Cx. 

' a^«, a. 

**ybr euennore, a. 

^^ Cx. here inserts instead of * an4 ' 
the clause * arne moo^te worthy to 

ben praysed ;* thns altering the con- 
struction of the sentence. 

" embefysahers, Cx. 

^* histories, Cx, here and iVe- 

" schuUeJi> fimge\ shall resseytte, 

" werke, Cx* 

"«o wor>y . . . i-egged] noble 
wryters that herto fore haue vreton. 

" of] om. «; 


6. Quod* dum sodalibus meis innotesceret, quibus 
lamiliare fuit semper ^ facta majorum * speculari, impor- 
tuna eomm instantia sum pulsattis, ut etiam de famo- 
sioribus orbis historiis ab initio macrocosmi usque ad 
nostram aatatem non solum juxta temporuul seriem/ 
verum etiam juxta singulorum annorum supputationem 
cougruentem aJiqua compilarem.^ 

7. Cujus negotii, velut Daedalini labyrmthi,* inextri- 
cabilem attendens intricationem, rogata sum veritus 
attemptare. Nam, prseter id quod soleat^ grandia 
cogitantibus desidia qusedam et segnities obrepere, 
animadvertebam tamen ad tantum involucrum evol- 
vendum ingetdi mei disparilitatem^ necnon et flagitatsB 
materiss vastitatem, scribentium quoque in hac ^ materia 
numerum et auctoritatem, ac potissime subsecutam 
exinde modemorum saturitatem; qui devotionis obse- 
quium ininus^ ut assolet, attendentes super isto cibo 
levissimo facile nausearenb, quinetiam ad renovata seu 
reculcata^ semulorum more, linguas acuerent, supercilia 
arcuareni De quibus Gregorius loquitur Nazianzenus, 
quod "aliena facillime carpunt, sed bona diffioilius 
'* imitantur/' Provide verebar plane ego^ vir videns 


^ The test of this chapter is, in C. 
and D., compressed into four short 
sentences, thus : — ^**Si quid vero a 
*' fide dissonum aut a morihus alie- 
'* num hie reperiatur, hoc tempori 
^* potius quam viro ascribatur. 
** Quamobrem in hac assertione . . . 
** communico," (as at p. 18). After 
which : " Et quamTis . . . • prse- 
•* scrihitur," (as at p. 20). The first 
part is rendered in the Harl. MS. 

^ semper fuit E. 
' maJoriSf A. 

* temporum serieni] These M^6i*^i^ 
transposed in B. 

^ comptUarenty B. 

® Dcsdali in laherintho, B. 

"* sohhat, B. ^ 

* h<tc] om. B, 

^ ego] ergo, A, 



6. Dan special frendes * ]?at knewe myn entent [and] 2 had Tbbvisa. 
likynge^ to knowe greet men dedes, prayed me besiliche, 

pat I schulde also write pe famous stories and acounte ]7e 
teres from pe bygynnynge of pe world anon * to oure tyme. 

7. poo toke I hede ]>at fis matir, as ^ laborintus, Dedalus ® 
hons, ha}) many halkes and burnes, wonderful weies, wyn- 
dynges and wrynkelynges, J>at wil noutt be vnwarled,^ me 
schamed and dradde to fynde^ so gi'ete and so gostlicbe^ 
a bone to graunte. -For ydelnesse and sleujje lettef grete 
werkes fat men wolde worche ; my witt is ful luyte ^^ to 
unwralle ^^ ]?e wrappyinges of so wonder ^^ wei'kes : pe 
matire is large, writers ]>eiynne bej? *^ many, and greet for 
fulnesse })erof ; now men hep i^ al sad and take]? fe lasse 
Kede and li^tlicbe wolde flaterie^^ yppon ]?is symple foode,^^ 
and, as enemyes, whette her tunges and bende hire browes. 
Of suche men speke]) Gregory Nazianzenus, pat wille]) li^t- 
liche blame defau^tes of opere men, and goodnesse noutt 
sopelich^^ folwe. Al pis ich badde in mynde, and also I 

6. Whiche laboi*e expressede to my felawes hauenge inop- MS. Haul. 
pinable appetite to bebolde gestes of antiquite, y was 2261, 
movede thro the importune instance of theyme to compile ^""^ 
somme thynges of the famose storyes of the worlde from 

the creacion of man vn to oure age, not oonly after the f. 1 7 b. 
ordre of tymes, but also after the supputacion of euery 
yere congruent. 

7. Attendenge the intricacioti inextricable of this labor pre* 
sente as of the mase of Dedalinus [y] am preyede to attempte 
hit withowte drede ; aduertenge ofte tymes slawthe to met© 
men thenkeuge grete thynges, and the insufficience of my 
wytte, and the obnubilous and clowdy processe of this 
mater y-desirede, perauenture men in these dayes attend- 
enge but litelle the obsequy of deuocion as thei be wonte, 
scholde take disdeyne of this li^hte meyte. Of whomGrregorius 
Naz[i]anzett spekethe, seyenge, " Suche men reprove li^htely 
" straunge thinges, but vnnethe with grete difficulte thei 
" folowe goode thynges/* Wherefore y seengo the poverte 

* lordes, Cx. 

2 Added from Cx. and a, 
' desyre, Cx. 
• * worlde rnto, Cx. 
^ as] was, MS. and a.; corrected 
ih)m Cx. 

* his kous, a, 

* be unwarkd] lyghlly be opened 
&nd shewed, Cx. 

^/ynde} take on me,Cx.} fouodc,». 

» ferdfulf Cx. 
^Upta, Cx. 
" unwynde, Cx. 
'' wonderful, Cx, 
" h€e\fy a. 
" So also a. 

^^ wolde Jlaterie'] wolde fynde 
fawte, Cx. ; flat)>ey ft, . 
" werke, Cx. 
^' so U^thlichef a, * 


paupertatem meam, post tantos tubicines, cum sterili 
eloqido " rancidalum quiddam balba de nare " * proferre, 
aufc certe sycomoros ^ vellicans uvam acerbam proponere 

8. Quis enim non lideat, seu ^ potius irrideat, /si post 
Herculeos labores, si post Olympicos agones plene 
consummatos, pygmseus se praeparet * ad conflictum ? 
Et me certe fragili modulantem avena qtus non 
derideat, si^ post tarn grandisonos Boanerges, qui in 
tanto facnndise cataclysmo prsefixerunt satirse periodum^ 
stridulo soni sibilo decolorarem tanta^ materise majes- 
tatem? Sed scio qidd dixit Booz ille clemens pater- 
familias ad Ruth verecunde colligentem spicas post 
terga metentium remanentes. "Nemo/' inquit, "tibi 
" sit molestus.'^ Et iterum ait ad messores, "Etiamsi 
*^ vobiscnm metere voluerit, ne prohibeatis; et colli* 
" gentem nemo corripiat/' Poeta quoque Mantuantis> 
Maro Virgilius, ut ait® Isidorus EtymoL,^ lib. x./ 
sive Flaccus iUe Horatius, tit Vult Hugo® Pisanus in 
suis Derivationibus, capitulo prseviso ; ^ *' Cum sibi 
" improperaretur ab semulisi qilod Versus quosdam 

^ Pers. Sat. i. \, 33* 

2 sicomores, B. 
^ sedy A* 
*pra:patat, A* 

« MfyrnlJ] added froin B-E, 
^ xi°^ E. (TirrODgly). See § 44. 

* Perhape jDr<Bt;«o is the true read^ 

itfg; E. has proviso i Cx. printsi 
ptii}isb at lengthj 


kuewe mjn owue pouert, and schamede and dradde after Tbbtisa. 

so noble spekers, fat sownede as trompes, to putte for]> my 

bareyn speche, hosnes* and snochynge, as who so^ rote]?^ 
vp moolberyes and serue]' likerous men, l>at lyuef in lik- 
ynge, wij> soure grapes. 

8. Zif "* after J?e trauaille ^ of Hercules, and after fe strif, 

ioustes, and turnementis ^ of Olympy, a pigmey hoskep hym 
to bataille and array hym to fi^te, who my^te ]>anne leue 
to laughe ? Also who wolde schoute to skome, ^if I pipe 
wij) an otene reed, and vnhi^te so noble a mature wij> gris- 
baitinge,^ gruntynge and whistelynge, after so noble spekers 
]>at sownede at ]7e beste ; and of hem faire facounde and 
resonable® speche, folowed and streynede^ all her lyf 
tyme ? But ich haue wel in mynde what Booz seide to 
Buth ]7at was schamefast, and lase ^° vp pe eeres after his 
ripe men, "No man," he seide, "]>e schall wra]?J?e5** and 

to his ripe men he seide, " ^if te ^^ wole wi]) tow rype, 

" forbedef hir noutt ; and here fore to lose ^^ no man schal 
" lette." pe poet, also, Mantuanus Maro Virgilius, as Isi- 
dorus seij), Eth, libro decimo, and Horatius, as sei}) Hugutio 
Pysanus, In derivationibus ^^ suis, capitulo peruiso : " Whan 
" enemyes despised Horacius and here hym an^^ honde fat he 

and insufficience of my connynge after so splendidious laboures MS. Harl. 
dredde to proferre a raw thynge with bareyne eloquence 2261. 
and to purpose as a thynge bytter to so mellifluous delices. " * 

8. What man wolde not lathe and also haue in derision, if 
that a pigmei scholde make him redy to conflicte after the 
labores of Hercules and after the actes Olimpicalle plenerly 
flnischede ? What man wylle not haue me in derision inten* 
denge to decoloure the maieste of soe highe mater after so 
nowble wryters? Neuerthelesse y remembre the dicte of 
Booz to Ruth gedrenge cornes remaynenge behynde the 
backes of men scherenge, seyenge, " Noo man schalle be gre- 
" vous to the." Also the Poette Mantuan Maro Virgilius, as 
Isidorus rehersethe, Eth» li° decimo, or elles Flaccus Horatius, 
as Hugo Pisanus wylle in his Derivationes (capitulo perviso), 
when hit was seyde in obprobry to hym of his enmyes and 
aduersaries, that he scholde take some versus of that nowble 

^ Itoose, Cx. 
' om» a. 

* rechetk, Cx. 

* For sf, Cx,, a. 

* laboure, Cx. 

» tourneyes, Cx. 

^ mounng, Cx. ; om. a. 

^ renable, Cx., a. 

^ folowed and streynede] flowed 
and stremed, Cx. (stremed also in a.) 

^** leese, Cx, ; has, a. 

" she,Cx. (not a.), probably rightly. 

*2 leese or gleyne^ Cx. j UsCy a. 

*^ diuiitacionibua, Cx. 

" on, a. 



" Homerianos transferens suis immiscuisset ' carminibus, 
*' et ex hoc compilator veterum diceretur, respondit: 
" Magnarum esse virium clavam de manu Herculis 
*' extorquere/' 

9. NuUus igitur* me majorum* extdcetur,* quaeso, 
si sabuli cinerisque vicem gero, qusB, quamvis luce 
carentia fuerint et impura^ subjectas tamen attritu 
materias puras sclent reddere et fdlgentes, sicut et 
qusedam aKa, quae^ in se non habent, aliis® solent 
ministrare. Unde ' poeta satiricus ait : — 

"fungar vice cotis, acutum 
Reddere [quae] ferrum [valet]/'® 

EtGregorius insuo Pastorali ait: — "Depinxi pulchrum 
" hominem,^ ego pictor foedus." Prsesumens igitur de ilia 
caritate^ quae, secundum Gregorium in Homilia,^^ vires 
ministrat, quas imperitia denegat^ messuram aggrediar 
luGubratione plenam, fastidiosis forsan despicabUem, 
sed, ut arbitror, non " inutilem studiosis. Intrabo, 
inquam^ in agros priscorum^ metentes subsequens si 

«. t.:m ■■ 

« »1 > — I * «I f ii f ji 

^ immiscumet suis, B. 

" crgOf 35. 

' me majorum] migoram mc, B. 

* exulceretur. A, ; extdceret, B. 
^ quodf B» 

• attif B. 

' Vnde et, B. 

«Horat. Ars Poet. 304. Thd 
words in brackets are Omitted by 
Higden, who thus &lsifies the cto- 

^ ymaginem, B. 

^*B. adds*(=siia ?). 

" non] 0111. A. 


" hadde i-take som of Omeres [vers],^ and i*medled among his Treviba, 
*' and cleped ^ hym a gaderere of old wrytynges, he answerde — * 
<* and seide, * It were wel» greet strengpe to wreste amaoe 
" * oute of Hercules honde.' " 

9. perfore I pray J>at no man me blame, "pel ich^ fare as 
gonnd and askes ;^ ]>at^ ]70ut ]>ei bee]>7 dym and foule hym 
self, other Jiinges fey clenseji and make]» schyne ^ ful britt ; 
and meny o]>er finges fat J>ey haue]> not in hem self, 
^euef* to ojiere. So saij? the prophete*^ Satiricus, "I fare 
** as the whets ton *^ fat makef yren sharpe and kene." Item, 
Gregorius in suo Pastorali seif, "I haue peynt a wel faire 
<< man, and am my self a foule peyntour." J)erfore I truste 
on fat charite fat Qregorie spekef of in his Omelye, fat 
wif ^^ vertues and strengfe, fat vnkunnynge denyef ; and 
auntre me in to fe rype,^^ fat is ful of trauaille and wa- 
kynge, oute caste,^^ despised of envious men and proude, 
and tit I hope profitable '^ to good ^^ studiers and meke. I 
schal entre in to f e feeldes of oure forme fedres,*^ and folwe 

and laureate poete callede Homerus, and adde or inmixte theym MS. Haul. 
ynto his werkes and labores, and callede by that a compilator 2261. 
of oldethynges, he ansuerede seyenge that hit was a signe of - — 
grete strenthte to take the mace from the hpnde of Hercules. 
9, Freyenge that noo man haue indignacion thauthe 
y here asches or sonde, whiche semenge as thynges impure 
and wontenge ly^hte be wonte to yelde pure materes 
and fulgent, lyke as somme thynges be wonte to mihistre 
to other thynges that thei haue not in theyme selfe. 
Whereof the x>o©te Satiricus seythe " I schalle vse to make 
" a knyfe scharpe in the maner of a whetteston,'* And 
Seynte Gregory in his Pastoi*alles, " T a fowle peynter haue 
" made a feyre man in picture." Wherefore y presumenge of 
that charite, whiche, as Seynte Gregory seythe in an Omely, 
ministrethe stren^htes^ schalle prosecute my processe, pera- 
uenture contemptible to fastidious men, but as y iugge not 
vnproStable to goode studentes. Makenge an entre in to f. is a. 
the feldes of olde men, folowenge the scherers after my 

' Homeres rer*w, Cx. j vers added 
from a, 
2 caUed, Cx. 
» righty Cx. 

* >ei^, o. 

^ asahes, Cx. ; aske]>, a. (and MS. 

^far, Cx. The true reading is 
probably * for >aC 

' be, a. 

^ schene, a. 

* yeue\>] yet yeuen, Cx. 

^^ poet, a, 

^^ asa westOHf a. 

"tt?y«c, Cx. The sense requires 

« >c rype'] repyng, Cx. 
^* in caasy Cx. ; oncas, a,, probably 

^^ profiiabW] it shall be prouffy- 
table, Cx. 
" goode, a. 
"fom'/ader$, Cx. 

J4j polychronicon ranulphi higden 

potuero, quoquomodo colligens * mihi spicas retnanentes, 
vel saltern micas cadentes de mensa dominorum, qui 
quondam saturati dimiserunt reliquias suas parvulis 
suis* Sed etiam^ de fragmentis cophinorum, quae 
superfuemnt prandentibus, minutias* recolligens, quip- 
piam adjiciam laboribus auctorum, nanus residens in 
humeris giganteis, unde non solum minores ad rudi' 
mentum sed et majores ad exercitium provocentur, 
ut qui spatiosa ilia materiaa hujus volumina tarn ^ late 
digesta nondum ^ attigerunt, prsesenti saltern compendio 
instraantur ; ubi non dico sentential subtilitas neque ^ 
yerborum venustas, sed devotionis sinceritas materiae ' 
militabit. In quo quidem compendio universa paene 
problemata majorum sunt dicta ; nonnuUa vero, qua^ 
in libris auctorum minima reperi, ex usu quotidiano 
et rerum experientia, quasi de quadam morum historia 
excerpsi. Enim^ vero multorum notitia gestorum 
partim violentia hostilitatis, partim desidia scriptorum 

* coUigans, B. 

^ non bene, B. 

2ff, E. 

' aut, E. 

" micasy B. 

' maxime^ B. 

* torn] om. B. 

^ Quum vero, A. 



fe rype men, ^if ich may any wyse leese and gadre me Tbevisa. 
som eres fat rype men schedej) and skape]> of here hondes i -'-^ 
o]>er, nameliche, ^if I mylte ^ gadre somwhat of J>e crommes 
fat fallef of lordes bordes, fat somtyme were fulfilled and 
left hir ^ relif to Mr children» And also ^if I mylt gadre 
eny scrappes of fe releef of f e twelf cupes,^ and somwhat 
putt to and echo ^ writinge of auctours, as a dwerf sittynge 
on a geauntxs nekke ; wher f oru^ ^ongelynges ^ mowe be 
brou^t to lore and gretter men to vse^ and to besynesse 
i-spyed,7 fat fey mowe be enformed and i-tau^t by fis 
Bchort tretys, fat hauef noutt i-seie f e grete yolyms and 
large, fat beef of stories i-write, nou^t sotilte of sentence, 
nof er faire florischynge of wordes, but swetnesse of deuocion 
of f e matire schal ^ regne in fis bqok. In the whiche book 
and treiys wel nyh al problemys and questiouns of fe 
wiseste men fat ® beef i^ i-planted ; also many f inges fat 
bef nou^t i-write in ofer bookes, ich haue i*gadered of f e 
comyn, as fey it were of a storye, and i-write in fis tretis, 
for me 11 schulde hem knowe after oure time. For somdel 
by malice of enemys, somdele by sloufe^^ of writeres, know- 

power, gedrenge the eres of comes remanent, or elles cromes MS. Hael. 
fallenge from the table of lordes, whiche replete lefte frag- 2261. 

mente to theire childre and successores, gedrenge the litelle 

partes to men hnngre of the fragmentes of the cophinnes 
remanent, schalle adde somme thynge to the labores of auc- 
tores. Thro whiche labour lytelle men schalle not be inducede 
oonly to doctrine but also grete men schalle be prouocate 
to exercise, that men whiche haue not seen so large volumes 
of this mater may be instructe by this compendious labor, 
where y say not that subtilite of sentence or mellifluous 
eloquence schal be expressede in hit, but sinceritie of deuo- 
cion schalle schewe obsequy to the matere. In whom alle- 
moste alle the problemes of grete men be seyde, and mony 
other thynges not founde in the bokes of auctores whom y 
have excerpede, as in a maner as a story by vse quotidian 
and experience of theyme ; in parte throws the knowlege of 
mony thynges, parte thro the violence of hostilite, and parte 

^and gadre me . . , . I yif 
myyte^ wanting in Gx. 

* here, a. (and so often.) 

* vij, kipes or lepes, Cx. 

* eche'] encrece, Cx. (not a.) 
^ \>orw ^<mg peple, a, 

* vse"] So Cx. ; vice^ MS. ; vys, a. 
' i-spifed^ sette, Cx. 

* that, Cx. (t3rp. error for that shalf) 
^ \>at'\ wanting in Cx, The true 

reading is, perhaps, * >at bee>, l)ee> 

'^ be^y a. (bnt also hee\f elsewhere.) 
"yorwic] by cause men, Cx. (not a.) 
^2 \>e sleu\>e, a. 
•* The text is corrupt. 



est adempta, ita ut vix liodie nuda locorum nomina 
aint salvata. 

Quod 61 figmenta gentilium, si dicta ethnicorum, 
si miranda locorum in hoc opusculo interdum inseran- 
tur, Christiansa tamen religioiii famulantur. licuit 
enim Virgilio aurum sapientiae in luto Ennii poetae 
quaerere, et filiis Israel ad Terram Promissam ' pro- 
ficiscentibus uEgyptios spoliare. In quibus psene 


cunctis aliunde membratun excerptis, sed hie linea-^ 
mentaliter concorporatis, ita seriosis ludicra,^ ita reli- 
giosis^ ethnica vicissim sunt admixta, ut succinctis 
tritis laxatisque exoticis* processus series^ observetur, 
et integra pro posse Veritas non vacillet ; aequalis 
tamen utrobique per^ omnia teneri non poterit certi- 
tudo» Nam divina miracula, secundum Augustinum, 
De Civitate Dei^ ' admiranda sunt et veneranda, 
non disputatione discutienda: mirabilia vero non sunt 
omnino discredenda ; cum dicat Hieronymus, " Multa 
" incredibilia reperies et non verisimilia, quae nihilomi- 
" nus vera sunt. Nihil enim contra naturae Dominum® 

> promissumiSf B. 
^ ludibria, B. 
' reliosis, A. 
* exitiiSf B. 

* cereos, A. 
® per] etper, E. 

^ Dei] Added from B., wanting 
in A.K. 

" Dominum naturae, A. 


leche of greet dedes* is so nyh loste and forlet, ])at skars- Tbevisa. 

liche bare names of places we hauej> now * in mynde. 

10. })ey feynynge and sawes of mysbileued and lawless 
men, and wondres and merueillis of dyuerse contrees and 
londes be i-planted in fis book, suche seruej» and is good 
to be knowe of Cristen men. Virgile sou^t gold of wit 
and wisdom in the fen of Ennii pe poete, and yo children 
of Israel, in hire goynge into ]>e londe of byheste, spoilled 
Jie Egipcians. pat is in oJ?er bookes i-write welwyde and 
parcel mele i-plaunted, here it is- i-pntte togidre in role 
and in ordre ; so mer^e to sadnesse and hepen to Cristen, 
euerich among o]>ere, ^at straunge stories heef so abregged, 
schorted and i-leng]yed j^at Jfe storie is hool,^ ia sooj^nesse 
nou^t i-chaunged. NeuerJ^eles ^ more certeyn som is i^holde 
fan oJ>ir. For Augustinus, de Civitate Dei, seith : ** We 
" schul trowe and worschippe ]?e miracles of God and nou^t 
" hem despreue by despitusoun."^ Wondres bej? not al to 
be vhtrowed : for Hieronymus sei)),^ " Meny wondres J)ow 
" schalt fynde J>at ]>ou woldest nou^t bileue,^ and ^it fey 
" bee]) ful 8o6p : kynde may not doo a^enst God, Lord of 

is adempte and loste fro the slawthe of wryters, so that MS.Haiil. 
vnnethe the bare names of places be saluede. Thauthe the 2261. 

figmentes of gentiles and dictes of ethnlkes be inmixte to 

this werke thei do seruyce to the Cristen religion and feythe. 
For it was lawefuUe to Virgille the nowble poette to seche the 
golde of sapience in the cleye of Ennius the poete, and to the 
childer of Israel goenge in to the londe of promissien to spoile 
men of Egipte. In whom alle thinges excerpte of ofer men 
ar ^ broken in to smalle membres, but concorporate here lini- 
amentally ; thynges of disporte be admixte with saddenes, and 
dictes ethnicalle to thynges religious, that the ordre of the 
processe may be obseruede, that to my power the integrite 
of trawthe schaUe not ffeynte. For egalle certitude may 
not be holden by aUe thynges and in aUe thynges. For 
after Seynte Auslyn, de Civitate Dei, diuine miracles ar to 
be meruailede and to be worschipped, not worthy to be 
discussede by disputacion. Thynges to be meruaylede be 
not in alle maneres to be taken to discredence, sythe Seynte 
lerom seythe, " Thow schalle *® fynde mony thynges incredible 
" and not lyke, and neuerthelesse thei be trewe. Truly there 
" is noo thynge more preualent ageyne the dominy of nature 

* So a. ; dredeSf MS. [ ® duiputicion, Cx. ; despitesoun, a, 

' not, Cx. ' Hieronymus sei^'\ Bornme telle, Cx. 

* So Cx. and o. ; lawes of, MS. | * So Cx.^; i leue^ MS. 

* andy Cx. ; hool and so\>nesse, o. j » ar] as, Harl. MS. 
s notheles, a. | ^» So HarL MS. 

VOL. I. B 


'* prsBvalet ipsa natura." In multis quoque veri certi- 
tude nullatenus vacUlare videretur, probabiliter tamen 
dubitatur, Dicit enim Isidorus, EtymoJ. [lib.] xv°. : *' Si 
" de constructioue urbis Romae certa ratio non appareat,' 
" non est mirum si in aliarum opinione dubitetur/* 
Unde nee historieos nee eommentarios * varie loquen- 
tes condemnare debemus, quia antiquitas ipsa creavit 
errorem. lUorum igitur dictis, secundum Hieronymum, 
quorum religio fidei [et] moribus non ^ praejudicat, nee 
veritati agnitsa contradicit, fidem eonvenit adhibere, 

Quamobrem in hae assertione historica periculum 
veri statuendi per omnia mihi non faeio, sed quae 
apud di versos auctores legi* sine invidia communico. 
Nam et apostolus non, " Quaecunque scripta sunt vera 
" sunt/' ait ; sed, " Quaecunque scripta sunt, ad nostram 
" doctrinam scripta sunt,"' inquit. Et quamvis alienum 
sit quod assume, meum tamen facio quod meis ali* 

* apparet, £. 

^ coi^ectarios, B. 

' «ec, A. 
* lege, A. 


" kjrnde." Also of many jiinges that se^mep ful soof, Trbvisa. 

noseless skilfulliche me doute]>.* Isidorus, Eth., quinto -— ^ 

decimo, seip : "5^^ resoun is vncertayne of f e buildynge of 

*' the citee of Eome, what wonder J>ey men be vncerteyn of 

" the buldynge of oper citees and townes ? Wherfore we 

*' schulle not blame ^ makeres and writeres of stories, ]>at 

*' dyuersliche spekej» and write]? ; for longe passynge of tyme 

^' and elde of dedes make]> hem vnknowe and writers to 

" erre." J)erfore Hieronymus sei]>, " It is semeliche to trowe ^ 

" her sawes pat wijjseip^ nou^t oure byleue noJ>er soop- 

*' nesse that is knowe." 

Wherfore in J?e writynge of ])is storie I take noutt vppon 
me to aferme for sodp ^ all p&t I write, but such as I haue 
seie ® and i-rad in dyuerse bookes, I gadere ^ and write wi]> 
oute envie, and eomoun to o}>ere men. For })e apostel seith 
nou^t, "All fat is write* to oure lore is soop," but he seij) 
" Al J>at is i- write to oure lore * it is i-write.** And |)ei I 
take it of oper menis, I clepe J)is storie myn ; and for J>at 

*' then that nature." Neuerthelesse a dubitacion may be MS. Harl. 
movede probably in mony thynges, where certitude dothe 2261. 
not appere to be variaunte. Isidorus seythe, Ethi. libro xv**, « ^77" 
** If that certeyne reason appere not of the construccion of * 
" the cite of Rome, hit is not mervayle if a dubitacion be 
" movede in the oppinion of theyme. Wherefore we awe not 
*< to condempne commentatores. and wryters of stofyes spekenge 
" diuersely, for the antiqtiite per of causethe erroure. For hit 
" is conueniente to tiffe feithe and credulite to the dictes of 
" those men, after Seynte lerom, the religion of whom schew- 
" ethe not preiudice to vertues neiper seythe contrary to 
" the trawthe y-knowen."i® If eny thynge be founde disso- 
naunte to feithe auper diuerse or straunge to vertues in 
this werke, hit schalle be ascribede raper to the tyme 
then to man. Wherefore y make not to me by alle thynges 
perelle of trawthe to be ordeynede in this spekenge of 
storyes, but takenge parte withowte envye thynges of diuerse 
auctores whom y haue redde. For Seynte Paule seythe, 
That alle thynges wryten be not trewe, but alle thynges 
wryten be wryten to oure doctrine." And thau^he y take 
the wordes of other men, y make hit myne that y pro- 


^ me doute\>] it is to be doubted, 

2 make bhmeres, a, 

^ beleue, Cx. 

'* So o.; wtjp sej*>, MS. J gaynsaye, 

'^ trouihtt, Cx. 

* y-seiey a. 

' So a, and Cx. ; gadered, MS. 

^ y^write, a. 

•* to oure /ore] for oure doctryiae 
and loore, Cx. (a has various words 

^* y knotven, Harl. MS., and simi- 
larly elsewhere ; here always print- 
ed conjunciim. 

B 2 



quando verbis antiquorum ssepe^ sententias® profero, 
adeo ut quos auctores in capite libri prsescripsero,® 
illis utar pro clypeo contra sugillantes. Quum* vero 
compilator loquitur, sub hac figuratione [R] littera'* 

Cap. IL 
Nomina auctorum in lioc opuscuh aUegaiovnm? 

Eecitantub hie® auctorum nomina de quibus haec^ 
potissime abstracta ^% est Chronica : 

Josephus Judaeorum historicus^^ insignis,^^ qui ab 
initio saeculi usque ad xiv™. annum Domitiani libros 
antiquitatum xx, necnon et de subversione urbis 
Hierosolymse '^ gentisque suee '* captivitate vii. libros '* 

Hegesippus, de Excidio TJrbis, quern transtulit 

Plinius, in xxxvil. libris de Naturali Historic.. 

Trogus Pompeius, in XLiv. libris de cunctis paene 
Orbis historiis, quem abbreviavit discipulus suus^'^ 

Eusebius^ in Historia Eeclesiastica, cujus xi, sunt 

Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita, cujus tres sunt 

' semper, D. 

^ seiiUemHa8\ So B. (where the 
word profero is imtten twice) ; sen- 
tentiiSf A.E. 

* scripsero, B, 

* Quum] Quando, E. 

* Utter a] om. D. 

* prascribetur, D. 

' Heading (here and usually) as 
in B. Prafatio secunda ad historiam, 
E. In A.C.D* is no heading. 

* Sunt autem hac, C,P, 

• hie, B. 

" extroicta, CD. 

'* historioffraphus, CD. 

^' insignis] om. E. 

** HierosclynuB] So D,E. ; Ifiero- 
sol^itana, A.B. 

** sua] om, C 

« libros 7, B. 

" D.E. add doctor, 

>' 5«««] Added from B.D.E. In 
C. the reading is ejus, 


I write ofer whiles myn owne wordes and sentens of olde Tretisa. 

men, J?e auctores Jiat* in the firste bygynnynge of })is book 

I take for schelde and defeus, me for to saue and schilde 2 
a^enst enemyes fat me wolde despise strongly 3 and blame; 
first for my self and for myn owne name I wiite Hs letter 

Capitulum secundum. 

Here I write and reherse f e auctours names of fe whiche 
|?is cronycle is nameliche ^ i-gadered and i-drawe : «Josephus 
Judeorum historicus insignis, qui ab initio saeculi usque ad 
quartum decimum annum t)omitiani libros Antiquitatum 
viginti, necnon et de subversione civitatis Hierosolymas, 
gentisque suae captivitate septem conscripsit. Hegesippus, de 
Excidio Urbis quem transtulit Ambrosius. Plinius in xxxvii. 
libris, de Naturali Historia. Trogus Pompeius, in xliv. 
libris, de cunctis pene orbis historiis, quem abbreviavit dis- 
cipulus suus Justinus. Eusebius^ in Historia Ecclesiastica, 
cujus XI. sunt librL Historia Ecclesiastica Tripaiiiita^ cujus 

ferre other while of the sentence of olde men by my MS. Hari. 
wordes, vsenge the auctores whom I schalle wryte in the 2261. 
begynnenenge of the booke as a schelde and defense ageyne """""" 
men movenge contrarious thynges. When the compilator 
spekethe, the letter shall , be proscribede in this forme 
folowenge [R]. 

Explicit Prjefatio prima. 

, Capitulum Secundum» ^ 

The names of the auctores been rehersede here, of whom 1 19 a. 
thys presente cronicle is abstracte. losephup, the nowble 
w^te? of storyes of the lewes, whiche dide wiyte xx« 
bookes of antiquite, and vij, bookes of the subuersion of 
the cyte of lerusalem and of the captiuite of the peple 
|>er of, from the begynnenge of the worlde vn to the xiiij*^* 
yere of Domician themperoure. Also Hegesippus, de Ex- 
cidio Urbis, whom Seynte Ambrose translate. Plinius, in 
hys xxx'^ vij. bookes of Naturalle Story es. Trogus Pom- 
peius, in hys xl^^ iilj. bookes, allemoste of alle the storyea 
of the worlde, whom lustinus his disciple did abbreuiate. 
Eusebius, in his Story Ecclesiasticalle, in whiche story xj. 
bookes be conteynede. Also the Ecclesiasticalle Story tri- 

' / settCy or something similar, 
seems to be omitted. 
* hepcy Cx. 

^ strangely^ Cx* 
* special, Cx. 



auctores, 8c} Eusebius, Hieronymus, et^ Theodorus 


Augustinus, de Civitate Dei, potissime in XVIl""°- ^ et * 

Orosius Hispanus, Terraconensis presbyter,^ in libro 
de Ormesta® Mundi. 

Isidorus Hispalensis episcopus, in libro Etymolo- 

Solinus, de Mirabilibus Mundi. ^ 

Eutropius, in Historia Eomana. 

Paulus Diaconus, in Historia Longobardorum. 

Cassiodorus/ de Gestis Imperatorum et Pontificum. 

Methodius martyr et episcopus,- cui incarcerate 
revelavit angelus de mundi statu priacipio,® et fine.* 

Suetonius, de Gestis Romanorum. 

Valerius Maximus, de Gestis Memorabilibus.^^ 

Macrobius, in Satumalibus. 

Priscianus Grammaticus^ in Cosmographia." 

Petrus Comestor,^^ in Historia Scholastica. 

Gregorius, de Mirabilibus Romse,^^ 

Beda, de Gestis Anglorum. 

Item, Beda, de Naturis Eerum. 

IteTTi, Beda, de Temporibus.^* 

J Added from D. ^ 

^ef] Added from CD. 

* 16. D., which pkces De C. Dei 
at the end. 

*et2 etin, "E. 

^ C. and D. add et discipulus heati 

^ In all the MSS. Bespecting the 
orthography and probable import of 
this title, see Smith's Diet, of Greek 
and Homan Biogr,, Tol. iii p. 59} 
Lond. 1849. 

^ C. and P. add Senator et kisto-» 

^ prineipio] Added from B.E. : in 
principio, C, but in is cancelled ; a 
prineipio, D. 

' C. and D. insert, at this point, 
Herodotus, Quiniilianus, AgeUius (i. e, 
*■ Aldus GeUiusJ' D. has Augelius.) 

1*^ A. adds, here also, et fine, but 
the words are run through by some 
corrector of the MS. 

'* sua, add C.D. $ in Cosnwgraphia 
om. n. 

*^ Trecensis (?) presbyter, add C. 
D., which last has Cretensis* 

^' Magister Gregorius in libro de, 

** The two last works of Bede are 
omitted in D,, and added in C. by a 
later hand. 


tres sunt auctores, Eusebius, Hierbnymus, et Theodorus epi- Tbevisa, 

Scopus. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, potissime xvii. et 

XVIII. Orosius Hispanus Terraconensis presbyter, in libro 
de Ormesta Mundi. Isidorus Hispalensis in libro Etymolo- 
giarum. Solinus de Mirabilibus Mundi. Henricus Huntyng- 
donensis ^ archidiaconus. Eutropius [m] ^ Historia Eomana. 
Walterus archidiaconus Oxoniensis. Paulus Diaconus in 
Historia Longobardorum. Alfridus Beverlacensis thesau- 
rariuB» Cassiodorus de Gestis Lnperatorum et Fontificum. 
Gralfridus Monamutensis, in Historia Bretonum. Methodius 
etiam ^ martyr et episcopus, cui incarcerato revelavit angelus 
de mundi statu principio et fine. Willehnus^ Ryvallensis. 
Giraldus Cambrensis, qui descripsit Topographiam Hiber- 
niae, Itinerarium Walliae, et yitam regis Henrici Secundi sub 
triplici distinctione. Suetonius, de Gestis Memorabilibus. ^ 
Macrobius, in Saturnalibus. Johannes Salisburiensis in suo 
Polycraticon, quem intitulavit, de Nugis Curialium et Phi- 
losophorum. Priscianus Grammaticus, in Cosmographia. 
Petrus Comestor in Histoiua Scholastica. Hugutio Pisanus 
episcopus in Magnis Derivationibus ^ suis. Gregorius, de 
Mirabilibus Romae. Vincentius Belluacensis, in Speculo 
Historiali. Beda, de Gestis Anglorum. Ivo Carnotensis 
episcopus. Beda, de Naturis Rerum. Historia Francorum. 
Beda, de Temporibug. Titus Livius, de Gestis Romanorum. 

partite of whom be iij. auctores, Eusebius, lerom and Theo- MS.Habl. 
dorus the byschoppe. Seynte Austyn de Civitate 'Dei, 2261. 
and specially in the xyij***^ and xviij**® books. Orosius 
Hispanus, in his booke de Ormesta Mundi. Isidorus His- 
palensis, in his Ethimologies. Solinus, of the Meruayles of 
the Worlde. Eutropius, in his story of Romanes. Paulus 
Diaconus in his Story of Longobardes. Cassiodorus, of the 
Gestes of Emperoures and Byschoppes. Methodius, martir 
and byschoppe/ to whom, beenge in prison, an angelle 
schewede of J>e. state of the worlde, begynnenge and ende. 
Suetonius, of the Gestes of Romanes. Valerius Maximus, 
of the Gestes of Memorye. Macrobius, in Saturnalibus. Pri- 
cianus Grammaticus, in his Cosmographye. Petrus Comestor, 
in his Storye Scolasticalle. Gregorius, of the Meruailes of 
Rome. Bede, of the Gestes of men of Englonde ; also, 
Bede, of the Natures of Thynges ; also, Bede, of Tymes# 

* Hontingdon, a. s s J^ojnanorum, Valerius Maximus 

* m] Added from a, and Cx. ^ ^^ memorahilibm, a. 
^ ettam] om. Cx. ^ 

* W^mus, MS., and so a litUe . ' diuinacwnilms, Cx. 
1)elow. I ' byschopf Harl. MS^ 


POLYCHROKICOj^ ranulphi higden 

Gildas,^ de Gestis Britonum.^ 

Marianus Scotus. 

Wilhelmus* Malmesburiensis monachus, de Gestis 
<Eegum Anglian et Pontificum.* 
• Henricus Huntindoneiisis * archidiaconus. 

Waltenls Oxoniensis * archidiaconus. 

Alfridus Beverlacensis ' thesaurajius*® 

Galfddus Monemutensis^ in Historia^^ Britonum. 

Wnhehnus Rievallensis." 

Giraldus Cambrensis, qui descripsit Topograpliiam 
Hibemiae, Itinerarium Walliae, et Vitam regis Henrici 
Secundi sub tripKci distinctione. 

Johannes Salisburiensis,^^ in suo Polycraticon,^^ quern" 
intitulavit de Nugis Curialium et Philosophorum. 

Hugo ^^ Pisanus episcopus, in Magnis ^^ Derivationibus. 

Vincenfcius Beluacensis, in Speculo Historiali. 

Ivo Carnotensis episcopus. 

Historia Francorum.*' 

Titus Livius, de Gestis Romanorum. 

Martinus pcenitentiarius domini papse in Chronicis 
suis de Imperatoribus et Pontificibus.^® 

Et Florentius Wigomensis monachus^ quem in 

^ Item Gildas, B. 

' C. and D. add Nenninius {Nen- 
ninus, C.) Brito EJdugi (read Elvo- 
dugi) dUcipulnsy presbyter, 

* WiUtelmtes] So B. Variously 
imtten and abbreviated in the MSS. 

* C and D. omit the title of the 
book. B. has de regibtis Angli<B et 
pontfficilfus . 

^ Hunteyngdonien,y B. 

* Exon., CD. 

' Bleuerlacen^ B. 
' thesaurius, A. 
^ Munemutensis, D. 
*• historiis^ B. 
*' Rivalensi&t D. 
" Saiesbur, D. 

** Pdychronican^ B. {Polycraticon 
in marg. in later hand), E. A con- 

fusion of names -which is often 
repeated in the titles of the present 




'* Hugutio^ B. (Hugo in marg.)» 
C.I).E. Both forms are good. 

*^ Magnis] suiSf CD. 

" The allusion is most probably 
to the work of Gregory of Tours, 
although in some MSS. the punctua- 
tion seems to imply that the writer 
intended the Ckronicon de BegUnts 
Franeorum of Iro of Chartres. 
(Hardwick's note.) C has * Ivo 
*■ Carnotensis Episcopus, Historui 
< Franeorum^ T. Livius,* all in the 
margin. I>. omits them entirely. 

J* in cronicis de pontificibuSf CD* 


Gildas, de Gestis Britouum. Martinus poenitentiarius do- TbsVisa. 
mini papae, in Chronicis suis de Imperatore et Pontifice.* 
MarianuB Scotus. Willelmus Malmesburiensis Monachus de 
Gestis Regum Angliae et Pontificum. Florentias Wygor- 

Gxldas, of the Gestes of Briteynes. Marianus Scotus. MS. Habl. 


Willelmus * Malmesburiensis monachus, of the Gestes of the 

Kynges of Englonde and of the Byschoppes. Henry, Archi- 
diacon of Huntyngedon. Waltere, Archidiacon of Oxford. 
Alfride, Treasurer of Beuerlaye. Galfridus Monomutensis, 
in his Story of Britones. Willelmus ^ Eiuallensis. Giral- 
dus of Wales,- which describede Topographic of Irlonde, 
Itinerary of Wales, and the Lyfe of Kinge Henry the 
Secunde, under a triuialle distinccion. lohannes Salesburi- 
ensis, in his Policraticon, whom he intitlede de Nugis Curi- 
altum. Hugo Pisanus Byschoppe, in his Deriuaciones. 
Vincentius Beluacensis, in. his Myrrour Historicalle. Ivo f. 19 K 
Byschoppe Camotense, of the Storye of Frensche men. 
Titus Liuius, of the Gestes of Romanes. Martinus, the peni- 
tentiary of the Pope, in his Cronicles of Emperoures and 
Byschoppes. Also Florentius, monke of Wurcestre, whom 

delmperatwibusPcnHficibus^Cx. \ ^ WiSms, HarL MS. (twice)* 



annorum supputatione una ^ cum Mariano Scoto ^ potis- 
sime sum secutus. 

Cap. III. 

Divisio hujus Opusculi i/n septem lihroa? 

Et quia prsesens chronica multorum temporum con- 
tinet gesta, idcirco earn Historiam Polychronica/nhy^ 
a pluralitaie temporum quam continet, censui nuncu- 
pandam. In cujus negotii pertractatione, exemplo pri- 
mitivi Opificis sub senario cuncta condentis et in 
septimo * quiescentis, cujus actio nostra est ^ instructio, 
subtractum opus in septem libellulos'' subdistinxi. 
Quorum primus describit orbis loca, reliqui sex orbis 
gesta juxta ® numerum sex setatum. In primo tamen ® 
hujus operis^^ libro, more divisi generis in species," mappa 
mundi describitur. Deinde, orbis in suas partes *^ princi- 
paliores dividitur. Tertio, provincia quaeque partialis 
percurritur, donee perveniatur ad omnium novissimam*^ 
Eritanniam, tanquam ad speciem^* specialissimam,^^ 
cujus gratia tota prsesens lucubtata est historia.^^ 

* unal om. B., which arranges 
the words of the sentence diffe- 

' C. and 'K.QTtAtuna cum Mariano 
Scoto. D. omits all after monackus. 
The order in which this catalogue of 
authors appears is not quite the same 
in all the Latin MSS. The text is 
as A.B.E. 

3 Prmfatio tertia ad historiam, E. 

* Policraticam, C, (not D.) : and 
similarly in the colophon of the 
same MS. 

* septenariOy B. 

* est\ sit, B. 

' lihellos, B.E. 

^ juxta] secundum, B. 

'^ etianij CD. 

^® hujus operis, om» C.1). ; hujus 
partis, E. 

" more . . . species'] oto. CD. 

^-partes interlineated in later 
hand aftef princtpaliores in A. 

" omnium novissimam] So B.C.E* ; 
omnium iwvisiimay A.; omnem no^ 
vissimam, D. 

^* spem, A. 

^^ tanquam . . spectalissimam] om. 

*^ /. p. /i., C. (omitting est). 


nensis, quern in annorum supputatione, una cum Mariano^ Tsbtesa* 
potissime sum secutus. ^— * 

PrcBfatia secunda ad Historiam. 

And for J)is cronicle * contejme]? berynges and dedes of 
.meny Ayme,^ ferfore I clepe^ it Pollicronicon^ fat is fe^ 
cronicle of meny tymes. In pe whiche work, by J>e en- 
saumple of |ie firste Worcbere, J>at wrou^hte alle his werkes 
in sixe dayes and reste in ]>e seuenfe (for his doynge is oure 
lore^), ]>is werke I departe and dele in seuene boo^s. pe 
iirste book descryuej? placis and contrees and londes knd alle 
f e worlde wyde.^ pe ofere sixe bokes, by J)e noumbre of 
vi. ages, |)at conteynej» ber3mge and dedes from f e bygyn- 
nynge of fe world vnto oure tyme. Ne]?eles in J>e &ste 
book of J>i8 werk, as who^ descriue}> general, comoun and 
special, mappa mnndi is purtrayed and i-peynt, {»at is ]>e 
clo|)e pat J)e schap of fe worlde wide is i-peynted ynne. 
panne in his cheef parties ]?e world is i-deled ; and for fis 
storie is bytrauailled^ by cause of Brytayne, eueriche pro- 
quince and londe is descryued for to me® come to Britayne 
fe laste of alle, as most special; and J^ere ynne is i-conteyned 

y folowe specially with Marianus Scotte in the supputacion MS. Hab£« 
of yeres. 2261. 

The secunde Preface vn to the storye, Capitulum tertium^ 

And for cause that this cronicle presente conteynethe 
the gestes of mony tymes, I haue studiede that hit schal 
be called PoUcronican of the pluralite of tymes whom it 
dothe conteyne. In whiche werke y haue subdiuidede in 
to vij. bookes, after the exemple of the firste Maker 
makenge alle thynges vnder the nowmbre of vj. and rest- 
onge in the vij*^^. The firste boke of whom describethe 
the places of the worlde, other vj. bookes describe the 
gestes of the worlde after the nowmbre of l?j^ ages. 
Mappa mundi is describede in the firste boke of this 
werke, in the manor of a diuision genericalle in to a di- 
uision specificalle* After that the worlde is diilidede as 
in to his partes principalle. In the thrydde euery par*- 
cialle province is discussede, till hit be commen to Breteyne 
the last prouince, as vn to a specialite moste specialle for 

^for as Tnocke as this cronMye, Cx, 

2 tymes, Cx. (not a.) 

' So Cx. and a. ; cleped, MS. 

* So Cx. and «. ; in, MS. 

* doctn/ne, Cx, | *for to me] Tntil we, Cx. 

VOL. I. B 6 

® wyde world, Cx., and 80 just 
below, with other slight yariations. 

' So Cx. J first who, MS.; first as 
who, a. 

' is trauapUed, Cx. 



Quo^ in loco quindecim contexta* sunt capitula, sum- 
mariam^ quidem sed necessariam insulsB Britannic» 
notitiam continentia, velut isagogse qusedamf primse 
ad majores categorias in libris reliquis subsequentes, ut 
ctu fortassis plenam ponendorum coenam gustare non 
libuerit, his saltern^ prseviis acruminibns® delectetur. 
Deinde^ secundus liber aggreditur® gesfca saeculi, cum 
descriptione xninoris mundi ; verum quia gesta unius- 
cujusque setatis non sunt seque multa et librorum qui- 
libet® sequilibratam portionem vendicat in contentis, ea 
propter secundus liber quatuor setatum sseculi^^ conti- 
net gesta, a plasmatione scilicet protoplasti usque ad ^^ 
incensionem templi Judaic!. Tertius a transmigratione 
populi usque adventum Christi. Quartus a Christo 
usque adventum Saxonum. Quintus abinde usque 
adventum Dacorum. Sextus abinde usque adventum 
Normannorum. Septimus abinde ^^ usque ad sevum 
nostrum, quod est sub regno Edwardi Tertii post Con- 
qusestum. Et sic, juxta vaticinium Isaiae prseloquentis, 
immensitas historisB profluentis percussa est in septem 
rivis, ut jam^^ per earn transeant calceati, pateatque 
via residuo populo Dei. 

* Qmo , . . delectetur'] om. CD. 
^ contexta] om. B. 

* tumsummariam, GaIe*sMS.(G.)» 
(but non is interlineated), and so the 
Winchester MS. (W.) and Harl. 
version ; badly. 

^ysagoge quidam, A. ; isagoge 
qucedam ^rima is probably the true 
reading. See Trevisa. 

* B. fudAs descriptionihus, 

* acruminibus] So B., apparently, 
and Gr., quite distinctly; compare 
p. 404; acriWni6«5, A.E.W,; and 
^o Trevisa, absurdly.'^ 

^ Thus abridged in CD.: Deinde 
secundus liher gesta sectUi cum de- 
scriptione minoris mundi aggr^itur : 
quataorque {secundus liber quatuor, 
0.) istatum continet gesta, sc, ah 
Adam usque incensionem templi, 

^ aggreditur before secundus in B. 

^quilibet'] qaeliter, A. (without, 

*** seeculij om. B. 

** ad] om. B. 

^^ abinde"] om. B. 

'^ utjam] ita quidem ui> CD. 


XV. chapitres nedful to ])e knowleche of the ylond of Britayne, Trevma. 

as yeiX it were an ^ in-bryngynge to gretter knowleche in 

of er 2 Dookes })at folowef ; fat who fat may nou^t come to 
ful knowleche of fe ful storie, mowe by such forledynge 
haue [lykynge] ^ to leeue schrewednes and synne. pe secunde 
book auntref ^ forto telle berynge and dedes wif descrip- 
cioun of the lasse world ; and for f e ages of fe world 
beef nou^t all euene of beryng and of dedes, and euery 
book is euene and conteynef i-liche ; f erfore f e secounde 
book conteynef fe berynge and dedes of the foure ages 
from the makynge of oure formest fader to f e brennynge of 
f e temple of lewes, pe f ridde book from f e transmygra- 
cioun of fe i)eple to the comynge of Crist, pe fourfe from 
Crist to fe comynge of Saxouns. pe fifte from Saxons to 
fe Banes, pe sixte from f e Danes to f e Normans.^ pe 
seuenfe fro Xormans to oure tyme, fat is, reignynge^ of ' 
kyng Edwarde fe f ridde after fe Conquest. And so by 
fe prophecie of Isjay, fis grete storie. is departed in seuene 
streemes, so fat bofe i-hosed and i-schod Goddes peple may 
passe f erby. 

whom his present storye was madei In whiche place xv. MS. Uxnt, 
chapitres bene contexte, not as summary, but as conteyn- 2261. 

enge necessarily the knowlege of the yle of Bryteyne. The 

secunde boke tretethe of the gestes of the worlde, with a 
descripsion of the lesse worlde. Sythe the gestes of euery 
age be. not egaUe in multitude, and euery booke chalang- - 
ethe his particion in contentes, ferfore the secunde boke 
conteynethe the gestes of the iiij. ages of the world, from the 
piasmacion of Adam vn to the incension of the temple of 
the lewes. The thrydde boke conteynethe from the trans- 
migracion off the peple to the commenge of Criste, The 
iiijthe from Criste to the commenge of Saxones, The v*^» 
from theym to the commenge of Danes. The yj^^^ from . 
that to the commenge of Normannes. The vij^**® from 
theyme to our age. And soe this presente story is smyten 
in to vij. ryuerers, after the prophecy^ of Ysay that men 
y-schoede may goe by hyt, and fat the weye may be patente 
to the residu peple of God. 

^ and, MS. ; txt, Cx. 

* j}e o\>ere, a. 

' Added from Cx. and o. 

* (fuenturethf Cx. 

^fram (sic) Danes to Normans, «. 
* vnder J»€ reignynge, a. ; imder the 
regne, Cx, 



Cap. IV. 

De quHmsdam prceambuUs utilibus ad opus sub^ 


Satagentibus * igitur plenam histoiise notitiaaoa ap- 
prehendere utile foret^ octo scire, videlicet descriptiones 
locorum, status reram, distinctiones tginporum,* sue- 
cessiones regiminum, variationes rituum, decursiones 
setatum, qualitates actionum ; et ^ in his ^ omnibus 
varias prorsus supputationes annorum. 

Primum istorum in primo libro, reliqua in reliquis 
sunt expressa. 

Quoad secundum est notjandum, quod'' duo sunt 
status ; unus ab exordio mundi usque ad Christum, qui 
dicitur® dremationi»-; secundus, a Christo usque in 
finem, qui dicitur® recondUationis, 

Quantum ad tertium, nota ^^ quod tria sunt tempora \ 
unum ante legem scriptam, secunduin, sub lege scripta, 
tertium, sub gratia. 

Quantum ad quartum, nota quod licet quatuor 
fuerunt aliquando^^ regna principalia, Assyrionim, 
scilicet,'^ Persarum, Grsecorum, et Eomanorum, tamen,'^ 
quoad mundi cursum et Sacree ScripturaB seriem, 

' Prafatio quarta ad historiam^ E. 
^ Satagentibus] cnpientibus, CD. 

* utile foret] necessarium erit, 

* temporum] om. A, 
*e^] om. B. 

^ his added from CD. ; om. A.B. 
^ est notandum quod] om. CD. 

" qui dieitur] et hie fuit, CD. 
» est, CD. 

" CD. om. nota quod^ and so be- 

" aliquandofueruntf B. 

^- C om. scilicet. 

" tamen] After mundiin CD. 


Prctfaeio Tertia ad HistoAam, Teevisa. 

To hem fat will haue ful knowleche of stories nedej> ^ "^ — " 
ey|>te J>inges [to knowe : descrypcions of places, states of 
tnynges],2 distinccion ^ of tjmes, aftir foUowynge of kyng- 
doms« dyuerste of liuynge, passynge of ages, maner of doynge, 
and in all J>ese verray acountynge of ^eres. 

p6 firste of })ese in pe firste book, and J>e ofere in fe of er 
bookes beej> oponliche i- write. 

Touchynge pe secounde take hede of tweie states, oon 
from f e bygynnynge of ]>e world to Criste, and is i-cleped ^ 
f 6 staat of mysgoynge ; tbe secounde staat from Criste to 
j?e worldes end, and 19 i-cleped^ fe state of grace and 
of mercy. 

For fe fridde, take hede of pre tymes, oon to fore lawe 
i- write, pe secounde vndir f e lawe i-write, and fe fridde 
vnder grace and mercy* 

For 1)0 fourthe, take hede fat somtyme fere were 
foure prLipd kyngdoms» AsayriorL, Persiuni, &nBC«rum, 
Bomanorom. Neuerf eles touchynge the '^ cours of the worlde 
and fe processe of Holy Writt, fe firste kyngdom was 
— — ■ ■■ " ■- -' — ■ ' .,-111-111— I .1 — ,-. , I . / 

The thrydde Preface to the story e. Capitulum quartum. MS. Harl. 

Truly viij***® thynges be profitable to men willenge to 

haue plenerly knowelege of this story presente, that is to f- 20 a, 
say, descripciones of places, states of thynges, distincciones of 
t3rmes. Successiones of gonemaunce, yariaciones of cus- 
tomes, decursiones of ages, qualites of acciones and trewe 
supputaciones of yeres in alle these thynges. • The firste of 
these is in the firste booke and ofer® in other ^ books be 
expressede. As vn to the secunde hit is to be attendede 
that fer be ij. states ; oon state from fe begynnenge of the 
worlde to Criste, whiche is the state of deuiacion. The 
secunde is fi*om Criste to the ende of the worlde, whiche 
is the state of reconsiliacion. As vn to the thiydde hit is 
to be attendede that there be iij. tymes; oon afore the 
lawe y-wryten. The secunde vnder the lawe wryten. The 
thrydde vnder grace. As vn to the iiij*^«. hit is to be 
attendede, thau^e fer were ofer while iiij. principalle 
reahnes, as men of Assiria, of Persia, Grekes, and Eomanes, 
neuerfelesse as after the course of the worlde and ordre of 
Holy Scripture the firste gouernayle was froni Abraham 

> it nedeth, Cz. 
' distinceon, MS. 

« Cx. has "that is to wete of the 
" Assyryens, Perces, Greeks, and 
" Rcmayns." 

* i-cleped] called, Cx. ^ So the MS. See p. 63, note, 

* i'cleped'} named, Cx. | * o]>er, other'] See p. 63, note. 



primum regimen fait mb Fatribus ab Adam usque 
ad ^ Moysen ; secundum sub Judicibus ^ a Moyse 
usque ad Saulem, tertium sub Eegibus a Saule 
usque ad Zorobabel, quartum sub Pontificibus, a Zoro- 
babel usque ad Christum. 

Quoad quintum, nota quod quinque ritus fuerunt : 
primus in prima setate ^ sub lege naturae communis 
erat omnium hominum;^ secundus in secunda aetata 
inolevit ritus gfentilium, quando sub Nino orta est 
idolatria : tertius in tertia setate sub lege scripta 
surrexit'^ ritus Judseorum, quando lex et circumeisio 
Judaeos a cseteris distinguebat gentibus : ® quartus sub 
Christo ritus coepit Ohristianorum, quando fides et 
gratia sacramentorum informabat vitam eorum : quintus'' 
sub Macbometo ritus coepit Saracenorum, sicut inferius 
in quinto libro, post tempora Heraclii imperatoris, 
plenius ostendetur.® 

Quoad sextum, nota quod sex sunt aetateS; prima 
ab Adam usque ad Noe, secunda a Noe usque ad 
Abraham^ tertia ab Abraham usque ad David, quarta 
a David usque ad transmigrationem Babylonis,^ quinta 
a transmigratione Babylonis usque ad Christum, sexta 

' C. omits (id after usque in each 
case, except before Christum, 
^judicibus] ducibus, B. 
^fuerunt; d prima atate, B. 

* hominum added from C.D.R 
« erat, CD. 

* gentibus'} om. CD. 

' quintOf A. 

^ plenius ostendetur"} plenius want- 
ing in B.CD. ; tempore Heraclii 
coniinetury CD. 

® Babylonis'] om, CD.E., and so 


vnder om^e fore fadres from Adam to Moyses ; fe secunde Tkevisa. 

vnder iuges ^ from Moyses to Saul ; })e Jiridde vnder 

kynges from Saul to Zorobabel ; pe fourthe vnder bis- 
shoppis from Zorobabel to Crist. 

For ye fifte, take kepe of fyue manere of lyuing, ]?e iirste 
was in#])e firste age vndir Jje lawe of kynde comyn to alle 
men ; fe secounde in ]>e secunde age [was] ^ j>e leuynge 
of mysbyleued men, whan mametrie bygan in Nynus tyme, 
kyng of Nynyue ; pe []?ridde in J)e] 3 ^ridde age vnder lawe 
i-write, whan circumsisioun and lawe departed ]?e children 
of Israel from laweles ^ and mysbileued men : pe fourjie 
lyuynge of Cristen men bygan vnder Crist, whan byleue 
and grace of sacramente halwed hir lyf.^ pe fifte leu- 
ynge of Sarazynes bygan vndir Makomete as it is in ]>e ' 
fifte ^ book, and after })e tyme of Heraclius ]>e emperour, 
opcnliche i-schewed. 

For je sixte, take hede of sixe ages ; oon is from 
Adam to Noe ; fe secounde from Noe to Abraham ; ye 
Jjridde from Abraham to Dauid ; pe [fourJ)e] ^ fro Dauid to 
J)e transmygracioun, J)at was whan Israel was i-broujt 
into J^raldom of Babiloyne ; pe fifte from f e transmy- 
gracioun to Criste, pe sixte from Criste to pe worldes 

to Moysen. The secunde was vnder lugges from Moyses MS. Harl. 

to Saul. The thrydde vnder Kynges from Saul vn to 2261. 

Zorobabel. The iiij^« vnder byschoppes, from Zorobabel 

vn to Criste. As vn to the v'^, hit is to be attendede that 

fere were y. rytes. The firste was in the firste age vnder Of v. lytes. 

the lawe of nature commune to euery man. The secunde 

rite began in the secunde &ge, that was the rite of gentiles, 

when ydolatrye spronge vnder Nino. The thrydde ryte did 

aryse in the thrydde age vnder the lawe wryten, when pe 

lawe and circumcision made a distinccion betwene the lewes 

and other folke. The iiij*« ryte is' of Cristen men that 

began vnder Criste, when feithe and grace of sacramentes 

in^rmede the life of theyme. The v*^« rite is of Saracenys, 

whiche began under Machomete, as hit schalle be schewede 

after the tyme of Heraclius themperoure more plenerly. 

As vn to the vj*^«, hit is to be attendede that there Of ij. ages. 

be vj. ages ; the fyrste from Adam to Noe ; the secunde 

from Noe to Abraham ; the thrydde from Abraham to 

Dauid ; the iiij*^^ from Dauid to pe transmigracion ; the 

ythe from the transmigracion to Criste ; the vj***^ from 

' under iuges] wanting in Cx. 
- Added from Cx. (not in o.) 
^ Added from a, and Cx. 
■* lawes, Cx. 

* self, Cx. 

* So o, and Cx. ; firste^ MS. 
^ Added from a, and Cx. 

VOL. I. C 



a Christd \isque ad finem mutidi.^ Ubi est sane ad- 
verfcendtun quod estates sseculi non distinguimtur 
penes eequalitatem annorum, sed penes aliquod mira* 
bile contingens in principio sgtatum ; ^ ntpote quod 
prima tetas incipit a breatione mundi, secunda ab in- 
undatione diluyiii terti» a drcumcisione mirabili, quarta 
ab inchoatione regni, quinta a transmigratione populi, 
Bexta ab Incamatione Christi. 

Quoad Beptimum, nota qiiod septem leguntur per- 
sonse^ quorum gesta ® crebrius in bistoriis memorantur, 

videlicet, principis ^ in regno, militis ^ in bello, judicis * 
in foro, praesulis^ in clero, politici in populo, teconomi 
in doino, monastic! in teinplo. Ex quibus proradiant® 
correspondenter septem famosa actionum genera, quae 
Stint cotistructiones urbium^ devictiones hostium, sane- 
tiones jurium,® correctiones criminum, compositio rei 
populariS) dispositio '^ rei familiaris, adquisitio merit! 
salutaris," et in his jugitet*^ relucent prsemlationes 
probortim et punitiones perversorum. 

Quoad octavum, est sciendum quod octo fuerunt 

^ The whole of the following 
Sentence occurs lower down in B. ; 
fuid is omitted altogether In the 
shorter class of ehlwnicles, repre- 
fiehted by C. and t). 

2<Btoei5, E. 

^ facta, CD, 

*principe8, B. 

^ mUiteSf B, 

^judiceSf B. 
^ prasuleSf'B* 
^ conadianty !B. 
® virium, E. 

^^ dispositio rei /amtltaris'] om. 
CD. ; depositio, B. 
" singulariSf E. 
^^jngiterl om. D. 



ende. And here take hede, }?at ages of J?e world heep Tretisa. 

noujt to-deled ^ hj euenes of ^eres, but by meruayles fat 

byfel in her bygynnynge ; as fe . firste age bygan from 
J)e bygynnynge of the wor[l]de ; ^ pe secounde from Noes 
flood ; pe })ridde from f e circmnsicioun ; pe fourpe from 
P^ by^nnynge of kynges ; the fifte from pe transmi- 
gracioun ; pQ sixte from the Incamacioun of Grist. 

For the seuen]?e, take hede of seuene persones whos 
dedes me writej>^ in istories, }>'at beej),"* kyng in his 
rewme, kny^t in bataUe, iuge in plee, bisshop in clergie, 
lawefulman in pe peple, housbond in hous, " religious man 
in chirche. Of pe whiche springep out seuen manere of 
famous doynge, buldynge of citees, victorie of enemyes, 
makynge of lawes, correccioun ^ of trespas, help of pe 
comyn profilt, gouemynge of meyny^ and of householde, 
getynge of olisful mede, in. pe whiche blase]> and sehyne^ 
rewardynge of gode men and punyschynge of euel men. 

For the ey^te, take hede of ey^te dyu^rse manere of 

Criste to the ende of the worlde. Hyt is to be attendede MS. Hirl. 
that the ages of the worlde be not diuersificate as 2261. 
anendes the equalites of yeres, but anendes sommie mer- 
uellous thynge happenge in the begynnenge of that age ; 
as the firste age began from the creation of man ; the 
secunde of a meruellous invndacion of water ; the f. 20 b. 
thrydde of a meruellous circumcision ; the iiij*« from 
the begynnenge of reigne of kynges ; the v*^ of the 
transmigracion of peple ; the vj*^« of the incarnation off 
Criste. As vn to the vij'^« hit is to be attended that 
vij. persones be redde whose gestes be remembrede ofte- 
tyi^es in storyes ; that is to saye, the person of a prynce 
in his realme, of a kny^te in' batelle, of a iugge in his 
seete, of a byschoppe in the cleregye, off a politike 
man in the peple, of a howsebonde man in a howse, of 
a contemplatif man in the chirche. From whom vij. 
generalites of acciones doe precede corespondent to 
theyme, whiche be construcciones of cytes, victoryes of 
enmyes, sancciones of lawes, correcciones of crymes, com- • 
posicion of a commune thynge, the disposicion of a thynge 
familier, the adquisicion of a hollesom merite in whom 
the rewardes of goode men schyne, and the peyiies of 
ylle men. As vn to the viij^^« hit is to be attendede 

' delidf Cx. 

* world, a. 

' me writeff] ben vreton» Cx. 

* 6«6)>] is to irete, Cx. 

^ In this aad in othet places cor- 
reecioun or correctioun suits the MS. 
equally well. 

* metftie, Cx. 

C 2 



modi annos calculandi tres apud Hebrseos, tres apud 
Graecos, uidcus apud Romanos, et unicus modo^ apud 
Christianos. Hebrsei namque tripliciter annum su- 
munt: est enim apud eos annus usualis a^ Januario 
incipiens, quo utuntur in contractibus : ^ est et 
annus legitimus a Martio incipiens, quo utuntur in 
cseremoniis suis : est et apud eos annus emergens, a 
Maio incipiens, quando egressi sunt de iEgypto, quo 
utuntur in chronicis et caleulationibus, Grseci quoque 
tripliciter annos notaverunt : primo enim ad glo- 
riam Victoria© suae annos connotaverunt^ a captivitate 
Trojae ; deinde, incepta Olympiade, notaverunt annos ^ 
juxta numerum Olympiadum ® earundem : tertio, quando 
coeperunt super orbem dominari, notaverunt isto modo/ 
anno regni^ Grascorum tali vel tali, sicut patet® in 
libris*® Machabaeorum* Demum Eomani florentes ab 
urbe condita quotaverunt, Novissime vero Cliristiani 
ab Incamatione Domini annos supputarunt'* 

XJbi erit advertendum cum ad id '* loci ventum ^^ 

fuerit, quod calculation* secundum Dionysium Exiguum, 


' modo] om. B. 

2 in, CD. 

^ contractionibus, A. 

* So A. ; eotaverunt, B. ; quota- 
verunt, C.E. (vhich is perhaps the 
true reading) ; notaverunt, D. 

^ annos] om. D« 

^ Olympiadum] om. C J). 

^ isto modo] sic, CD. 

■ regni] om. D. 
^ patet] om. B. 

" lUtro, CD, 
" supputaverunt, B.CD. 
'* itt] iUud, C. (in marg.) ; cvm 
id loci fuerit, B. 
'» om. A.B. 
*^ computatio, CD. 
'* Exiguum] om. CD. 



acountynge of teres, pre pe lewes vsej>, pre ]>e Grees, Tbbvisa. 
OQn Romaynes, and Cristen men oon. For J>e lewes in 
tretys and couenauntes haue]> a Zere vsual, and byginef 
in lanuarie.^ In deuocioun and sacrifice fei haue]> a ^er^ 
laweful, and byginnef in Marche. Also }>ey liaue]> a 
^ere of apperynge ]?at pey vse}? in calculynge and in 
cronicle, and bygynne]? in May, whan ^ey passed out of 
Egipte. Also ye Grees in fre manere wise acountej) hir 
^eres; first, for ioye of ]>e victorie fey accountejl hir 
^eres fi'om pe takynge of Troye ; afterward pel accounted 
here ^eres by Olympades, ]?at beej> pe tymes of here 
iustes and tornementis ; but after J)at pej reignedfe, pel 
accounted here ^eres by here reignynge, in ]?is manere 
" anno regni Graecorum, quinto vel tertio, tali vel tali," 
sicut patet in libro Machabaeorum. Whan pe Eomaynes 
wax 3 in hir floures pej acounted hir ^eres by here reign- 
ynge in pis manere, from pe buldynge of citee,^ ** ab 
"urbe condita." But Cristene men from pe^ Incarnaciouu 
of Crist aconntep her ^eres. 
But whan me come]? to pat place, me mote^ take hede 

that J>er were viij. maneres to calcle yeres ; iij, anendes MS. Harl. 
men of Ebrewe, thre anendes the Grekes, oon at the 2261. 
Romanes, and oon now at Cristen men. Men of Ebrewe "*~" 
take theire yere in thre maneres. The vsualle yere is 
begynnenge from January anendes theyme whom thei 
vse in contractes. Also a lawefuUe yere begynnenge 
from Marche, whom thei vse in cerimonyes. Also there 
is a yere emei'gente as anendes theyme begynnenge from 
May when thei wente from Egipte, whom thei vse in 
cronicles and calculaciones. • The Grekes note theire yeres 
in thre maneres : — ^Li the firste they cotede yeres at the 
glory of their victory from the captiuite of Troye. After 
that pe Olimpias begunne, thei assignede the nowmbre of 
Jjeire yeres after the 'nowmbre of theyme. In the thiydde 
maner, when thei began to haue dominaeion, thei notede 
their yeres in thys maner: — ^In suche a yere in the 
reigne of men of Grewe, or in suche a yere, as hit is 
expressede in tlie bookes of Machabes. At the laste pe 
Romanes floryschenge ascribede theire yeres from the 
begynnenge of theire cite y-made. But nowe laste Cristen 
men suppute theire yeres from the Incarnacion, of Criste. 
Wherefore hit is to be aduertisede that the calculation of 

* lanuerCt a. 

* ayer, MS., and similarly else- 
where the article and. noun are 
sometinies written conjunciim. 

' waxed, Cx. 

^ J>6 citee^ a. 

* >c] om. a. 

^ me mote\ men muste, Cx. 



quem communiter sequitur Gallia et Anglia minus habet 
quam computation Hieronymi secundum evangelicam 
veritatem numero xxii.* annorum, Refert enim Wil- 
helmus Malmesburiensis, lib, iv. de Pontificibus, quod 
Marianus Scotus et mouachus,^ apud Mogenciam/ 
urbem Germaniae, inclt^sus circa annum gratise® mlx,,^ 
sub longo fiolitudinis suse otio chronographos sit 
scrutatus, dissonantiamque cyclorum Dionysii Exigui 
contra evat^gelicam veritatem vel solus vel primus 
anima^dvertii Nam ab initio sseculi annos singulos 
recensens xxxx. annos/ qui cyclis prsedictis deerant, 
auperaddidit, magnam et diffusam chronicam commenta- 
tus. Cujus quidem ® librum Robertus ® Herefordensis ^® 
episcopus splendide postmodum defloravit. Inde est 
quod Vulgares chronicse, quae Dionysium praedictum ^* 
sequuntur, titubant tota die. Nam,- teste Hieronymo 
in transferendo chronicam Eusebii, decem anni defi- 
ciunt inter passionem Domini et tempera ^^ Vespasiani, 
et*' iterum** quatuordecim anni defidunt circa tem- 
pera Decii,'^ sieut inferius patebit sub sexta seculi 
aetate. Hunc autem errorem plurimum adauget,^^ quod 

* he^et a computatione, CD. 

* xxv,y B. 

* Scotus et] wanting in CD. 

* Magontiam, D. ; Mog(mciam, E. 

* Dominiy CD. 
•* 1068, C 

' annos\ annis, B. 
8 quidani, A. 

^ Le* Koltert Lorrayne^ who died 
in 1095. 
^^^ Herfprdensis, B. 
^^ pr<Bdicium] om. B.D. 
" temporal tw^ipus, B. 
^»eO onuC 
^* iterum] item, C.D. 
^^ B. adds Ceesaris, 
" adaugef] anget, CD. 



fat pe calculynge of Denys, fat Engelond and Fraunce fol- Tkbvisa. 

we]>, ha]) lasse by xxii. ^ere fan. fe calculynge of lerom, 

fat folwef fe gospel. William Malmesbury, libro qumrto 
de Pontificibus,^ seif fat Marianus, Scotus and naonok,^ 
i-prisoned in Maguncia^ a towne of Almayne, aboute fe 
^ere of grace a fowsand and fre score and sixtene, 
loked besiliche in bookes and acounied^ fat Dionysius 
Exiguus acordef nosu^t with fe Gospel in acountynge of 
^eres. For fis Scot, Marianus, acounted all fe ^eres 
from fe bygynnynge of fe worlde, and pntte hit 4 to 
xxii. ^ere, fat lakkede of Dionysius acountes, and wroot 
a grete cronicle and huge;^ fe whiche book Eobert Bis- 
shop of Herforde defiorede, and ferfore^ hit is fat fe 
corny n cronicles fat folwef ^ Denys faiUef al day. For^ > 
lerom, in transferendo chronicam Ensebii ^ self fat ten 
^eres ^^ lakkef be tweyne Cristes passioun and Yespasianus 
tyme. And also xy.n lakkef aboute Decius Cesar his 12 
tyme as it is i-schewed in f e sixt^ age^ pis erronr byfallef. 

Dionysius, whom Englonde and Fraunce doe folowe, hathe MS. Maxl, 
lesse then the computacion of Seynte lerom by the ^261. 
nowmbre of xx^^ij. yere. Also William Malmesburye dothe 
reherse in his booke of byschoppes the iiij^^^^ that Ma- 
rianus a Scotte and a monke, included at a cyte callede 
Mangotia in AUemeyne, abowte the yere t)f grace m^Lxxvj., f. 21 a. 
serchede cronicles thro grete study and labour, aduertenge 
firste or sole the dissonaunce of the cicles after the os- 
culation of litelle Dionise ageyn the trawthe of the Gos- 
pelle, whiche accomptenge euery yere from the begynnenge 
of the worlde addede to the foreseide cicles xx^^ij. yere, 
makenge a hardo and a diffiisede cronicle, whose booke 
Roberte Byschoppe of Herefforde onomede splendidiously ; 
wherefore commune cronicles folowenge Dionysius fayle and 
stumble alle day, Seynte lerom wyttenes in the translacion 
of the cronicle of Eusebius, where x. yeres wonte betwene 
the passion of Criste and tyme of Yaspasian, and also 
xiiij. wonte abowte the tymes of Decius themperoure, as 
hit schalle be schewede under the vj*^ age of the* worlde. 
That erroure is moche encreased in so moche, that dayes 

> PonHficis, MS. and a. 
^ and monokl and the monke, Cx. 
^ acountede andfonde, a. 
* hW] wanting in Cx. and a. 
^ an huge, Cx. 
« that for, Cx. 
~ I, Cx. 

« So Cx. ; -From, MS. 

* in translatyng the cronykeofEu- 

sebii, Cx. 

^" that yeres, Cx. 
" xij, y&^es^ a. 
»2 Cezars, Cx. 



frequenter prsetermittuntur dies et menses quibus super 
integros , annos reges regnaverunt. Negliguntur etiam 
intervalla temporum inter fines regnantium et primordia 
subsequentium. Quapropter unumquodque, qixaliter* suo 
contigerit anno, notabo pro viribus in hoe scripto. Ita 
sane quod columnarum margines juxta gestorum capita 
aliquando cum duplici nonnunquam cum triplici anno- 
rrnn serie purpurabo. Ab Abraham etenim usque ad 
urbem conditam, annus setatis sseculi et ducis conferetur. 
Ab urbe vero ^ usque ad Christum, annus setatis et 
urbis^ inseretur. A Christo autem* in antea, annus 
gratise et principis parifcer* conscribetur,® ^ . 

Cap, V. 

De orbis dimensioned 

Prisdanus in Gosmographia, Ex senatas consulto 
censuit® Julius Caesar, dum consulatus sui fasces ageret, 
omnem orbem per prudentes viros dimetiri.^ Igitur 

^ qualiter unuinquodqi^, B.E. 
^ vero\ Homana conditam added 
in CD. 

3 iBtatis wrbis et duciSf B.C.D. 

* autem'} vero, D. 

* pariter'\ om. C - 

* After this follows in C. a para- 
graph of nineteen lines, 'w^hich is 
wholly out of place here, begin- 
ning : — '^ Servitia quinque portuum 
** domino regi per mare debita. 

" Vilfa de Ha&tyngge 3 naves. 
" Aqua de Peueuesse . 1 navem." 
Curiously enough, a spaee of 1 6 
lines is left blank in D. 

' Title iranting in A. ; added 
fromB.E.; C. and D. begin thus : — 
De orbis divisume, Julius Caesar 
diyinis humanisque rebus singularl- 
ter instructils cum consulatus, etc. 

* censait] fecit, C. 

» admetirif D. ; demefiriy B. 


for dayes and monthes were vnrekened J>at kynges reign- Trevisa. 

ede ouer ful teres. Also dayes and mon])es fat voydede 

bytw[e]ne tweie kynges were forgendred.^ Wherfore in 
J'is book I schal marke as I may how and iu wliat^ Zeres 
such defautes fille ; so J)at I schal hi^te ]?e margyns by 
]?e hedes of the stories som wi]? double and som wif 
treble rewes ^eres.^ From Abraham to fe citee i-bulde, 
I sette to gidres fe ^ere of J)e age of fe worlde and of 
pe ledere ; from J>e cite i-bulde to Crist, I sette to gidi*e 
pe lere of "* J>e citee and of fe ledere ; and from Crist for- 
warder I write to gidre pG ^ere of grace and of |>e prince 
Jjat regne|>/^ 

De orbis dimensioned Priscianus in cosmographia* 

Capitulum quintum. 

IvLius Cesar, by counsaile of J?e senatoures and elder 
men ^ of Itome, lokede ' and serchede stories ^ and bookes of 
his ^eres of doynge and dedes, [and] ^ ordeyned wyse men 

and monethes be ouerskippede in whom hit is seyde kynges MS. Harl. 
haue reignede by hoUe yeres ; and also other spaces of 2261. 
tymes be neglecte betwene or amonge the endes off men 
reignenge and begynnenges of men folowenge. Where- 
fore y schalle ascribe how euery thynge hathe bene in 
the yere J>er of after my powere in this presente wrytenge. 
In so moche that y schalle purpulle the mariantes nye 
the hedes of ])e gestes with a dowble ordre of yeres. 
From Abraham vn to the cite off Rome y-made, the. yere 
of the age of tlje worlde and of the duke and gouer- 
noure schalle be wryten. From the cite y-made to Criste, 
the yere of the age of the cite and of the transmigra- 
cion schalle be wryten. From Criste, the yere of grace 
and of the prynce reignenge that tyme schalle be wryten 
to gedre. 

Priscian in his Cosmograpkie of the Dimension of the 

Worlde. Capitulum quintum. 

lulius Cesar ordeneide by the cownselle of the senate sette 
in pomposite alle the worlde to be dimencionate by men 
discrete and prudente. Wherefore messangers were sendo 

' forgoten^ Cx. 
- and what, Cx. a. 
^ treble yeres, a. 

* \>e yere of the age of, a. 

* regned, Cx. 

* aldermen, Cx. 
^ sought, Cx. 

* histories, Cx. 

" Added from Cx. 


a consulatu J\ilii usque ad consulatum Satumini 
per trigmta duos annos missi sunt legati' dimensores, 
viri docti, arte gnomonica periti, per omnem terrain 
ad prsesides, duces, et judices provinciarum; ut descri- 
berent et mensurarent ^ terras, aquas, nemora, plana, 
concava, montes, coUes atque* itinerarium maritimum, 
qu8B etiam * loca navigaturi tangere deberent.^ Et 
si forte aliquod prodigium in his^ locis occurreret, 
illud senatui reipublicsB scripto nunciarent. Ranul" 
phus. Hoc attestatur Hieronymus in transferendo histo- 
riam Eusebii, libro secundo, capitulo secundo, ubi dicit 
quod Pilatus praeses Judseae nunciavit Tiberio Csesari de 
mirabilibus quae fecit Jesus in terra Judseae, et Tiberius 
nunciavit senatui, verum quia talia non fuerant 
senatui prius nunciata,'^ ilia respuerunt.® Priscicmus, 
Et sic repertum est per tales prsesidum denuncia- 
tiones^ quod om.nis orbis habet famosa maria triginta, 
insulas septuaginta duas, montes famosos quadraginta. 

' legati sunt, B. 

2 et mensurarent] om. B. 

* atqtie] om. D. 

* etiam] om. A. 

^ deberenf] debueruat, C.D. 

* his"] om. B. 

^ sett^atui prcenundata, B. 

^ Hoc . . . respiierunt'] om. A. C. 
D. ; added from B.E. See also the 

^ per . . . denunciationes] om. A. 
B.C.D.; added from E. 



and redy to mete and discreue all fe worlde aboute. pan Tbevisa. 

from lulius his tyme to Saturnus tyme, two and fritty 

^ere, messangeres, wise men and wel i-tau^t^ in ]ie practike 
of gemetrie,^ konnynge and profitable to mete ^ and to gesse 
hi^enesse and lowenesse» leng])e and brede and depnesse 
also, were rediliche i-sent into ^* e^ery londe aboute to luges 
and 5 to cheueteynes,^ to lederes ^ of londes, for }iey schulde 
mete 3 and discreue londe and water^ woodes and landes, 
valeies and pleynes, downes and huUes,^ and J>e see stronde 
and euery place where eny man mytt goo o]?er lo ride ofer i® 
schip seily ; and write and certifie fe senatoures where and 
what wondres were i-founde. ^. pis witnessith Hieronymus, 
in transferendo historiam Eusebii» libro secundo, capitulo 
secundo. pere, he seith, ])at Pilatus, iuge of lewerye,** ,cer- 
tefied Tiberius Cesar of meruayles and wondres fat Criste 
wrou^te in ]?e lewerie, and Tiberius certefied ]?e senatoures, 
but fe 12 senatoures trowed ^^ nou^t, for J>ey had nou^t 
herd [afore] ^^ of so wonder werkes. Priseidnus, And so, 
by warnynge and certefienge of cheueteynes ^^ of londes, it 
was i-founde and i-knowe J^at al ]>e worlde aboute ha}> name 
kowthe^^ sees '7 pritty, ylondes 'pre score and twelue, famos 

from the consulate of lulius Cesar vn to the consulate of MS. Harl. 
Saturnius, by xxxij*^ yere, fro alle the worlde, to presidentes, 2261, 
dukes, and iuges of prouinces, that thei scholde describe "" — 
and measure londes, waters, woodes, playnes, concauites, 
hilles, and the itinerary of the see to whiche places thei*^ 
scholde sayle, and towche hyt if they my^hte fynde eny 
meruellous thynge there that my^hte be schewede to the 
senate. ^. Seynte lerom testMethe that in the trans- 
lacion of fe cronicle of Eusebius, libro ij<*, capitulo secundo, £ 2lb. 
where he saythe that Pilatus presidente of the lewery 
schewede to Tiberius themperour of the meruayles whom 
lesus did amonge the lewes. And Tiberius schewede theyme 
to the senate, whiche despisede theyme in that thei were 
not schewede a fore to the senate. Priscian. And soe hit 
is founde by the denunciaciones that alle the worlde hathe 
xxx'^ famose sees, Ixxij'^ yles, xl*» famose hilles, Ixx^i and 

1 tauiht, a. (not Cx.) 

2 So MS. and a ; geometrt/e, Cx. 

3 mesuret Ox. 

^ redyly sente to, Cx. 

^ a omits and» 

^ capyiayns, Cx. 

' goitemourSt Cx. 

* mesure, Cx. 

^ montaynes and doumest Cx. 

»» or, Cx. 
" |)C lewery f a, 
'* e omits \>e, 
" byleuedf Cx. 

^* Added from Cx.; not in a. 
** capytayns, Cx. 
" coumf a. 

" hath sees of dyuerse names, 
I Cx. 



provincias septuaginta octo,^ urbes insignes trecentas 
septuaginta, flumina quinquaginta septem, gentes cen- 
tum viginti quinque. Cujus orbis ambitus est trecen- 
ties^ quindecies centena millia passuuui. Longitudo 
vero terne habitabilis ab ortu^ usque ad occasum, id 
est, ab India usque ad columnas Herculis in Gaditano 
freto habet* octies quinquies centena septuaginta octo 
milliaria. Cujus quidem longitudinis dimensio compen- 
diosior est per mare quam per terras. Latitude auteii) 
terrse ab^ australi littore oceani ^thiopici usque ad 
ostium Tanai fluminis in septentrione pene diniidio 
minor est quam prsedicta longitudo, et coutinet quin- 
quagies^ quatuor centena sexaginta duo milliaria. Re- 
peitum est etiam quod profundissimus locus maris "^ 
Mediterranei continet spatium quindecim stadiorum 
in perpendiculo.® Banulphus. Secundum Ptolomseum 
circulus continet quantitatem diametri ter, et septimam 
partem tertiae partis ; unde proportio circuli ad^ diame- 
trum est sicut proportio xxil. ad vii. Ex quo colligitur 
quod rotunditas circuli terrae continet viginti millia et 
quadraginta milliaria ; quse quidem summa, cum divisa 
fuerit per tria et septimam partem unius tertii, quan- 
titas diametri terrse erit, sex millia quingenta fere 

^ septuaginta octo] 68, CD. 
^ So E. ; trecentaSf B. 
^ ab ortu . . . ] est ab ortu et ha- 
bet, C. 

* et habet, C.D. 

* ab'] est ab, C, which places a 

fall stop after septentrione. So also 
I)., punctuation excepted. 

« quinquagies] quinquagesies, C.D. 

'' pTofundiasimum imtre^ C.D. 

^ perpendiculo] The remainder of 
the chapter (Secundum . . . teiTae) is 
omitted in A.B.C.D. ; added from E. 



huUys ^ fourty, prouinces J>re skore and ey^tenc, noble citees Trevisa. 

fre hundred pre skore and ten, grete ryueres seuene and 

fifty, dyuers naciouns sixe skore and fyue.^ pe roundenesse 
of fe worlde aboute is pre hundred 8iJ>e8 and fiftene sifes 
an hondred ]?owsand paas. pe lengfe of fe erpQ ]>at men 
wonejj ^ ynne from pe est to J?e west, Jat is from Ynde to 
Hercules is-* pilers in fe see Gaditan is ey^ti sifes and 
fyue sifes an hundred fre score and ey^tene mile. But fe 
"wej from oon ^ ende to fat o])er is wel ^ lasse by water fan 
by londe. pe brede of ]>e erfe from fe soufe to fe north, 
fat is from fe clyue^ of occean in Ethiopia, fe londe of 
Blomen ^ to fe mouf e of f e ryuer Thany wel nyh haluendel 
lasse . fan f e lengf e, and conteynef foure and fifty hundi^ed 
and two and sixty myle. Also it was i-founde fat f e dep- 
pest place of f e see of myddel erf e conteynef doun ri^t M- 
tene furlonge depe. [!^.] ^ Tholomeus self fat f e rounde- 
nesse of a cercle^^* aboute conteynef fre** so moche as fe 
brede [and the seuendele of the brede], ^^ so fat f e propor- 
cioun of f e roundenesse aboute of a cercle is ^^ to f e brede 
as is fe proporcioun of two and twenty to seuene. So it 
is acounted fat fe roundenesse of f e erf e aboute conteynef 
twenty f owsand and fourty myle. ^if we delef ** f e ^^ somme 

on f re and f e seuenf e parte of fe fridde, f e f iknesse of f e 
erf e f orw oute is almest sexe f ousand and fyue ^^ hondred 

viij. prouinces, nowble cites ccclxx., floodes lt»vij. The MS. Hael. 
compasse of whiche worlde is iij<^. tymes xv. tymes a c.ra^ 2261. 
of passes. The longitude of the erthe habitable from the 
este to the weste, that is from Ynde to the Fillers of 
Hercules in the see Gaditan, hathe viij*^^ tymes v. tymes 
a clxx^' myles and viij*'*^. The dimension of the longitude 
of whom is more compendious by the see then by the 
londe. The latitude of the erthe from the este syde of 
the occean of Ethioppe vn to the durre or be^ynnenge of 
a floode callede Thanay in the northe is Jesse in the halfe 
then the' longitude a foreseyde, and hit conteynethe 1'^ 
tymes iiij<^. Ixij. myles. Also hit is fbunde that the depeste 

J montaynes, Cx. 

* an c. and fyfe and twenty, Cx. 
(Similar variations of expressing 
numbers occur elsewhere often.) 

' dweUe, Cx. 

* So also o ; piflers ofH,, Cx. 
^ that oon, Cx. 

* moche y Cx. 
" chjf^ Cx. 

*• blak men, Cx. • 
^ Added from a. 

^® acercle, MS., and similarly in 
many other places. 

" thryes, Cx. 

" Added fi-om a and Cx. (There 
is some Tarlation in expressing the 
words following.) 

" a, MS., but cancelled by a dot. 

" So also a ; departe, Cx. 

^^ fat, a. 

** avdfyue'] foure, cr. 



milliaria, quia novem ad inimis desuiit de hoc numero. 
Et sic erunt sex millia quadringenta nonaginta unum. 
Proinde si hoc diametrum dimidiaveris, erUnt a centro 
terrad usque ad superficiem ejus tria millia ducenta 
quadraginta qiunque milliaria et quaedaia minuta. Ex 
quo liquet quot sutit milliaria a superficie terrse usque 
ad infernum, secundum quod infernus didtur esse in 
medio terrse. 

Cap. VL 

De orbis divisione, 

AugU8tinu8 de Giviiate De% libro xvi. cap, viii. 
Nota* quod orbis terrarum universus oceano cinctus 
in tres dividitur partes, Asiam, Europam et^ Africam. 
Quern si in tres partes ^ dividas, Asia secundum nume- 
rum erit tertia, secundum magnitudinem erit dimidia; 
quae tendehs a meridie per orientem usque ad septeii- 
trionem oceano undique clauditur,^ sed ab occidente 
mari magno finitur. Beda, de NaiuriB rerum.^ Sunt- 
que^ termini ejus ostium Nili fluminis in austro et 

' C. begins thus : — [0]rbem 
igitar si in tres parted dividas, Asia 
secimdmn numernm, &c. So also 
!>,, omitting igitur, 

2 ef] om. B. 

^partes] om. B. 

* clauditur'] concladitur, CD. 

^ reruin] wanting in A.B. ; added 
fromE. The whole extract from 
Beda wanting in CD. 

^ que] So E. ; quta, A. 



inyle,^ for nyne myle lakkef at fe leste of ]>at somme. So Trevisa. 

fere Bchal be sexe powsand foure ^ hondred four ^ score and 

elleuene myle. pan half J>e ]>iknesse of ]?e erfe inward and 
doun ritt is pre powsand two hundred and fyue and fourty 
myle and somwhat ouer, as it were half a myle. So ^if helle 
is in 4 myddel of pe erfe doun ri^t, me myjte knowe how 
meny myle is^ to helle. 

De orbis divisione, Augustintis de Civitate Dei^ libra sexto*' 
decimOy capitulo octavo^ Capitulum sextum. 

For fjD delynge** of ])e worlde take hede fat fe grete 
see of occean byclippef al fe erfe aboute, and fe erfe is 
i-deled ^ in fre ^ grete parties. Asia is J?at oon,^ Europa ]?at 
oper, and Affrica fe fridde. But fese*^ fre parties beej?*^ 
not alle euene and yliche moche ;^2 for Asia, oon of ]?e ]>re, 
conteynej) half ]?e erfe, and strecchef from fe south by fe 
est anon to fe *^ north, and is i-closed aboute with fe see 
of occean ; but he ^** endep westwards at J?e grete see. 
BedUy de Naturis.^^ His endes beef f e mouth of f e ryuer 

place in the see M editerrany or occean conteynethe the space MS. Hasl. 
of XV. forlonges by a plumme of ledde. 2261, 

Of the diuision of the worlde. Augustinus de Civitate 
Dei^ libra sextodecimo^ capitulo octavo, Capitulum 

Also hit is to be attendede that alle the worlde cincte 
to the occean is diuided in to iij. partes, Asie, Europe, and 
Affi:yke ; whiche diuidede in to thre partes, Asia after 
nowmbre schalle be the thrydde part, and after magnitude 
the halfe, whiche goenge from the meridien or sowthe by 
the este vn to the northe, is compassede on euery syde 
with the occean, and in the weste hit is finischede with 
the grete see. Beda^ de Naturis, The termes of whom 
be the begynnenge and durre of a floode callede Nilus in 
the sowthe, descendenge by the northe occean and water 

^fyve hcynderd four score and 
enleuen myle, Cx. (also he omits all 
that follows, till Tkenne half, §•<?.) 

^fyue, Cx. 

' So Cx.; nyne, MS. 

* in ]>e, 0. 

* it isf Cx. 

* departing, Cx. 
^ departed, Cx. 


* a\n'e yn \>re, «. 
® Asia that is oon part, Gx. 
^» the, Cx. 

" ben, Cx., and similarly else- 

" euen lyke moche, Cx. 
*' eeste vnto, Cx. 
" it, Cx. 
" nature, MS. 

C 8 +- 


amnis Tanais in aqailone. laidorus, libro quarto^ 
decimo, capitulo quarto. Altera pars, Europa, a fluvio 
Tanai descendens per septentrionalem oceanum in fines 
Hispanise porrecta ab oriente et meridie, mari magno 
jtingitiir, et in Gades insula finitur. Itenfty Isidorus, 
ca/pitulo qumto. Tertia pars^ Africa, protenditur ab 
occidente in meridiem usque in finem -^gypti. Et hsB* 
duae partes, Africa et Europa, inter se marine bracHo 
distinguuntur. Plinius, libro tertio, capitvlo prima, 
Cujus marini brachii^ fauces ortginales* quindedm 
millia passuum habent in longitudine, et quinque millia 
passuum in latitudine/ a quibus faucibus mare medi- 
terraneum exoriens per varia brachia introrsus versus 
terram distenditur. 

Car VIL 

Be partium orbis deacriptione.^ 

Pli/nius, libro sexto. Tenendum® est quod Asia sit^ 
quantitate maxima,^ Europa® minor, sed par est*^ in 
populorum numerosa generositate ; Africa vero et situ 

* JEgyptu Et Aa] JEgypti pro- 
tenditur. Hse, &c., CD. 

2 marini hrachii] om. D, ; inter- 
lin. in C. ^ 

* criginaks^ om, C. 

^ 'B^oantAet quinque . . . latiiudine, 
C. reads thus after laiitudine: — 
** Idem, Mare mediterranenm sur- 
*^ gens per yaria brachia distendi- 
<< tor/' D. has indeque for idem. 

* The title added from B. 

* C. and D. begin thus : — *^ Asia 
^* quantitate maxima, Europa minor» 

^ sitl partium terras, add. B. 
^ magna, E. 

» Europa'] vero, add. B. 
*• est] om. CD. 


Kilus in J)e souJ>, and of J>e rjruer Thanays in pe norj)e, Tkevisa. 
[That other parte, Europa, stretcheth dounward fro the — ^ 
riuer Thanays hy the northe] ' occean to ]>e costes of 
Spayne, and ioynej? to fe grete see by este and by, south, 
and ende]) in pe Uond G-ades« Isidorus, libra quarto de- 
cimo, capitulo quarto. Affrica, fe fridde parte, strecchej? 
from the. west to ]?e southe, anon to 2 j)e coste of Egipte, 
and pese tweie parties, Af&ica and Europa, be]> departed 
atweyne^ by fe^ arme of fe see. PliniuSy libra tertio^ 
capitulo prima, pe mouthes of f e ^ arme conteyne]^ fiftene 
fowsand paas in lengfe, and fyue fowsand paas in brede; 
and of J>ilke mouj^es , pe ^ see of myddel erfe bygynnefj^ 
and by dyuers armes spredep and wexe)) inward the 

De partium orhis deseriptione, PliniuSy libra sexto; 
Priscianus in Casmographia. Capitulum septimum, 

Asia is most in quantite, Europa is lasse, and pere^ 
in noumbre of peple; bot Africa is lest of alle ]>e }>re 

of Thanais in the northe. IsidoruSy libra 14, cop«Vw/o MS. Harl. 
quarto. Europa, that other parte, from the floode callede ^^^^* 
Thanay, descendenge from the northe ocean extendede from 
the este and meridienin to the costes of Speyne is ioynede 
to the grete see and finischede in an yle callede Cades. Isi" 
dorusy capitulo quinto. The thridde parte, which is Af]^ica, 
is protendede from the weste in to the meridien in to the 
coste of Egipte. And these partes, Europe and AfTrike, 
be dividede a sundre thro an arme of the see, Plinius, libra 
tertiOy capitulo prima. The chekes and begynnenges of f. 22 a. 
those armes of the see haue in longitude xv. m^ of passes, 
and V. m* passes in latitude, from whom the see mediter- 
ranye begynnenge by diuerse armes is distendede towarde 

Of the Descripcion of Partes of the Warlde. Plinius, 
libra sexto. Capitulum septimum. 

Hit is to be holden that Asia is moste in quantite, 
Europa lesse in quantite, but egalle in the numerous gene- 
rosite of peple. Affrike is leste in quantite of partes in 

* The words mthin. brackets are 
added from Cx. and a, which latter 
reads theater. 

* southe imto, Cx. 
' a sounder, Cx. 

* atiy Cx. 

^ diatj Cx. and a. 

« o/'K MS. o; txt, Cx. 

^ Itfke, Cx. 

VOL. I. D 


et populis* parfcium est minima. Priscia/rms, in 
Ooamographia, Idcirco^ qui res humanas evidentius 
agnoverunt ddas tantum orbis partes accipiendas cen- 
suerunt,^ scilicet Asiam solummodo* et Europam; 
Afrieam vero censuenmt^Europse fiuibus deputaadam» 
qtda et * spatio latitudinis eget et ® malo climati sulb- 
jacet, laborat quoque corrupto aere, feris, et venenis. 
Idcirco* qui earn tertiam orbis partem posuerunt/ non 
spatiorum mensuras sed divisionum rationes secuti sunt, 
et tanquam situ pessimo languidam partem ab optimis 
resecanmt. Itaque^ A&ica^ natura sui^^ minus habet 
spatii, et inclementia coeli plus habet desert! Et cum 
Africa sit modica, plus tameu '^ terres in ea solis ardore 
quam in Europa frigoris rigore manet inhabitata. 
Cuncta namque animantia sive gerrainantia tolerabilius 
ad summum frigoris quam ad summum ardoris accedunt. 
Item, PUnivs, libra sexto. Inde est quod Europa 
corpore majores, viribus fortiores, animo audaciores. 

^ etfitu etpoptdis] at the end of 
the sentence in CD., which also 
omit est 

* idcirco] ideo, CD. (twice.) 
' censuerunt] suaseront, CD. 

* solummodo] tantnmmodo, CD. 

* quia ef] et quia, D. 
^ et] om. D. 

^ qui earn orbis terrcB posuerunt 
tertiam partem, B. 

^ Itaque'] Ita, B. 

^Africa'] om. D. ; added in later 
hand in C 

*o sui] sua, A. 

" tamen] oin. B. 


parties bo]>e in place and in noumbre of peple ; and per-- Tretisa. 

fore somme men, fatknowe^ men and londes, acountede 

but tweie parties of fe erfe onliche, Asia and Europa; 
and ]>e7 acountede j^at Africa longe]? to Europa, for Africa 
is narwe in brede ; and yuel doers, comipte ayre, wylde 
bestes and venemous wonej)^ ]?erynne, perfore fey fat 
acountef Affi*ica ]>e fridde part aconntef not by space and 
mesure of lengfe and brede, bot by dyuerse disposieiouns 
better and worse, and departef Afirica from Europa and 
Asia, as a sore membre fat is nou^t from membres fat 
beef bole and sounde and in good poynt at f e beste. 
Also Aflrica in his kynde haf lasse space, and for fe 
sturnesse of heuene he haf f e more wildernes. [And 
though Affryca be lytil, it hath more wyldernes] ^ and 
waste loude, for grete brennynge and-* hete of fe sonne, 
fan Europa, for all fe chil and greet colde fat ofte^ is 
ferynne. For why all fat lyuef and growef may bettre 
endure wif colde fan wif hete ; bote mesure rule ^ bof e, 
PlimuSy Ubro sexto, perfore it is fat Europa norischef 
and bryngeth forf men huger and gretter of body, 
my^tier of strengf e, hardier and bolder of herte, and fairer 7 

site and in peple. PnscianuSy in his Cosmographye, ^S. Haul. 
Therefore men that hade euidente knowlege perceyvede ^^^* 
ij. partes of the worlde to be taken, that is to say, Asia 
and Europa, deputenge or ordeynenge the partes of Affiike 
to be added to the costes off Europa. For Afirike hathe 
nede to the space of latitude, subiecte to an ylle coste and 
laboi'enge with a corrupte aier, with wilde bestes, and venom, 
perfore men puttenge hit the thrydde parte of the worlde 
fblowede not the measures of spaces but reasones of diuision, 
departenge hit as a wailenge parte in the wurste site and 
ordre from the beste places. Also Ai&ike of his nature 
bathe leste space and moste of deserte in the clemency 
of heuyn. And with owte dowte thau^he Affi:ike be leste 
in quantite, ^itte f er is moore grownde inhabitable in hyt 
thro the heete of the sonne then is in Europe thro rigornesse 
of colde. Truly alle thynges lyffenge or groenge accede 
moore tollerably to the hieste colde then to ^e hieste 
heete. Plinius, libro sexto, perfore the cause is that 
men in Europe be more grete in body, more my^hty in 
strenghte, moore bolde in herte, more feire in beaute, then 

- dweUen, Cx. 

* The words in brackets added 
from Cx. and a, which latter has he 
for it. 

* of, Cx. 

* Omitted in Cx. 

^ rulethf Cx. (not a.) 
' So Cx. ; /aire, MS. 

B 2 


specie pulchriores efficit populos quam Africa.* Nana 
radius solans per continuam permanentiaTn super Afros 
exhauriendo ^ eonun humores efficit corpore breviores, 
cute nigriores^ crine crispiores, et per evaporationem 
spirituum fadt animo defectiores.' E contra est* do 
septentrionalibus pbpulis, in^ quibus frigore exterius** 
poros oppilante pinguescunt humores ; et inde fiunt 
homiues corpulentiores, candidiores^ et^ interius cali- 
diores, ac per hoc^ audaciores. 

Cap. VIIL 


De mari magna sive Mediterraneol 

PUnius, libra tertio, capitula prima. Est itaque^*^ 
maris magni origo in " occidente apud Herculis columnas, 
ubi oceanus Atlanticus irrumpens^^ in terras facit Ga- 
ditanum fretum ; (cujus longitudo in quindecim millia 
passuum^' extenditur; latitudo vero in qtdnque millia 
expanditur ;) ^* ad sui dexteram habens Africam»^^ ad 
laevam vero *^ Europam ; indeque in maria interna dif- 
funditur/^ cujus termini sunt amnis*® Tanais ad boream 

* Africa] aut Asia, add« CD. 
^ exhauriendo after humores in JD. 
' animo defeciioresl sicciores, C. 

* e8t\ om. C. 
^ de septentrionibus in, C, ; de 

septentrionaJibus in, D. 

* exterius 9&er poros in CD. | '* Africam habens, CD. 

'« vero] om. B. 

^® Est itaque] om. CD. ; tVa, B. 
"ta] estin,C.r>. 
" irrumpens] So, CD.E. ; erum- 
pens, A.B. 

'^ millia passuum] milliaria, CD. 
" latitudo ..,expandttur] om. CD. 

^ et] om. CD. 

" ac per hoc] et per consequens, 


• Title added from E. 

" infunditur, D., and so C origi- 
nally, it would aeem. 
amnis] amnes, CD. 



of schap, J?au Ai&ica. For fe son beme al wey abide]> Tbevisa. 

vppon ))e men of AflGrica, and drawe]' oute J?e humours, and 

make^ hem schorfc of body,* blak" of skyn, crips of heer, 
and by di*awing oute of spirites makef hem cowai'd of 
herte. pe contrarie is of nor|>eren^ men, in J)e whiche^ 
colde wip oute stoppe]> smale holes and poorus, and holde]> 
the hete wij> ynne ; and so make]> hem fatter, gretter, and 
whitter and hatter^ with inne, and so hardier and boldere 
of herte* 

De mart magno medio^ sive Mediterraneo, Plinius^ libra 
tertio, capitulo prima, Capifulum actavum» 

Thanke Jje grete see of myddel erj?e bygynnej) in fe 
west at Hercules pilers ; fere fe see of occean of Athlant 
brekej> out, and makep the see Gaditan. pe lengfe of pat 
see is fiftene ]>owsand paas, and pe brede fyue powsand 
paas, and hap in pe ri^t side Affirica, and in pe lefte side 
Europa ; and perof springep pe ynnere sees, pe endes 
perof is pe water Thany an pe norp side, and Nilus in 

in Affrike. For the beame of the sonne beenge continually MS. Haul. 
by contynualle permanence on men of Afirike consumenge 2261, 

theire humores, causethe theyme to be more scborte of body, 

more blacke of skynne, tnore crispedde in heire, also more 
feynte in herte by the euaporacion of spirites : hit is 
in contrary wyse of men beenge in pe northe partes ; for 
colde causenge opilacion and stoppenge the poores ex- 
terially causethe humores to be fatte, that makethe men 
moi'e of body, moore whyte, and moore hoote interially, 
and by that moore bolde. 

Of the grete see ar Mediterranye, PUnius^ libra tertia, 
capitulo prima. Capitulum octavum. 

The begynnenge ' of the grete see is in the weste, at 
the pyllers of Hercules, where the occean Atlantyke 
brekenge vp to londes makethe the see Gadltan. Thef 22 b- 
longitude of whom is protendede in to xv. m^ of passes. 
The latitude of hit is extente in to v. m* passes, hauenge 
at the ryjhte parte of hit Affrike, at the lyfte parte 
Europe : after that hit is diffusede in to sees internalle. 
The termes of whom be the water of Thanays at the northe, 

^ hodyes, Ct, 
^ nor\>r€ne, a. 

' Omitted in Cx. (typ, error.) 
* and hatter"] omitted in Cxw 



et Nilus ad austrum.^ Isidorus, Uhro nono, cap. vi.^ 
Mare magnum fluens ex oceano vergit in meridiem, 
deinde in aquilonem,^ cujus primus sinns Balearis fun* 
ditur in Hispanias. Deinde sinus* Gallicus alluit^ pro- 
vindam Karbonensem, mox Ligusticud urbem Januam. 

Post hoc ® Tyrrhenus sive lonius Italiam attingit ; inde "^ 
Siculus, qui a Sicilia ad Cretam vadit ; deinde Creticus, 
qui in Pamphyliam et -^gyptum tendit ; inde Helle- 
spontus, qui versus septentrionem magnis anfractibus 

retortus ; sed juxta Grseciam apud Bosporum ® in an^ 
gustiam septem stadiomm restringitur, ubi rex Xerxes 
pontem fecit de navibus, ut Graeciam invaderet. ^ 
Pliwius, libra sexto, capitvXo primo, Ibi tarn strictum 
est mare inter orbes Asise et Europsa, ut alitum^^ 
cantus et" canum latratus, nisi ventus impediat/^ in- 
vicem audiantur. OiraJdus, distinct prima, capitulo 
decimo}^ Mare illud strictum didtur brachium Sancti 
Georgii quod urbem Constantinopolim prseterfluit" ac 

* aitstrum] IseVaatt, CD. 

=^ Sic E. ; Ub. 3civ., A.B.C. The 
true reference is to Isid. Qrig. lib. 
xiii. tf. 16. 

' in aquilonem] ftd septentrionem» 

*sinu8] om» D.; added in later 
hand in C 

^aUuit'] ainbil^B. 

« h&c] haec; D. 

^mcfe] deinde, B. 

"^Bosporum] Bosforum, A. &c., 
intending the incorrect form Bos" 

^ inwidiBrtt] ingfederetur, CD. 

*^ allium] hominum, E. 

»» et] adi B, 

^-nisi ventus impediat after au- 
diantur in CiD. . 

^* quarto, B.C^D. The passage 
does not occur in the excerpts from 
either chapter, edited bjr Mr. Brewer. 
See Girald. De instr, Princ, pp. 186, 
194. (Lond* 1846.) Unfortunately, 
the first book or distinction is not 
printed entire. 

^* prater^uit] prfletfefltiit, Ei} praj- 
valuit, B. 



J'e sou)> side. IsidoruSy Itbro deeimo quarto, pe grete see Tbbvisa. 
Sowynge oute of occean * tume]) into ])e souj?, and fan into — 
]'e north. Baleaius, ]7e firste greet hauen and passage of 
)rat see^^ schede)» into Spajne. pan ]>e o]>er mouth GallicuB 
passe]> by pe prouince of Narbon ; fan Ligustius by lanua, 
a citee ; fan Tyrrhenus to Ytaly arechef ; ^ jjan fe haaen of 
Sicilia passef to Greta ; fan f e passage of Greta strecchef 
in to Pamphylia and Egipte. pere han fe streen^ of fe 
grete hauene and moufe Hellespontus brekef oute abrode 
in greet wawes and stremes, and tornef nor]?warde. But 
bisides Grees at Bo[s]forum, he ^ wexef narwe and strai^te 
as f e space of seuen forlonge ; ^ and fere Xerxes ? f e kyng 
made ouer a brigge^ of schippes for to passe in to Grees 
and werre fere ynne. PliniuSy libra sexto^ capitulo prima. 
pere f e see is so narwe bytwene Europa and Asia, fat me ^ 
may hire in eyf er side oute of of er houndes berke, and 
foules synge, but *° weder and wynde lette. GiralduSy distinct, 
primay capitulo decima. pat narwe see ^^ is i-cleped ^^ Seint 
Georges Arme, and strecchef forf by Gonstantinopolim, 

and Nilus at the sowthe. IsidaruSy libra quarta deeimo. MS. Hari.. 
The grete see flowenge from the occean turnethe in to- the 2261. 
sowthe, after that in to the northe, the fyrste end of whom 
is in to Speyne ; after that hit floethe in to the prouince 
Narbonense ; after that the bosom of f e water Ligusticus 
watrethe the cite callede lanua ; after that the see Tyren 
atteynethe to Ytaly. Then Siculus goethe from Sicille to 
Grete. Then the water callede Creticus in to Famphyliam 
and to Egipte. Then the see Elesponte retorte with grete 
passage turnethe to the northe, but abowte Grece, nye a 
place namede Bosforus, hit is restreynede in to the streyte- 
nesse of vij. forlonges where kynge Xerxes 7 made a brigge 
off schippes that he my^hte goe in to Grece. Plinius^ libra 
sexto, capitulo prima. The see is so streyte fer betwene 
the costes of Asia and of Europe, that the singenge of 
bryddes and berkenge of dogges may be herde to gedre, 
with owte the wynde cause resistence. Giraldus, distinct, 
prima, capitulo deeimo. That streyte see is callede the arme 
of seynte George, whiche flowethe abowte Constantinople, 

* the occean, Cx, 
■^ Cx. adds andi 

* archeth, Cx. 

* Sic MS. ; streem, a, andfrothens 
the streme. Ox, 

* Bofomit, Ox. 
^furlonges, Cx. 

' Exerces, MS. and a. ; Xerses, 
Harl. MS. Here and elsewhere the 

classical orthography is restored, 
when the word does not appear to 
be in a manner anglicised, e.g., 

* brydge, Cx. 

• men, Cx. 
»»6«f^, Cx. 
"p/aec, Cx. 
'* named, Cx. 



orbis gemini ' discrimen fistciens tarn Asiam quam Euro- 
pam delambit. Ibi quoque est Insula Abydos.^ Id' 
dorus, libra nono.^ Indeque pontus diffusus versus 
septentrionem facit Propontideiu. Inde etiam stringi- 
tur* in secentos passus et fit Thracius; inde^ Ponticus 
sinus amplissimus qui ^ ab aquilone allambens '' Thi*a- 
ciam et Moesiam® extenditur versus ^ Moeotides paludes ; 
ibique recipit fluvium Tanaim,^^ inde versus orientem 
expansos transit juxta Asiam minorem usque ad fines 
IberisB et ArmeniaB, quod quidem mare dicitur Eux- 
inum. Isidorus, libra nono}^ Et est illud mare dul- 
cius, brevius, nebulosius propter accurrentia undique'^ 
flumina. In quo quidem amplo^^ sinu sunt insulsa 
Colchos/* Patmos et aliae.'* Plinius, Ubro sexto, capir 
tulo quinto}^ Nee refluit Ponticus sinus sicut*'' cetera 
inaria, sed semper fluit in Propontidem et Hellespontum. 
Ramdphus}^ Cujus rei causa poterit esse quod impetus 
fluminum a tergo labentium*® urgent *° pontum Eux- 
inum ^^ ad continuum fluxum. Nee valet sestus Helles* 

* gemini] om, B. 

^ Insula Abydos] This is clearly 
Higden's text, whose error is due 
to Isidore {Orig, xiv. 6). C. and D. 
have Aludos, by a clerical error. 

' B. does not notice that a new 
quotation begins. 

* etiam stringittir] et constringi* 
tur, C. 

* inde] Sic C.D.E. ; unde, A. 
^ qui] Sic C.D.E. ; quia, A. 

' aquilone] occidentegyrans, CD. 

^ Maeaiam] Misiam, or Missiam, 
MSS., and similarly the yersions. 

^ extenditur versus] ad aquilonem 
tangit, D., and so probably C, ori- 
ginally, in which corrections are 
made in a later hand. 

'® effluvium Thanay recipit, CD. 

" The title of the extract is 
omitted in CD.E. B. has 14». 
Neither the 9th nor 14th book seems 
to be had in view. * 

** undique] om. CD. 

" ampk>] om, CD. 

" Chakia is probably intended. 
Trevisa has Calchos, Nothing in 
Isid. lib. ix. corresponds to this. 

" aliiB] quaedam aliae, CD. 

'* The book only (not the chapter) 
cited in A.B.CD. 

'^ sicut] ut, CD. 

^* C and D. omit ^anulphus» 

^^ lambentiuni, D. 

-•« urgety CD. 

** JEuxinum] om. CD. 


and bytwene Earopa and Asia ; and in ]?at see is }>e Uond Tbevisa. 

Abydos. IsidoruSy libra nono. panne ]?e see schedef nor])- 

ward, and make)? fe see Propontides. penne he narwef to 
J?e narwenesse of sex hondred paas, [and] i is J>e se^ Trach. 
panne fe grete see ^ Ponticus ]?at passe j> by north by Thracia 
andMoesia, strecchef to ye wateres and maryS of Maeotides, 
and fongef -* fere ^e ryuer Thanays. penne he strecchef 
estward, and passe]? by ])e lasse Asia, anon to^ pe endes of 
Iberia and Armenye. And ]?at see is i-cleped^ Euxinum. 
IsidoruSy libra nana. And J>at see is swetter, schorter, 
and more mysty, for fresshe ryneres al aboute turne]> and 
falle]?7 ]}erto. In ]?at grete mouthe and baye^ hep ilondes 
Calchos, Patraos,^ and ofere. Plinius, libra sexto. And 
]?e see Ponticus Howe]) not no]>er'^ turnef a^en as o]>ere 
sees doo)>, but euere turne]? ^^ into ]?e see Propontidem and 
Hellespontum. R. pe cause l>ere of is my^te and streng))e 
of ryueres and bakwateres, ]>at rennej) ])erto, dryuef for]? 
|>e see Euxinum alway in oon cours. And po strengjje 
and j)e flood of J?e see Hellesponticus, ]?at is fer from occean, 

compassenge abowte also as welle Affrike as Europe. There MS. Harl, 
is an yle callede Abydos. IsidoruSy libra nana. The see 2261. 

callede Pontus, ' difiusede from }>ens towarde the norfche 

makethe the see callede Propontides. And from thens 
hit is streynede also into vj^ passes a[nd] causethe a water 
named Thracius.^^ Then the see Pontike compassenge abowte 
from the northe the londes of Thracia and Moesia is ex- 
tendede towarde Maeotides Paludes where hit receyvethe a 
floode named Thanay, which extendede towarde the este 
goethe towarde Asia the lesse to the costes of Hiberia 
and of Armeny, whiche is callede the see Eusyne. Isidorus, 
libra nana* That see is moore swete, more schorte for 
floodes, accurrente on euery side. In the grete arme of 
whom be yles callede Colchos, Patmos,® and oJ)er. PliniuSy 
libra sexto. The see Pontike reflowethe not as other sees, 
but hyt dothe floe alle weies in to that see Propontides 
and Elesponte. ^>* The cause may be assignede that im- 
petuosites of floedes in the backe of hit constreyne the 
the see Eusyne to floenge continualle, and Elesponte deriuate 

* Added from Cx., and a. 
' >esg, MS. ; the sed Cx. 

* t/ie see<, Cx. 

* receyuetky Cx. 
^ Asia vntOy Cx. 

* named, Cx. 

' renne andfaUeUf Cx. 

« So Cx. ; \>ayy a, ; Ny, MS., 

which adds and baye after o\fere in 
the line ibllowing. 

' Patmosi Pdthmos, MS. andHai'I. 

" ne, Cx., who omits aso\»ere sees 

" renn^th, Cx. 

^^ Tmckeusy Harl, MS. Trcvisa 
has also mangled the word. 



ponticus, tanqnam longius at oceano derivatus, tarn 
validum^ impetum retorquere. Isidorus, libra nono.^ 
Et sicut terra cum una sit pro diversis tamen locis 
et causis variis appellatur vocabulis, ita hoc mare mag- 
num' pro diversis regionibus^ insulis, oppidis, gentibus, 
quas allambit/ et eventibus diversimode nominatur. ^ 

Cap. IX. 

De Oceano, 

Iddorus, libro tertio dedmo.^ 

MoLEM^ terrae ambit oceanus ia modum circuli oras 
terrarum , 6ircumplectens, altemisque SBstibus accedit et 
recedit ; respirantibus enim in profundum ventis aut re- 
vomit maria aut absorbed Plinius, libro secundo, cap. 
xcix. ^tus oceaiai intumescit super Britanniam octo- 
genis cubitis. Et magis deprehenduntur hi motus circa ^ 
littora maris ® quam in alto pelago ; quin et in ® extremis 
corporum partibus ^^ pulsus venarum magis sentiuntur 
quam in ^^ medio corporum.^^ Omnis autem ^^ S6stus 

^ tam vaUdufn} tantum, CD. 
2 14". B. The true reference is to 

lib. xiii. Ci 16. 

^ CB.iidJ),9.dd8iveMediterraneum, 

* quas cMambit'] om. G. D. 

* quarto decimo, B,,. "wrongly. See 
lib. xiii. c. 15. 

« C. and B. begin thus:—" Ocea- 
'^ nus in circnfi modum* ambit orbem 
** oras/' etc. • , 

' circa] juxta, B. 

® maris] om. CD. 

^ et in] om. A. ; ad^d from C 
D.E. ; et, om. B. 

^^ partibus] om. B. 

^^ in] om. A. 

^^ quam in medio corporum] om. 

^^ autem] etiam» E. ; quoque^ CD. 

monachi cestrensis, lib. l 50 

may uou^t -wij^stonde ]>e course and fe Btvengpe of per Tbeyisa. 

strong stremes fat renne]) ^ ]>at course. IsidoruSy libra nono, 

As ]»e er]7e pat is oon hap dyuerse names by cause of dyuer» 
[places, so the ^ grete see by cause of dyuerse] ^ kyngdoms, 
ylondes, peple, citees, and townes pat he^ passep by, and 
happes pat fallep perynne is dyuersliche i-nempned^ and 
hap dyuers names. 

De oceano. Isidorus, libra decima teriia, CapUulum 


The see of occean byclippep al pe erpe aboute as a garlond, 
and by tymes comep and goop ebbynge and flowynge, and 
swelowep ^ in sees, and castep hem vp ; and wyndes blowep 
perynne. Plinitis, libra secundo^ capifulo 99. pe hi^e flood 
of occean arisep vp 7 pe costes of Bretaine foure score cubitis 
hite. And pat risynge and depnesse is better i-knowe by ^ 
pe deues pan in the hif e see ; for betynge of veynes is bettre 
i^knowe in pe vttre parties of bodies ® pan ynward and ^ in 
pe myddel wipynne. Euerich flood arist ^^ more in occean 

so ferre from the occean may not returue ageyne that huge MS. Habl. 
impetuosite, Isidarus, libra nana. And neuerthelesse, sythe 2261. 

the erthe is oon or londe, and callede in diuerse names 

thro diuerse causes and diuerse places^ soe in lyke wyse the ^- 23 a. 
grete see is namede in diuerse manors for diuerse regiones, 
yies, cites^ and peple that hit compassethe. 

Of the Occean. Isidarus Eth, libra tertia decima, Capitulum 


The occean compassethe the erthe in the maner of a 
cercle, foldenge abowte the regiones of londes, commethe 
to, and recedethe; the wyndes respirenge and restenge in 
the profundite of hit, auper hit flowethe furthe or retractethe, 
the sees in to hit. Plinius^ libra secunda, capitulo 99, 
The heete and feruence of the occean swellethe on Bre- 
teyne viij<^^^ cubites and moore, the movenges be depre- 
hendede raper abowte the sides of the sees then in an 
oper hie see. For the pulses of the veynes be felede 
moore in the extremites than in the myddes of the body. 
Euery heete and feruence hathe more invndacion in the , 

^ eof neh a. 

^ )>tff, a. 

" Added fsova Cx. and a. 

* it, Cx. 

* tutmed, Cx. 

^Jioweth, Cx. (typ. error.) 

' vpon, Cx,, a. 
* tke hodyy Cx. 
» Om. Cx. 
^' aryseihy Cx. 
" A bltmder for 80. 



magis inundat ia oceano quam in mari magno, sive 
quia totura ia universitate sua * animosius est quam in 
parte, sive quia magnitudo patens efficacius sentit vim 

sideris lunaris quam angustia^ coarctata. Quamobrem 
neo lacus nee amnes eo modo moventur. Plinitis, libra 
secundo, capitulo septuagesimo.^ Oeeanus in varies 
sinus infusus versus terram plerisque in locis interna 
maria pene tangit, adeo ut sinus Kubri maris qui Ara- 
bicus dieitur eentum quinquaginta millibus passuum 
vix distet ab ^Egyptio mari; Caspius vero sinus tre- 
centis septuaginta quinque millibus a ponto distet* 
Euxino.^ Beda de Natuoris. Inter omnes siaus quos 
oeeanus versus terras procreat, tres sunt famosiores. 
Primus est fretum Gaditanum sive Atlanticum, quod 


ab oceldente erumpens^ mare magnum in medio ter- 
rarum facit Seoundus sinus dieitur^ mare Caspium, 
quod a Vxdturno ingrediens dividit borealem partem 
Indiae a Scythia^ ac versus Euxinum mare tendit« 

* sua] om, D. ; inte^liueated in 

^ angustia] in angu& (i,e. angas- 
turn ?), C., which as well as 3). 
arranges the words in this clause 

* The true reference is to lib. ii. 
c. 68. 

* dUtet at the end of the sentence 
in CD. 

^C. and D. omit the extracts 
from Bede, Solinus, and Rannlphus^ 
beginning again from Faulus : — 
Suntphtres aquarum voragines, 

* erumpens] irrumpens, B.B. 
' Secuttdus est, B. 


}>an in pe grete see ; fat is, for fe hoole to gidre is my^tier Tbevma, 
and stranger fan any partie by hem ^ self, ofer for J)e hole — -* 
occean is grete and huge and fongef^ more worchynge of 
fe mone fan eny partie by hym self fat is smallere and 
lasse. pcrcfore lakus, ryueres, pondus, aad ojmre fresche 
wateres nofer^ ebbef ne flowef as occean dof. PliniuSy 
lihro seeundOf capitulo sexto,^ Occean spredef and schedef 
in to dyuers mouthes and costes toward fe lend, and in 
many places wel nyh touchef f e ynner sees so nygh fat 
f e mouf e [fat is cleped Arabicus, and is f e mouf ] ^ and f e 
coste of f e Rede see [is fro the see of Egypte ; but fifty 
thousand paas ; also the mouth and see] ^ fat is i-cleped ^ 
Caspius is but f re hundred f re score and fiftene myle from 
fe grete see fat is i-cleped^ Euxinus. Beda^ de Naturis» 
Amonge alle fe mouthes and sees fat comef toward fe 
londe and out of occean,* fre been most famous i-holde. 
pe firste ^ mouthe and see haf tweie names, and is i-cleped 7 
Gaditanus and Atlanticus also, pe secounde is i-cleped^ 
Caspius, and entref toward f e norf est,**® and departef by 
twene fe norf side of Inde^* and Scythi^ fat londe, and so *^ 
strecchef towarde fe grete moufe and see fat is i^cleped 

occean then in the grete see. The cause is for euery thynge MS. Habl. 
is of more animosite and audacite in his vniversalle then 2261. 

his parte pai'cialle. And also for the patente magnitude 

felethe by more efficacite the strenjhte of f e moone then 
a see coartate ; wherefore a lake and other waters be 
not y-movede in that maner. Plinius^ libro 2®, capitulo 7®» 
The occean infusede in to diuerse places towarde londes 
towchethe alle moste the entiere sees in mony places, in 
so moche that a parte of the Redde see whiche is callede 
Arabicus is vnnethe distante from Egipte a c. T» m' of passes. 
The see callede Caspius is distante by ccc. Ixxv. m^ passes 
from the see caUede Eusyne. Beda, De Naturis, Amonge 
alle the armes of the occean, that hit dothe cause, thre be 
of moste nowble fame. The firste is the see G-aditan, or 
Autlantike, whiche brekenge vp from the weste makethe 
the grete see in the myddes of the erthe. The secunde 
see is callede the see of Caspius, whiche goenge from the 
sowthe este, diuidethe the northe pai'te ofi* Ynde from Scythia, 
and goethe from that to the see Eusyne. The thrydde is 

* /urn, a. 

"^ cdUed, Cx. 

^ receyueth, Cx. 

• the ocean, Cx, 

» ne, Cx. 

» Om. Cx. 

* septimOf a: See the Latin text. 

*" out of north easty Cx. 

^ Added from a. 

" So«.;/»rfa,MS. 

* Added from Ox. and a. 

« thaty Cx. 



Tertius sinus dicitur mare Rubrum, quod ab euro orbis 


iutrans dividit austxalem partem Indise ab Ethiopia et 
^gypto, indeque progrediens in duos sinus scinditur, 
quorum Persicus sinus aquilonem petit, Arabicus vero 
versus mare magnum petit ocddentem. Hoc autem 
mare Eubrum nomen suum a roseo colore trahit, quern 
tamen non naturaliter habet, sed a vicinis littoribus, 
quae sanguineo colore rubent, inficitur ; ideoque minium 
acutum^ et rubrae gemmae inde leguntur. 8olinu8, 
Juxta mare Oaspimn sunt montes Caspii habentes in 
longum* VIL millia passuum^ in lato^ vix plaustro per- 
meabHes; laterum saxa^ liquentibus inter se salis venis, 
exundant bumorem^ affluentem. Qui constrictus vi 
caloris velut in sestivam ^ glaciem corporatur, et ita labes 
nimia accessum vetat.^ Pr^terea viginti octo milUbus I 
passuum spatio tractus omnis peragitur. Humus arida 
sine prsesidio sitit, et tunc serpentes undique confluunt, 

* B. adds est. 

* So A.B.E. Perhaps longo or 
longitudine (see Harl. MS.) may be 
the true reading. 

^ latitudinef B. 

* A. has et before humorem. 

^ astivum, A.E. 

*^ vetatj negat, E. 

^ miHibus'] milia^ E. Millium 
would be a better reading. See 



Euxinufl. pe J^ridde mou]>e and see is J?e Rede see, and Tbbvisa. 

come]? of pe north est, and departef pe south side of Inde 

from Ethiopia and Egipte from ]?ilke tweye londes. pan 
pe Bede see strecche]> £orp, and departe]> in tweie mouthes 
and sees, pat oon is i-cleped * Persicus, and strecche}> nor]?" 
ward, fat oJ>er is i-cleped ^ Arabicus, and strecche]> westward 
and toward pe grete see. pe^ Rede see is nou^t rede of 
kynde, but aflasche}>^ and waschej? oon^ rede clyues and 
stones, and so is i-died rede as a rose, perfore of pe clyues 
and strondes of pe Reed see is i-gadered vermylon and rede 
precious stones. Solinus, By pe see fat is i-cleped ^ Caspius 
beef hulles, fat beef i-cleped fe hilles of Caspi,^ and hauef 
in lengf e seuen f owsand paas, and in brede vnnef e f e space 
of a cart wey. In f e sides of f e hulles of Caspii salt veynes 
mullef 7 and woseth out© humours, and moysture i-dried and 
i-dunge by hete of f e sonne ioynef and cleuef to gideres, 
as is of ere ^ glas j and somme ^ may nou^t clymbe on f e 
hilles, f e wey is so slider. Also euerich drau^t is ful drawe 
in fe space of ey^te and twenty fousand paas ; fe londe 
is drie wifoute socbure, and adders and serpentes fallef 

callede the Redde see, which entrenge from the este parte MS. Harl. 
of the worlde diuidethe the sowthe parte of Ynde from 2261. 

Ethioppe and Egipte, which takenge his progreSse from 

thens is departede in to ij. armes, of whom the ^^ arme Per- 
sicaUe, or of f e *® cuntre of Perse, dothe aske the northe. 
The see of Araby askethe the weste towarde the grete 
see. That Redde see, takenge his name of a redde color 
whom hyt hathe not naturally, but of nye places to hyt, 
whiche be redde like to the colour of bloode, where redde 
precious stones be founde. SoUnus. The hiUes callede 
Caspii be nye the see callede Caspius, as longenge to them, 
hauenge in longitude vij. m* of passes, in latitude vnnethe f. 23 b. 
permeable with oxen, the stonys of whom as meltenge thro 
the veynes of salte mixte amonge theyme causethe an humor 
affluente ; whiche compacte and constructe thro the heete of 
the sonne, is incorporate as in to yse, and soe the slipper 
waye deneyethe commenge to theyme. That drye grownde 
thurstethe as with owte presidye. Then the serpentes take 

* i-^leped] named, Cx. (twice.) 
^>ts, a. 

^ itflassheihy Qx., 
'* on thCt Cx. 

* called, Cx. 

^ Caspiif a, and so MS> below. 
' melte, Cx. 

* as yse or, Cx. 

' 80 meuy Cx. 

^« J»c . . . the] So Harl, MS., and 
similarly the MS. of Trevisa on this 
page has muUejp and wo$eih ; whence 
the inconstancy of the use of j? 
clearly appears, when they were 
written. See also p. 31. 



ita ut nisi in hyeme accessns omnia negatur.^ Ranul- 
phu8. Et secundum Marcianum portse Caspise ferrets 
trabibus sunt obseratae, quae vemo tempore serpentibus 
obcluduntur ; ^ et secundum Magistrum in liistoriis* ad 
preces Alexandri Magni, hi montes invicem* cohaese- 
runfc.^ Paukvs, in Historia Longobardorum, libro 
primo,^ Sunt etiam plures aquarum voragines sive 
vortigines juxta marium margines ' e quibus duse sunt 
in mari mediterraneo inter Italiam et Siciliam, Scylla 
scilicet et Charybdis, de quibus Virgilius loquitur — 

Dextrum Scylla latus, laevum implacata Charybdis.* 

Sunt et aliae voragines in oceano, quarum una in occi- 
deatali littore Britanniae minoris^ umbilicus*^ maris 
dicitur ; alia quoque inter Britanniam et Galliciam," quae 
bis in die naturali fluctus sorbere et rursus evomere 
navesque attrahere et rejicere tanta velocitate dicuntur, 
ut sagittarum lapsura imitari videantur. 

' S0A.B.E. The syntax requires 
negetur ; but the error may be Hig- 
4en*s own. 

^ ohscinduntuTj B. 

3 Magistntm historiarum, B. 

* ad invieemf B. 

«So B.E.; sunt (f6r sibif) ad- 
heserunty A. 

^ The extract from Paulus is 
wanting in A. ; down to Charyhdis 

added iVom £. ; B. omits the title 
of the extract, and begins it (after 
Charybdis) tbns : Sunt et alias, &c. 

"^ jnxta marium margines] om. J>, 

* impUcata, £. (Obsidet governs 
these accnsatiyes, ^n, iii. 421.) 

• minorisi om. CD. 

** Sic C. ; umbilicttm, A.B.D.E, 
» So the MSS. 



J>erto ; so fat, but it be wynter, J)ere may no man come Trevisa. 

perynne. l|. Martianus sell? ]?at ]>e * ^ates of Caspij bee]> 

i-steke^ wij> yren barres, and in springyng tyme faste i-barred 
for serpentes and addres j and pe Maister 3 of pe stories 
sayth,4 jjat at fe prayeres of kyng Alisaundre Caspij hulles 
were i-closed and ioyned to gidres- Paulus^ in historia 
Longobardoruniy libra prima, pere beef many swolwynges 
and whirlynges of wateres by fe see brynkes ^ tweyne beef 
in fe see of myddel erfe bytwene Itali and J>e londe ^ Sicilia. 
pilke tweie swolwes beef i-cleped ^ Scylla and Charybdis ; 
of f e wbiche spekef Virgil, and seif : Scylla is perilous in 
f e rijt side, and Charybdis in f e lift side. Of ere swelowes 
and periles of wateres 7 beef in occean ; oon is in f e west 
clif of litel ^ Bretayne, And is i-cleped ^ f e nauel of f e see ; 
f e tofer ^^ is bytwene Bretayne and Gallicia, and it is i-seide 
fat f ese swelowes twyes in f e nyit and day swelowef ynne 
stremes and ilodes, and castef hem vp aje.*^ Also he ^^ 
drawef in schippes, and castef hem vp a^en,^^ ^ swiftliche 
as an arwe to a manis sight, ^4 

theire confluence to hyt on euery syde, in so moche that MS. Habl. 
commenge to theyme is denyede, but in wynter. I^. And 2261. 

after Martian the ^ates of theyme be lockede with cheynes of 

jTne, whiche be stopped in the somer tyme with serpentes. 
And after the Maister in storyes, those hilles wente to gedre 
at the preyers of kynge Alexander. PauluSy in historia 
Longohardorum^ libra prima. Also there be monye deipe 
places of waters nye to the sydes of the sees, of whom 
tweyne be in the grete see betwene Ytaly and Siciile. 
Also there be other swaloes of the see in the occean. Oon 
of theym is in the weste side of Briteyne the less, y-namede 
the navelle of the see. That of er is betwene Briteyne and 
Fraunce, whiche be seyde to deuoure waters and evomette 
theyme twyes in a day, drawenge to theyme schippes and 
puttenge theyme aweye with suche a swiftenesse, that thei 
appere to folowe the schote of an arowe. 

^ a. omits )>e. 
'^ faste shettef Cx. 

* So Cx., (who has ofhisioryes)'^ 
maistreSf MS, 

* sajftli] Added Irom Cx, and a. 

* Uonde, Cx, 

* called^ Cx, 
' watery Cx. 

VOL, I. 

8 Om. Cx. 

» caUed, Cx. 

^« otkeTy Cx. 

" agayn, Cx, (not a.) 

'-' it, Cx. 

" casted hem agayn, Cx. 

^^ So the MS. (not, as usually, si'^t) 



Cap. X. 

De provmoUs Orbis. Et primo de Paradiso? 

ClBCA notitiam Faradisi terrestiis tria potissime sunt 
advertenda ; primo namque quoad ejus existentiam 
seu conditionein quaeritur an sit ; secundo quoad ejus 
positionem quseritur ubi sit ; terfcio quoad ejus deacrip- 
tionem qusBritur quails sit De primo notandum est 
quod ejus existentias ^ attestantur quatuor ; videlicet 
nanrationes historiarum,^ qusB comparant Paradiso loca 
Sodomse antequam subverteretur. Secundo, testimo- 
nia experfcorum, qui se vidisse locum iUum scripserunt. 
Tertio, quatuor flumina inde exeuntia> quorum origo in 
Paradisi. D.ostro habitabili nee in man nee in fonte uspiam repe- 
ritur, cum tamen circa hoc per reges JEgypti et alios 
jfrequenter ftierit elaboratum. Idcirco, teste Isidoro,* 
XIII. Etymolog., Hieronymus animadvertit de Paradisi 
fluminibua aliter fore sentiendum quam auctores tradi- 


^ Paradiso] £. adds in the title : 
— *' Et opinionibns circa ipsun lo- 
" cum." . C. omits aU after OrhtSy 
and all the early part of the chapter 
(see helo^) ; and the rest also is so 
much transposed that its readings 
can be but imperfectly represented. 
D. agrees exactly with G. in its 
arrangement, and has not a single 

various readjng of importance, and, 
indoc3, very few deviations of any 

' existentiam, B. 

* historiaruni] Om. B., which has 
also hca Sodomw before Paradiso, 

* This extract from Isidore is sub- 
stantially the same in C. 



De provincii$ orbis; primo de Paradiso, Capitulum Tkevisa, 

deeimum, ' 

Fob f e knowleche of erfelyche Paradys pre poyntes moste 
be i-knowe, Wherfore pre questiouns beef i-axed ; f e firste 
questioun axe)),^ Xif eny suche place is on erpe ? pe secounde 

axi}),i Whiderw^arde or where is Paradys in erfe ? J>e ]>ridde 
aske]>,i What contraye or what placed is Paradys in erfe? 
For J)e firste, foure manere witnesses we hauej? }>at Paradys 
is in erpe ; first stories ]>at likne]> Sodom, or^ hit were 
ouertorned, to Paradise ; ]>e secounde witnes is of ^ hem fat 
assaiede and^ write and seide, fat fey had i-seie^ fat place; 
f e f ridde witnesse beef ^ f e foure ryueres, fat rennef out 
of Paradyse ; for f e heed of filke ryueres beef nou^t i-founde 
in see, nof er in fresche^water, nof er in londe fat men wonef ^ 
ynne, fey^ kynges of Egipt and many ofer trauailled wel 
ofte and sou^te f ereafter. perfore IsidLore], xiii. Eth., 
self fat Hieronymus^ toke hede fat oufer vnderstondynge 
bihouef of f e ryueres of Paradys, fan auctours writef ; 

^^^^^^^^^^^M^^^^^^^^i^^^^»^! ■■■■»■■ ■ ■■ . ., ■.■■■■ ■■■■ I ll^l ■■ I ^ ■ ^fc^^» !■ ■ ^ l [■■■MM , ^>^t^^»^^^»^»W| | I , Mil ^m^^^^ 

Of the Prouinces of the Worlde^ and firste of Paradise. MS. Harl. 

Capitulum decimum, 2^^i* 

Thre thynges ar to be aduertisede principally as abowte 
the knowlege of Paradise. Fyrste hit is inquirede. as vn 
to the existence o£ hit other ^^ condicion whef er hit be. In 
the secunde hit is inquirede as vn to the posicion of hyt 
where hit is. In the thrydde hit is inqilirede in what 
maner hit is. Of the fyrste,. hit is to be attendede that iiij 
thynges here wyttenesse to the beenge of hit, that is to say, 
narraciones of storyes, the whiche do comparate the places 
of Sodomye to Paradise afore the subuersion of theyme. In 
the secunde, the testimonies of men experte whiche haue 
writen theyme to haue seen that place. In the thrydde, iiij. 
waters flowenge from hit, the begynnenge of whom was 
not founde in oure partes habitable, neif er in the see, neither 
in eny other welle whiche hathe be laborede by diuerse 
kynges of Egipte and other men ofte tymes. Therefore, 
Isidorus wyttenesse xiij<». Eth., Seynte lerom perceyvethe 
other wise of the floodes of Paradise then other auctores 

* a. has the same variations of 
spelling ; Cx. has axeth in all three 

.^ coniray and place, Ox. 
' er, Cx. 

* So Cx.; witnesst};» qf^ MS. 

^ and] om. Ox., who has lorote, 

* seen, Cx. 

^ So a. ; wytnes hen, Cx. ; tctV- 
ne8si\> that bee\>, MS. 

» dwelkf Cx, 

^ leronimus, MS., and so often; 
Iherom, Cx. 

" So the MS., but or the is pro- 
bably the true reading. 

K 2 



derunt. Dicit ' enirn Basilius in Hexaemeron et Isidorus 
Etymolog., libro xiv., et Josephus, libro primo, quod de 
Paradisi altissimo monte cadentes aqusB lacum efficiunt^ 
de quo velut de fonte quatuor flumina nascuntur. Pe- 
truSy^ capitvlo qmirtodecvmo. • Quorum primus Phison 
qui interpretatur inv/adatio educitur in Indiam tra- 
liens secum aureas arenas^ et dictus est Ganges a Gan- 
garo rege Indise, quod interpretatur caterva ; eo quod 
decern flumina recipiat. Secundus fluvius dictus est 
Gyon, qui et Nilus, eircuitque * iEthiopiam et jEgyptum. 
Tertius fluvius Tigris secundum Josephum dicitur Dig- 
latL/ quod sonat acutumy eo quod velox sit ut tigris, 
et vadit contra Assyrios. Quartus fluvius Euphrates, 
quod sonat fmgifer, vadit contra Chaldfeos.^ Isidorus, 
libro tertio dedmo*^ Salustius auctor certissimus as- 
sent quod de Cerauniis^ montibus Armenia ad pedem 
Caucasi montis oritur fons^ qui caput est duorum flu- 

* These extracts are more fully ex- 
hibited in G. and D., thus : Basilius 
Hexaem» Igitur de paradisi altis^ 
simo monte cadentes aquse magnmn 
faciunt lacum, ex quo Yelut ex uno 
fonte quatuor nascuntur flumina. 
Isid, lib, 4 (sic). De medio enim 
Paradisi fons prorumpens totum 
nemus irrigat *, dividitur quoque in 
quatuor flumina nascentia. Jose- 
phus li. 1. Nam Phison educatur 
in Indiam, Euphrates et Tigris in 
mare ruhrum feruntur. Gihon vero 
per JEgyptum fluens Nilum facit. 

2 The extract from Pe/rus is con- 

tained in G. and D., but abbreviated. 
B. has 4 for 14. 

' que] So B. ; om. A.E. j et cir- 
cuity CD. 

^DiglatK] Bilath, E. ; Diglat, 

* The MSS. of text and versions 
omit h in the first syllable. In the 
former it is corrected. 

• qtiarlo decimo, E., wrongly. See 
lib, xiii. c. 21. s. 10.. This extract 
is also contained in 0., but much 

^ Cerauneisy MSS. 



also Bosilius, in Hexaemeron, Ysid[ore], Eth. lib. quarto de- Trbvisa. 
cimo, and losephus, libro primo, seijj fat wateres fallynge of — - 
J>e hi Jest * hiile of Paradys makef a grete ponde, and out 
of fat ponde (as it were of a welle) J?e foure ryueres 
sprlngef. PetruSy capitulo quarto decimo^ Of fe whiche foure 
lyueres f e firste is Phison, and is to menynge ful wexynge 
of plente ; fat ryuer Phison passef into Inde, and draweth 
wif hym golden graueL Phison haf anofer name, and is 
i-cleped Ganges of a kynge^ of Ynde fat was i-cleped 
Gangarius ; but Ganges ^ is to menynge^ Jfelmvschippe and 
compani/e, for he fongef ten greet ryueres fat rennef ferto. 
J)e secounde is i-cleped Gyon and Nilus also, and goof 
aboute Ethiopia and Egipt. pe fridde is Tigris, and, as . 
losephus self, Diglath also, fat is to menynge,^ sckarp^ for 
he^ is swift as tigris, fat is a wel^ swift best; and Tigris 
passef toward Assyria fat londe. pe fourf e is Euphrates, fat 
is to menynge frucfuous and fruit bererCy and gof toward 
Caldea fat londe7 IsidoruSy libro tertio decimo. J)e moste 
certeyn auctor, Salustius, seif, fat fere comef a welle oute 
of Cerauneys, f e hulles of Armenye, and springef out at ^ f e 
foote of f e liulle fat is i-cleped Caucasus ; and fat welle is 

have diffinede, Basilius In his Hexaemeron and Isidorus, libro MS. Haul. 
quartodecimo Eth , and losephus, libro primo,^ that waters ^261. 
fallenge from Paradise make a lake, from whom iiij. flowedes ^ " 
liathe iheire begynnenge as of a welle. PetruSy capitulo 
quarto decimo. The firste iloode of whom is calledde Phison, 
the invndacion of whom is educede in to Ynde, drawerige 
with hit grauelle of gdlde, whiche is callede Ganges off a 
kynge some time in Ynde Gangarius by name, whiche is 
called a cumpanye by interpretacion, in that hit dothe 
receyve x. floedes. The secunde is callede Gybn or Nilus, 
whiche compassethe Ethioppe and Egipte. The thrydde 
Iloode is callede Tigris, after losephus hit is called Dig- 
lath, whiche sowndethe scharpe, in so moche that hit is 
swifte as a tigre, and goethe ageynes Assiriones. The furthe 
is callede Euphrates, that sowndethe as plentuous of come, 
whiche goethe ageyne men of Calde. IsidoruSy libro tertio 
decimo, Salustius, the moste certeyne auctor, seythe that a 
welle is spi'onge from the highe hilles of Armenye, at the 
foote of the hille callede Caucasus, whiche welle is the hede 

* ofheyyeste^ a. 

2 So a. ; MS. askynge. 
^ So Cx. ; GanguSf MS. 

* to sayy Cx., who has, however, 
to menynge above. 

* it, Cx. (and so ofteo). 

» ryght, Cx. 

^ \*cfour\>e , , e J>a< lanfl] om. Cx. 

« of, Cx. 

^ seiciiy or some such word, has 

been omitted. 



minum Tigiis et Euphratis ; qui * aliquotiens separantur, 
aliquotiens inter se commiscenttir.* Saepe, a terra' ab- 
sorbentur, et iterum emergunt ;* et tandem post longum 
circa Mesopotamiam circuitum descendnnt in mare Ru- 
brum, Banulphus.^ Et Nilus licet legatur ^ a Paradiso 
procedere, quidam tamen asseverant ipsum oriri in occi- 
dentali parte jEthiojnae non procul ab Atlantico monte, 
qui inde circuiens -^thiopiam descendit per jEgyptum. 
De cujus proprietate vide infra, capitulo jEgyptus. 
Quarto existentise '' Paradisi attestatur fama diuturna. 
Nam famse diutuma^ et UleBas multum est credendum* 
Sed fama de paradiso stetit inconcussa per sex millia 
aniiorum et amplius, quia a principio mundi usque ad 
dies nostros. Fama autem de re falsa cadere consuevit 
aut per oblivionem aut per coutrariam opinionem. De 
secundo, quod est ejus situatio seu positio ubinam sit, 
non est putandum secundum quosdam brevis intellectiis 
ei paucse experientise Paradisum esse regionem longo- 

* quia, A. 

2 So B.0.£. ; intercommiscentur^ A. 

* a terra] teirsB, B. 

* et iterum emergunt'] et locis ite- 
rum in ploribus emergunt, CD. 

* Tlie whole of this long extract 
from Ranvipkusi^ omiited in 0. and 
B., except so much as is contained 

ill the following sentence^ which 
closes the chapter : " Inde est quod 
" de ortu eorum varia leguntar ; 
** quod Ganges dicitur :iasci in locis 
" Caacasi month's ; Nilus non pro- 
" cul ah Atlante monte ; Tigris et 
" Euphrates in Armenia.*' 

« licet legatur] legitur, B. 

' existentiaTfif B. 



j>e hede of tweie ryueres [of Tigris and of Euphrates, pe Teeyisa. 

whiche tweie ryuers]* somtyme beef i-deled atwynne^ and : 

somtyme i-melled^ to gidres, and ofte tyme J>ey bee}> 
i-swelewed into fe erfe, and efte^ springef up aien, and 
longe after goob aboute Mesopotamia^ f&t londe, aild doun- 
ward into J>e Kede see. "Eji. And fey me ^ rede in bookes 
fat Nilus comef out of Paradys, ^it som men affermef 
and seif 7 j>at Nilus springef in f e west side of f e londe of 
Ethiopia, noutt fer from fe hil fat is i-cleped Atlas,^ and . 
gof aboute Ethiopia and dounward by Egipt. Loke^ fe 
propurte of Nilus in fe chapitre Egiptus. pe fourfe wit- 
nesse and preef, f aifc suche a place is in erf e fat is i-cleped 
Paradys, is olde fame and longe durynge 5 for me schal 
trowe ^^ olde fame, fat is nou^t wif seide ; but fame of Para- 
dys haf i-dured ^^ wif oute wif seienge '* sexe f owsand ^ere 
and more ; for from f e bygynnynge of f e world anon to 
oure dayes [it haf endured. And] ^^ fame fat is false diiref 
nou^t so longe, for it fallif out of mynde, ofer is des- 
preued by sof enesse i-knowe. Of f e secounde questioun, fat 
axef in whiche side of f e worlde and in what place 
Paradys schulde be ; fey ^^ schort witted men and litel of 

of tweyne waters, that is to saye, of Tigris and Euphrates, MS. Habl. 
whiche be other while separate and oferwhile commixte, ^^^' 
oftetyme devourede of the erthei and at the laste thei descende 
abowte Mesopotamy in to the Bedde see. ^. And thau^he 
men say that Nilus dothe precede from Paradise, some men 
afferme hit to haue his begynnenge in the weste parte of 
Ethiop, not ferre from the mownte Atlantike, whiche com- 
passenge Ethioppe descendethe by Egipte, of the properte 
off whom beholde with in the chapitre Egiptus. In the iiij*^% 
the olde fame berrethe testimonye to the existence of Para- 
dise. But trewely the fame of Paradise hathe stonde as 
inconcussede by vj. mX, yeres and more. The fame of a 
false thynge is wonte to falle aufer by obliuion, other by 
oppinion contrarious. Of the secunde, where it is, hit is I^aradisos. 
not to take to credence after some men of pover and breve 
iutellecte, and also of lytelle experience, Paradise to be a 

* Added from a. and Cx. Here, 
and commonly, the versions Tvrite 

* departed a sonder, Cx. 
® medlidy Cx. 

* after, Cx. 

^ Macepoianea, MS. and a. ; Me- 
sopotonyUy Cx. 

^ mertt Cx., and so in many other 
places, where MS. and o. agree in 
reading me, aye, &c. 

^ affermen and saye, Cx., to whom 
this plural seems unknown. 

« Athlas, MSa and Cx. 

* Sechcy Cx. 

^* bileue, Cx. 

^^ endured^ Cx., and endureth for 
dure]}, below. 

*2 gayn sayetig, Cx.^ but toitliseyde 

" Added from Cx. (not in a.) 

^^ though that, Cx. 



maris tractu a nostro habitabili distantem ac^ usque 
ad lunarem circulum elevatum ; quia hoc nee natura 
patitur nee ratio ; quia, si separaretur a nostro habi- 
tabili, nee aqua nee aer tantam molem sufferre x>osset. 
Item cum elementum ignis oecupet^ totum intermedium 
spatium inter aereura circulum et lunarem,^ constat ibi 
non esse" Paradisum ; cum nihil vegetabile ibi vivere 
posset. Item hoc dato locus ille sic elevatus inducerei 
aliquando eclipsim lunarem, maxime in partibus terraj 
orientalibus ;* sed de tali eclipsi nihil audivimus hucus- 
que. Item si Paradisus separaretur a nostro habitabili, 
quomodo^ tunc pervenirent ad nostrum habitabile ilia 
quatuor flumina prsedicta per tarn vastum mare vel per 
aerem intermedium ? Si autem dicatur quod Paradisus 
sit aliquantulum contigua® nostro habitabili, videtur 
quod terria non sit sphserica, sicut communiter descripta 
est. a doctis ; immo tunc foret oblonga. Sed hoc stare 

* ac] et, B, 

2 occupet] So A. ; occupat, B.E, 
^ So B. E. 5 aerem et circulum 
lunarem, A. 

^ in terris or., E. 

* So B.B. ; qualiter, A. 

« conttgua^ So the MSS. A.B.E. 

(C. and D. do not contaiu the pas~ 
sage). Either the text should be 
altered to contiguusy or, more pro- 
bably, regio should be added after 
siL It is possible, however, that 
Higden himself may have regarded 
Paradisus as a feminine noun. 



assay seie fat Pai'adys is longe seillynge out of erj>e ' fat Trevjsa. 

men woneJ> ynne, and also departed from J>e erfe and 2 hi^e 

as pe moue, — hit is not to trowynge;^ for kynde^ and 
resoim bofe wifseie}?.* For ^if Paradys were departed 
atwynne from |>e erfe fat men wonef ynne, nofer^ water 
nofer^ aier my^te bere suche a burfen. Also fe fuyi*c^ 
occupief al fe myddel space bytwene the aier and f e 
mone, fan Paradys is nou^t fare ; foi' fan nof ing myjte 
lyue ferynne. Also ^if Paradys were so hite, somtyme it 
schulde byneme ^ f e li^t, and make f e clips ^ of f e mone ; 
but of suche^^ eclipse herde we neuere. Also ^if Paradys 
were so hi^e, and departed in sender ^^ from euery ofer ^^ 
lond and erfe, how schulde fe foure ryueres fat springef 
out of Paradys passe by fe aier and fe wide see and 
come in to londes fat men wonef ynne ? And ^if me 
seith fat Paradys is so hi^e and in oon *^ place contynued ^* 
to f e erfe fat men wonef ynne, fan f e erfe is euen longe ^^ 
and nou^t rounde al aboute, as wise men descryuef hit ; 
bot fat may not stonde : for it is i-knowe by • experience 

region in grete distaunce from this worlde habitable, eleuate MS. Hasi,. 
vn to the cercle of the moone. For nature wylle not sufFre 2261. 

that, neither reason. For if hit were separate in tliat 

manor from this worlde habitable, neither the aier, neither 
the water, my^hte susteyne suche a burden and hevynesse. 
Also sythe the elemente of fyre occupyethe alle the mydelle 
place betwene the cercle of the aier and of the moone, where- f, 24 b. 
fore hit may be concludede Paradise not to be there, sythe 
noo thynge vegetable may luiue lyfe fer. That grauntede, 
that place scholde induce otherwhile the eclipse of the moone, 
and specially in the este partes of the erthe ; but we haue 
not herde of such eclipse vn to this presento tyme. Also 
if Paradise were separable from oure places habitable, how 
scholde the iiij. flowedes aforeseyde atteyne to oure habit- 
acles by so grete a see other by the aier intermediate ? If 
hit be seyde that hit is in a maner contiguate to oure place 
habitable, then hit scholde appere that the erthe were not 
rownde, as hit is describede of discrete men, but longe, 
and by consequent hit scholde yelde a schado inegaUe in 

* J>c er\>e, cu, Cx. 

* Cx, adds is, 

' to be bileued, Cx. 

* nature, Cx. 

* Cx. adds it, 

* Kc, Cx., twice. 

' So a. and Cx. ; yerj>c, MS. (cle- 
rical error.) 

* bynyjtie, a. ; take away, Cx. 

^ Tnake eclips, a., Cx. 

'^ Cx. adds an, 

" asGndcTy o., Cx. 

12 Cm. Cx. 

" 00 and one, Cx. 

" it coniynuetk, Cx. 

" is enknff, Cx. (typogr. error ?). 



non potest, cum constet per jiige experimentum, quod 

umbra terrse in omni eclipsi lunari faciat pyramidem 

totundam ; quare liquet quod terra cum suis parlibus 

Paradisus sit rotunda. Unde concludunt docti quod Paradisus 

in extremis 

finibus terrestria sit in extremis finibus orientis, et quod sit 

onentis ■ 

situatur. magna porfcio corporis terrae, non minor quam India* 
aut -«Egyptus, utpote locus toti ^ generi humano^ si non 
peccasset, deputandus. ^ De tertio, quod est ejus de- 
sciiptio, qualis sit/ sciendum est^ Secundum Isidorum, 
libro xiv°. capitulo tertio, quod Paradisi vocabulum de 
Grseco in Latinum versum dicitur hortus, Hebraice vero 
Uden, quod sonat delidcBy quod utrumque jonctum facit 
kortv/m deliciaruTi^ Bomvlphus. Nee mirum; habet 
* enim locus ille quicquid vitse congruit. laidorus, libro 
quarto decimo. Habet ^ enim salubritatem ; quia tem- 
perie gaudens nee frigus sentit nee sestum, in tantum 
quod quicquid ^ ibi vivit, mori non. potest. Cui ® attes- 
tatur quod Enoch et Helias adhuc vivunt ibidem incor- 
rupti. Johamies Danutscenus.^ Habet etiam^® locus ille 

' Jtidea, A. 

2 toti] om. B. 

> C. and. D. begin the chapter thus : 
— Istd. U, 4 (sic), cap, 3. Paradisus 
locus est in oriente longo maris trac- 
tu k nostro habitabili segregatus ; 
cujus vocabulum a Grseco in Lati- 
num yersum dicitur hortos, etc. 

*sit] est,B. 

^ est] cm. A. ; added from £. 

' This citation from Isidore occurs 
near i;he beginning ip C. and D. 

^ (B&tum; et guicguidy C. 

« Cut] quod, B. ; cui rei, C. 

' This extract from Jokn Damas- 
cene is contained in C. almost yer- 
batim. B. omits the title of the 

1» etiam] So B.C.D. ; c#, A.E. 



and assay, fat in euery ecllps of "pe mone pe erje makep Tkevisa. 

a rounde schilde. perfore fe erf e, wif alle his parties, 

mote^ nedes be rounde. And so wise men conclude]? fat 
Paradys is in fe vttermest ende^ of fe est, and fat it 
is a grete contray^ of fe erpe no lasse fan Tnde ofer^ 
Egipte;^ a place large and couenable for al mankynde to 
wone ynne, Jif mankynde had nou^t i-synned. Of fe 
fridde fat axef of ParadySj What manere place ^ it schulde 
be, l8id[ore] self, libro quarto decimo, capitulo tertio, fat 
fis name Parades i-turhed out of Grew in to Latyn Is to 
menynge ^ an oreke^erde. But Paradys in Hebrewe ^ is 
i-cleped Eden, fat is to menynge^ lUiynge; fe whiche 
tweyne i-putte ^® to gidres makef an orckejerde of Ukynge. 
]^. No wonder, for in fat place is al fyng fat accordef 
to lyf. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo. pere is helf e, for 
f e aier is in tempre ^^ nof er to bote nof er ^^ to coMe, so fat 
no fyng fat leuef may deie f erynne 2 fat witnessif Ennok 
and Ely, fat ^it beef fere on lyue.^^ lohannes Damascenus» 

euery eclipse ; but that may not stonde, sythe hit is provede MS. IIaki.. 
by experience that the schado Of the erthe in euery eclipse 226 1. 

of the moone makethe a rownde schado. Wherefore hit is 

schewede that the erthe with his partes is rownde. Where- 
fore prudent men conclude that Paradise terrestrialle is in 
the extreme partes of the este, and that a grete porcion of 
the erthe is f er, not lesse then Ynde or Egipte, as a place 
deputate to alle mankynde if Adam hade not synnede. Of 
the thrydde, that is the discripsion of hit, what maner a 
place hit is, hit is to be attended that after Isidor, libro 
14®, capitulo iij**, that this worde Paradkus turnede from 
Grewe in to Latyn, is callede a yorde or a gardyn. In 
Ebrewe hit is callede Eden, that sowndethe del%te$^^ whiche 
coniuncte makethe a gardyne off delitesM ^. And noo 
meruayle, for that place hathe euery thynge that is con- 
gruente to lyfe. Isidorus^ libro 14®. Hyt hath salubrite 
and wholsomnesse, for hit ioyethe in temperaunce, felenge 
neither coldenesse ne heete, in so moche that a thynge 
lyffenge there may not dye. A testimony f erof Enoc and 
Helias lyve ^itte there incorrupte. Magister lohannes Da- 
mascenus, libro quarto decimo^ That place hathe also 

* mustey Cx. 
2 endes, Cx. 

* contrey^ Cx. ; contrary^ MB? 

* or, Cx. 

^ Cx. adds and, 

^ place] Added from a. and Cx. 

^ is cts moch to say as, Cx. 

^ Hebreufe] Added from a. and Cx 

* to say, Cx. (and 80 generally). 

'^ Cx. here, contrary to his cus- 
tom, retains y^uf. 

" is attemperai, Cx. 

*2 nSf Cx. (and so often). 

^' a lyue, Cx. 

" The reading of Harl. MS. may 
be delices* 



amcenitatem, nam universaB pulcritudiiiis erat promptu- 
arium, ubi cuncti generis arbores comam non perdunt, 
flores non marcescunt. ^ Habet et jocunditatem, cui ^ 
aitestatur fructuum dulcedo, sicat in Genes, secundo 
dicitur:^ Omne lignum pulchrum visu® et ad vescen- 
dum suave. Habet et* secmitatem cui attestatur 

loci altitude.* Ramilphus. ^Ubi secundum Petrum, 
capitulo xiij*', aquae diluvii non pervenerunt ; quod autem 
aliqui dicunt Paradisum attingere lunarem circulum, 
hoc dicit Alexander, non esse secundum rei veritatem, 
sed secundum hyperbolicam locutionem, ut sic ejus in- 
comparabilis altitudo et eminentia respectu nostri habi- 
tabilis excellens ostenderetur. Sed ^ hen quia, sicut dicit 
Isidorus, libro xiv.^ capitulo tertio, loci iUius aditus per 
peccatum primi hominis interclusus est. Septus est 
enim ^ undique rumphea flammea, id est/^ muro igneo ; 
ita ut ejus cum coelo pene jungatur incendium ad 

» cut] rei, add. C.X)., and so be- 

* la A., dicitur follows pulchrum, 
which gives a different construc- 
tion. The versions agree with the 
text as printed. 

* visu] om. B. 

* ef] om. A. 
^ C. and D. add here, 2ied<u Nam 

pcrtingit aerem quietum usque ad 
lunarem circulum. 
® The following sentence is much 

altered in C. and D, B. omits the 
title Rantdphus. 

' This and the following sentence 
are placed almost at the head of the 
chapter in C. and D., and very much 

« So B.E. This is the true refe- 
rence. See lib. xiv. c. 3, A. and 
the versions give «>• 

' enirn] om. A. 

'• id esq So E. (and also C) ; ct, 


pat place haj> faire weder and merpe, for it was ]>e, celer Trevisa. 

and place of all fairenesse: no mauere of^ tree leseji |)ere 

his leues ; no floures fere welke|> ; ^ jere is merj>e and 
swetnesse ; of fruyt and trees fat growef j>ere, Genesis, 
secundo capitulo, it is i-write: Euerich tree ferynne is 
swete to ete and faire to si^t. perynne is sikemesse and 
suerte, for fe place is hi^e. ^. Petrus, capitalo tertio 
decimo, seij> J>at fe water of J>e greet flood com^ nouit in 
Paradys. pei som men seie fat Paradys is hi^e as fe 
mone, fat is not soof in wordes and in dede ; but fat 
specbe is i-saued by an excusacioun of spekynge, fat is 
i-cleped yperbolica: so f at f ei fat so spekef wolde mene, 
fat Paradys in hey^t passef all ofer londes. Treuisa. 
So we preisef a worldely^ man lordan or lohan, and 
self fat he was f e beste man fat euere was ; and ^it he 
was neuere so good as Crist. So in wordes fat sotil men 
wole^ deuyne, his menynge^ trewe and good. But alias, 
as Isidre 7 seif , libro nono, capitulo primo : Oure wey to 
Paradys is faste i-stopped by cause of pe synne of oure 
forme ^ fader ; it ® is i-closed al aboute wif a firen ^^ wal, so 
fat fe brennynge ferof arechef to heuene, as som men 

amenite. For hit is the pantre or place of alle pulcritude, MS. Ha&l. 
where the trees of euery kynde loose not theire beaute, 2261. 

floures fade not, hauenge in hit pleasaunte frute. As hit is 

schewede in the secunde chapitre of Genesis, where hit is 
seide. Paradise hathe in hit every tre feyre to sithte and 
swete to ey te. Also hit hathe securite, to the whiche sey- 
enge the altitude of the place berrethe testimonye. !i^. 
Where, after Petrus, capitulo xiij<>, the waters of Noe floode f. 25 a. 
atteynede not to hyt. That somme men seydc Paradise to 
atteyn to the cercle of the moone, Alexander seythe that 
not to be trawthe, but after a locucion iperbolicalle, that 
the altitude and eminence scholde be schewede excellente, 
and incomparable in the respecte of oure places habitable. 
But alias, for as Isidorus seythe, lib. ix^, cap. iij^, the entro 
in to that place was schut by the synne of Adam, whiche 
is compassede abowto with a walle off fyre ; in so moche that 
the heete of hit is ioynede allemoste with heuyn, to remove 

1 a. and Cx. omit of. 

2 welwo^f 0. ; fade, Cx., who has 
ne for no. x 

* comeih, Cx, 
< er\»ey MS. ; ertlJy, Cx. 
^ toely Cx. 

" the menyng is, Cx. 
' Ysidorus, Cx, 
^jorn, Cx. 
' a. omits it 
»• brennyng, Cx. 



arcendum homines; supra vero rumpheam iUam positi 
sunt cherubin, id est, angeli boni, ad arcendum an- 
gelos malos.^ 

Cap. XI 

De Asia et ejus provmeiis. 

laidonis, libro quarto deoi/mo. Eefert® Isidorus 
quod Asia ex nomine cujusdam mulieris Asiae^ illam 
quondam inbabitantis denominata sit. Continet * plures 
De India, provincias de quibus bic per ordinem» India ab oriente 
ortu solis, ab austro oceano, ab occidente Indo flumine, 
a septentrione Monte Caucaso terminatur. In anno 
bis babet fruges, gignit homines tincti coloris, ayem 
habet« psittacum, et elephantes/ piper, ebenum, ebur ;^ 
et lapides pretiosos, beryUos, chrysoprasos, carbunculos, 
adamantes,^ et montes aureos,® quos tamen adire propter 
dracones et griphones et immensorum bominum monstra 
quasi impossibUe est. Est autem India inter omnes 

' C« and D. add, rumphea autem 
arcet homines, 

* C. and D. begin thus : — ^ABia 
• . . denominata plures continet, 

* AsiaJi om. B, 

* Continet'] quae continet, B, 

* kabef] om. C. D. 

* Elepbantes, gestantes ebur et 
lapides, etc., 0. ; elepbantes, piper 
et calamiun aromaticum, ebur, D. ; 
elephantos, E. 

? ebur] om, B. 

^ adamantos, A. 

' C. and D. stop here till the ex- 
tract from Pliny begins. 


wolde wene. Paradys is i-closed wi]> fat wal to holde out Tbkvisa. 

mankjnde ; aungelles stonde]) on ^at wal to kepe wel 

Paradys, p9>t none euel goostes mowQ come Jjerynne. 

De Asia et ejus provinciis* Isidorus, libra quarto decimo. 

Capitulum undecimum^^ 

IsiDORirs seip J>at Asia haj> fe name, and is i-cleped after 
a womman ]>at woned ]>erynne, ]?at was i-cleped Asia, In 
Asia bee)) many prouinces and londes, fe whiche I schal 
descriue and rekene al arewe,* and bygynne wi]? Ynde. 
Inde ha]) in ])e est side ]>e sonne risynge, in J>e south fe 
see occean, in \e west fe ryuer of Inde, in fe north fe huUe 
Jat is i-cleped Caucasus ; and so Tnde is i-ended. In Tnde 
beej) men of colour and hewe i-died. In Tnde is a brede 
])at is i-cleped phitacus, elephantis, peper, and a tree ])at is 
i-cleped hebanus, euery, and precious stones,^ beriles, criso- 
prassus, charbunculus,^ adamantis, and goldene hulles, to ]>e 
whiche it is ful harde for to come for c&agouns and grypes, 
and for dyuers manere of^ men grisliche and wonderliche 
i-schape. Among aJle \q londes of J>is worlde Ynde is ]?e ^ 

men, that thei comme not to hit, where cherubyn ahd other MS. Harl. 
goode angelles be putte toremoye ylle angelles iBrom thens. 2261, 

OfAsiay and of the Prouinces of hit. Isidorus^ libro quarto 

decimo^ Capitulum undeoimum* 

IsiDonns rehersethe that Asia toke that name of the 
name of a womaa, somme tyme inhabitenge in hit, whiche 
conteynethe mony prouinces, of whom hit schalle be ex- 
pressede by ordre. Inde is tenninate from the este with the Of Ynde 
rysenge of the sonne, of the sowthe with the occean, of the ^^o^Cjl^e] 
parte weste with, the floode of Tnde, and of the northe with o/hfitl/* 
the hille callede Caucasus. That lend berrethe twyes corne 
in oon yere, bryngenge furthe men of a spottede colour, 
hauenge in hit nyihtengales, elephauntes, pepir, precious 
stones, berilles, crisoprassus, carbuncles, adamantes, and 
hilles^ of ffolde. Neuerthelesse hyt is as impossible to so 
to theyme for dmgones and grifynixes and other diue^e 
wonders of m^n. Tnde is moste amonge alle o]?er regiones 

* al along, Cx. 

^ stones] Added fh>m a. and Cx. 
' charbonicks, a, ; carbunelis, Cx., 
-who has crisopassis (sic) just before. 

* o. and Cx. om. of. 
' a. and Cx. om. J>«. 



regiones orbis major, opulentior, potentior, populosior, 
et in stupendis mirabUior. Ibi enim ficus est tarn 
expansa, ut sub unitis fici latitudine multaB hominum 
tuxmse possint* discumbere.^ Hoc autem facit tibertas 
soli, temperies coeli, et abundantia aqtwe. PliniuSf libro 
8eodOf capituh nono decimo? ladia multos liabet reges 
et populos, quorum alii terram excolunt, alii merces 
evehunt, alii mUitiam^ componunt. Alii sapientiSB et 
disciplinse intendunt. Ibi sunt^ arbores tam procerae, 
ut cacumen^ earum a jactu sagittae vix pertingatur; 
iuternodium quoque arundinis in alveo navigabili temos 
fert homines. Sunt et ibi homines quinque cubitoruni, 
De mon- qui nec expirant ' nee languescunt. Sunt ^ ibi satyri 


hominibus q\^ homlnes monstruosi ; sunt ibi et® homines cubitalis 


mensurse/^ pigmsei nuncupati, qui in quarto anno ^etatis 
generant efc in quinto *^ canescunt. Hi collecto agmine 
sedentes super arietes pugnant contra grues, quorum ^^ 
nidos et ova confringunt, ne hostes contra se nimis 

' So E. ; possuntf A* 

* Jbi . ♦ discumhere] placed in C. 
and D., with alterations, in the latter 
part of the extract from Plin^, end- 
ing thus : nt turmas hominum sub 
se recipiat. 

^ C. and D. contain first the extract 
from. Plinyy as ^r as intendunt} then 
the extraci: from Cicero, then the re 
mainder of the Pliny here given, a 
little altered and abbreviated The 
authors of the extracts are not 
properly distinguished. 

* mHitiam] A, adds earum» 
^ stinf] cm. B. 

* cacumen"] acumen, CD. 

' expiranQ aspirant, B. 

^ sunt] sunt et, B. ; sed ibi, D* 

^sunt ibi ef] So C. and D. (the 
latter omtting ibi) ; quia sunt ibi, 

'» mensur(B] statura», G. D., which 

have also other small variations. 
" quoruni] om. CD. 

" quinto] sexto, D. 


grettest and most richest,* strengest and most ful of peple, Trbvisa. 
yn wonder and meruayles most wonderful. In Inde a crop of — 
a figge tree is so huge 2 and so wide i-sprad, j>at meny com- 
panyes of men may sitte at pe ^ mete wel i-now j>ere vnder. 
pat makep* goodnes of J>e lond, temprure* of wedir and 
plente of watir, Plinius^ Itbro sexto, capUulo decimo nono^ 
In Ynde beef many kynges and peples ; som of hem tilie]> ^ 
londe, Bom yse]> chafiare and marchaundise, som kny^thode 
and chyuah-ie, and som beef grete clerkes. In Ynde beej> 
trees, fat hauef coppis 7 as hi^e as me schal schete wif an arwe. 
Also of a gobet bytwene tweie knottes of a rede in Ynde 
me makef a boot, fat ouer dope watres ^ beref f re men at 
ones. In Ynde beef men of fyue cubites ^ long, fat euelef 
nou^t,'® nofer " ^ildef vp fe breef . Also fere beef Satyri and 
of er dyuers men grisliche and wonderHche i-schape. perynne 
bef men of a cubite longe, and beef i-deped Pigmei ; f ese 
Pigmei geten children and gendref ** in f e fourf e iere, and 
horef *3 in f e fifte ^ere ; ^^ fei gaderef a greet boost and ridef 
vppon wetheres and rammes to fitte wif cranes, and de- 
stroyef hernestes and her eyren;'^ for fe cranes fat beef hir 
enemyes schulde not encrese and wexe to many, pere beef 

moste plentuous, moste in peple, hauenge in hit moste mer- MS. Habl. 
uayles and wondres. There is a ^gge tre soe expande, that 226I. 
mony multitudes of peple may sytte vnder the latitude of 
oon figge tre. The plente of the sonne, the temperaunce 
of heuyn, and habundaunce of water do cause that. Tullius 
de Tusculanis quaestionibus. Ynde hathe mony kynges and 
peple. Somme peple tylle the erthe, somme vse marchandise» 
somme cheuallery, somme intende to sapience and discipline* 
There be trees of so semely stature that vnnethe the altitude 
of theym may be atteynede by the schote of an arowe, the space 
betwene ij, knottes of a reede makethe a bootte for iij. men. 
There be men also of y. cubites, whiche dye not, neither 
waile. Also there be men of the measure of a cubite caUede 
pigmeis, whiche gendre in the iiij*^* yere of theire age, and 
wexe hoore in the v**: these men gedrede in a multitude, 
syttenge on wedres, fithte ageyne cranes, whose nestes and 
egges thei broke leste their enmyes be multipliede ouer hugely 

* rf/chcy Cx. 

2 grete, Cx. 

3 Cx. omits \>e, 

* causeth the, Cx. 
^ So also a. ; temperuref Cx. 
« tj/Heth the, Cx. ^ 
' toppis, Cx., which may be right. 
B a depe water, Cx. (after at ones'). 

* cuhyte, Cx. 

" wexe not seke, Cx. 

" ner, Cx. 

** engenderen, Cx. 

w wese hore, Cx, 

" 0. and Cx. om. ^ere, 

** egges, Cx. 

VOIi. I. F 



multiplicentur. Sunt ^ ibi gymnosophistas philosophi, qui 
per diem^ quasi immobiles irreverberatis oculis solem 
contemplantur. Alii quoque capita canina habeutes 
dicti Cynocephali ; * latratus edunt potius quam voces ; 
ferarum pellibus vestiti^ dentibus et ungoibus armati 
venatu et aucupio vivunt. AUi sine ore frondium 
lanugine tecti solo odore narium vivunt* Alii in 
juventute canescunt et in senectute nigrescunt. In 

quibusdam^ Indise montibus sunt homines adversas 

plantas habentes et digitos octonos in manibus,® 

^^'^^^^ Tulliua, de Tusculanis quoBstionibus. Est qusB- 

marito. ^^^^ ggj^g ^ India, ubi cuilibet viro licitum est 

pluresf habere nxores; sed mortuo marito conveninnf^ 
omnes conjuges, et quae ex illis comperta® est a vi- 
vente marito plus dilecta Msse^ ilia cum marito 
mortuo sepelietur viva,'^ et hoc habet" pro solatio et 
Dearbo- praeconio. Petrus, capitulo cxcvj^P Arbores solis et 

ribus Solis 

etLimae. Irai89 sunt in India^ de quarum pomis vescentes sacer* 
dotes per quingentos annos vivebant. Dicebantur 
autem arbores solis, quia quamcito radius Solaris sum- 

1 Sun£\ Bnnt et, B. 

^ dieni\ totum diem, CB., wliich 
add et after immobUes, 

^ Et alii cum caninis capitibus 
dicti CynocephalijCjy» 

* AUi sine ore ♦ . . vitmnt'] WhoUy 
omitted Id C. ; D. only omits na- 

^ quibusdani^ B. adds v&ro, 

^In quSyasdam^^^manibua'^ Wholly 
omitted in CD. 

' So A.B. (but the latter omitting 
conjuges), and D. (hut onutting 
omnes) ; convenient, E.C. 

' camparata, A. ; probata, CD. 

** a vivente plus dilecta extitisse, 

^^ cum marito viva sepelietur, B. 

" ktibet^ om. A. 

'2 The extract from Petrus is 
omitted in CD. 


besy philosofres })at byholde)» on )>e sonne al ]?e day long. Tbevisa. 

Also somme haf hedes as it were houndes, and]?e voys fat 

])ey make]) is liker to an > houndes berkynge pan to a ^ manis 
voys ; pej beep i-cloped in wylde bestes skynnes and 
i-armed wij) hir owne teej> and nayles, and lyuej> by huntynge 
and baukynge. Opere pere beep pat bauep no mouthy and 
lyuep by odour and smelles, and bep i-cloped in mosse 
and hery tuftes pat growep out of treen.^ Oper boretb in 
^onpe, oper 3 wexep blak in elde. In som hulles of Ynde 
beep men pat bauep ^ soles of Mr fe^ ouertorned and ey^te 
fyngres in oon honde. TulL de Tusc. 90.* In oo con- 
tray of Ynde euericb man hap many wyfes ; but whan 
pe bousbond is deed, pe wyfes schulle goo to gidres, and 
loke whicbe of bem was best i-loued of pe bousbonde ; and 
sche scbal be beried wip hym and putte ^ on erpe ^ quyk ^ 
alyue ; and in pat contray pat is acounted pe fairest hap 
and [fortune, and alsop,worscbippe pat eny wyf myjte haue. 
Peirus, 196.^^ In Ynde beep trees pat beep i-cleped pe 
trees of pe sonne and of pe mone ; preostes fat ete.of pe 
apples of pilke trees lyued *^ fyue bondred ^ere. pey were 
i-cleped pe trees of pe sonne, for euericb of bem quaked 

on theyme. Also there be men bauenge hedes lyke dogges, MS. Habl* 
wbiche be callede Gynocephali,^^ herkenge more like to dogges 2261. 
then to the voices of men, clothede with skynnes of wylde ~r^ 
bestes y-armede with teithe and talaundes, lyj^nge by haw- 
kenge and huntenge. Also somme men lyve there oonly 
by odoun Also somme of that cuntre wexe hoore in yowthe 
and blakke in their age. Also in somme partes of Ynde 
be men bauenge holowe fyngers in their hondes» Petrus^ 
capitulo 196.^ There is a peple in Ynde to whom hit is 
lawefalle to haue mony wyfes; but, the man dedde, alle his 
wifes comme to gedre, that wife that was luffedde beste 
of hym schalle be buryede with hym, bauenge that for a 
grete solace. PetruSy 196. The trees of the sonne and of 
the moone be in Ynde, by the apples of whom prestos 
lyffede by v*^. yeres. Thei were namede the trees of the 
sonne and of the moone, for as soone as the sonne sonde 

' a. om. an and a; Cz. has to 
berkynge of houndes, 
2 trees, Cx., and so elsewhere. 

• and, Cx. 

• Cx. adds the* 

^ The reference should be to Cic. 
Tusc. Qu<B8t, lib. y. c. 27. 

• i-put, a. 

* in the erthe, Cx. 

* Cx. adds and. 

^ Added fix>m Cx.^ nrho places 
acounted after fortune, 

1« 19% 6, MS. and Cx. 

" /yuen, Cx» 

^ Cenophali, Harl. MS. 

P 2 



mitatem alicujus earum tangebat, statim tota tremebat 
et responsa dabat circtiinstantibus. Similiter et de 
arboribus lunas fiebai Per has arbores interdictum 
fiut Alexandre Magno, ne aliquando intraret Babylonem. 
Iddorua, libra quinto dedmo, Ophir' est insula India), 
ubi est anri copia^ ad'quam de mari Magno* transitnr 
per mare Rubrum.* 

Oar XII. 
Isidorus lih^o quartodecimo, capitulo octavo} 

OSTENDIT Isidorus qnod^ Parthia regie propter in- 
victam Parthorum virtutem, qui nomen suum Assyriis 
et Medis diffuderunt, solebat continere totam tenam 
Assyrias, Mediae, Persidis,^ Carmanise ; quae extenditur 
in longitudine a mari Caspio usque ad mare Rubrum, 
et in latitudine ab Indo flumine usque ad flumen^ 
Tigris, quod est principium Mesopotamise. Tragus, 

» QpAtV] Offir,A.B.D.; 0%r,E.; 
Ofir, C. — C. and D, omit the est 

* MediUrraneOy CD. 

• navigioj add. CD. 

^ The text and versions are hoth 
erroneous. The true reference is 
to Isid. lib. xiy. c. 3. § 8. (Op. vol. 
iv. p. 145. Ed. Arer.) 

^ The first three words omitted 
in B.C.D. 

* Persidia] Persidaj, A.C.E. This 
barbarous form occnrs elsewhere in 
the MSS. of the text and versions, 
but is corrected in the text, 

' So B.C.D.E.; Jluvium, A. 


and schoke as sone as pe sonne beem touched his cop,^ and TjIevisa. 

answered men fat stood aboute. pe same doynge was of pe 

trees of []J>e]*^ mone. By fese trees J>e grete kyng Alex- 
ander*^ was forbode, Jjat he schulde neuere come in Babylon. 
Isidarus libra quinto decimo. Offir is an ylond of Ynde ; 
J>erynne is greet plente of golde, and Je passage J>erto out of 
)je grete see^ is by ]?e Rede see. 

De Parthia. IsidoruSy lihro quarto deeimo, Capitulum 


IsiDORUS schewef put Parthia^ fat kyngdom, for my^t 
and strengfe of men of fat lond, fat her name spredde into 
f e londes Assyria ^ and Media, and ^ was i«»woned ^ to con- 
tcyne al f e lond of foure contrees, of Assyria^ of Media, 
of Persida,® and of Carmania ; f e which lond Parthia strecchef 
in lengf e from f e see fat is i-cleped Caspius anon to f e ^® 
Rede see ; and in brede from the ryuer of Ynde to f e ryuer 
fat is i-cleped Tigris, pat is f e byginnynge of f e lond fat 
is i-cleped Mesopotamia. Tragus, libra decimo, capitulo 

furthehis beames and towchede the altitude of eny ofMS.HARL, 
theyme, alle the tre movede and ^afe answeres to men stond« 2261. 

enge abowte. Hit was doen in lyke wyse to the trees of 

the moone. Hit was interdicte by those trees to kynge , 
Alexander, that he scholde not entre in to Babylon. IsidoruSy 
libra quinto decimo. Offir is an yle off Ynde, where is 
plente of golde, to whom hit is goen from the grete see 
by the Redde see. 

Of Parthia. IsidoruSy librp 14**. Capitulum duodecimumi 

IsiDORUS schewethe that the region callede Parthia for 
the vertu invincible of men of that region, whiche diflEusede 
theire name to men of Assyria and of Media, was wonte to 
conteyne alle the londe of Assyria, of Media, of Persida, and of 
Carmania, whiche is extendede in longitude from the see 
Caspius vn to the Redde see, and in latitude from the floode 
of Inde vn to the floode of Tigris, whiche is the begynnenge 
of Mesopotamye. Tragus, libra quinto. Men of Parthia be 

1 toppe^ Cx. (and possibly this may 
be the MS. reading.) 

2 >£] Added from a. and Cx. 
' AJysaundre, Cx. 

* J>e grete see] Grece, Cx. (con- 
fusing c and t) 

* The MS. looks like Parchia, 

are identical (or nearly so) in 

• ofAssiriay Cx. 

' and^ Added from Cx. 

^ woontey Cx. 

^ Cx. omits of before Media and 

and so Cx. prints it ; but c and t i *** Caspius vnto the, Cx. 



Parthi. Ubro xl^^} Parthi Scythico * sermone eomles dicuntur ; 
nam in primis Scytharum exules fiiemnt, et regno a 
Medis ad Peraas translate quasi praeda victorum ex- 
titerunt. Unde et inter orientales popidos usque ad 
Hacedonicum regnum obscuri mansere. Deinde trium- 
phato per Maeedones oriente Macedonibus servierunt, 
sad tandem cum Eomanis imperium orbis^ diviserunt. 
Hi mores Scytharum, de quibus pulsi fderant, con- 
traxerunt ; unde et illis sunt arma plumea,^ ingenia 
tumida, seditiosa^ fraudulenta. Quippe viris violentiam^ 
mulieribus mansuetudiaem deputant Semper aut in 
domesticos aut in extemos motus eorum sunt in* 
quieti Natura sunt taciti, ad faciendum magis quam 
ad loquendum prompti. Proinde secunda* sicut ad- 
versa silentio tegunt, principibus metu non pudore 
parent; in libidinem projecti varia uxorum libidine 
delectantur. Singuli plures uxores habent; nullum* 

* 44, A. ) 45, D. The versions 
again differ from these. The text 
is correct See JttBt.xIi. 1, sqq, 

^Scythico] Scitice {ie, Scythicae, 
for Scythise), A, 

^ orbis mperiiottf B. 

*piumea] plnmbata, CD. (Justin, 
xlL 2, has hri&B plumatcB sunt.) 

* secunda] prospera, CD. 

•C and D. insert before this 
word, GiraM,, d, 17. 



quinquagesimo primo,^ Parthi,^ fe men of Parthia, in J»e Trbvisa. 
langageof]?© contrej Scythia, beej i-cleped oatlawes;^ for 
in the byginnynge of men of Scythia Parthi, fat bee}) men 
of Parthia, were outlawes ; and whan be kyngdom was i-take 
from J)e men of Media to fe men of Persida, fan were fe 
Parthi as it were pray to fe victores, and were as it were 
vnknowe amonge men of the est londes, and anon 4 vnto fat ^ 
' tyme fat men of Macedonia bycom ^ kynges and lordes of 
londes. pan afterward fey serued f e Macedonyes, when f e 
Macedoynes were vie tours in fe est londes. But at fe 7 laste 
fey were partyners'wif the Romayns, and deled Iprdschipe 
wif hem. pese Parthi vsef ^ f e maneres of men of Scythia, fat 
put ® ham ou^te som tyme ; f erfore her armes and wepene 
beef verray^o swellynge wittes, gileful aspies. Men fey 
acountef violent and wommen mylde, and euere fei beef 
vnesi to hir [owne] ^^ neiheboures of er to ^^ strong men. p&j 
beef comounliche stille and litel of speche, more redy for 
to doo fan for to speke. perfore fey holdef pryue good 
happes and boonchief, as wel as yuel i3 happes and meschief. 
pey beef buxom^-* to here lordes for drede and not for schame. 
pei bef al i-cast ^^ to leccherie wif hire owne wifes j eueriche 

callede owtelawe after the speche of men off Scythia. For MS. Habl. 
thei were firste owtelawes in the realme translate from men ^^*^- 
of Media to men of Pers[i]a, beenge to theyme as a pray of 
victores. Wherefore thei dwellede obscurely amonge men of 
the este vn to the realme of Macedony inhabitate. After that, 
the victory hade by Macedones, thei did seruyce to theyme ; ^ 
but at the laste they diuidede the empire of the worlde 
with the Eomanes. Thei exercisede the maneres and consue- 
tudes of men of Scythia, from whom thei were expellede, the 
wittes of whom be timorous, ftille of fraude, deputenge violence 
to men and mansuetude to women, whiche be other in malice 
amonge theyme selfe, other with ofer men. Stylle in nature, 
moore prompte to do ylle than to speke, couerenge thynges ^* 26 a. 
aduersaunte with silence, proiecte in the lustes of . lechery, 
[fei] haue grete delectacion in women. Euery man bathe 

^ qutntOy Ox. 

® Perchiif Cx. 

' of Scida, Cz., who omits all 
following tiU were outlawes (by cle- 
rical or typogr. error). The MSS. 
of both versions usually write Scicia, 

* and anon\ om. Cx. 
« Wf] the, Cx. 

• bycam, Cx. 

' Cx. omits >& 
^ vseden, Cx. 

^puf] Added from a. and Cx. 

^^fethery, Cx., probably rightly ; 
the text, with which r. agrees, is 
corrupt ; perhaps \>ei ben has been 

11 oume'i Added from a. and Cx. 

12 So a. $ )>e, MS. ; to straunge, Cx. 
" So «. and Cx. ; of yuel, MS. 

" buxom"] obedient, Cx. 
1^ disposed, Cx. 



delictum adulterio gravius puniunt. Quamobrem feemi- 
nis suis consortia, aspectus, et convivia vironim* in- 
terdicunt. In cibis^ sunt parci, nulla came nisi venatica 
vescuntur. Ovraldus distinctio xvij. Gens ilia post- 
quam a Seleuco Bege defecit sub Arsace mansit, a quo 
et Arsacidas dicti sunt, qui illos primum legibus in- 
formavit,' miUtes * legit, castra munivit, urbes finnavit 
Tandem Arsaces praefatus regnum Hyrcanorum suo 
adjecit imperio. Inter quos, succedentibus aliquot post 
hoc* regibus, Mithridates filius Mitbridatis post inter- 
fectionem Crassi Somani consulis regnum per quadra- 
ginta tres ^ annos tenuit ; in quibus multas claras 
victorias habuit/ sicut infra suo loco dicetur. Trogus, 
libra xlf? Parthorum gens inter Scythas et Medos 
media est ; inter quos servi plurimum ® abundant, quia 
nunquam manumittuntur ; liberi eorum omni tempore 

^ viroruMp om. B. ; consortia viro^ 
rum, conmvia el aspectusy CD. 

«ctfto, CD. 

' instruxit^ B. 

* milite8\ militem, C«£. 

• So A. (and the versions); Ixiij., 
B. ; xlvj,, C.B.E. 

^ habuit] After this word E. adds 

®14, CD,, -wrongly. See Just, 
xli. 2. 

^ plurmuai] om, C. 



of hemha]> many wifes; nofrespas among hem is i-pun[i]sclied Tbbvisa, 
so grevousliche as spouse breche * by here lawe. [J)erfore] ^ •^~ 
l?ey forbedef hu-e wifes ^ si^t festes and companye of ofer 
men ; "pei Ieue]> scarsliche and by litel mete, and etep no 
ilesche but venysoun. Giraldus, dist 17. . pilke men, after 
pey lefte ]je kyng Seleucus,^ woned vnder Jje kyng Arsaces j 
and jjerfore J>ey were i-cleped Arsacide. J)at kyng Arsaces 
tau^t hem first lawes; he gadered kny^tes and bulde 
castelles, citees, and strong walled townes ; and at ]>e ^ laste 
Arsaces fe kyng ioyned fe kyngdom of Hyrcania to his 
emperie, and so men of Hyrcania longed to bis empere. 
Among J>e whiche aftirward among ofer kynges come Mi- 
thridates. Mithridates^ sone after |)e slau^ter of Crassus, 
consul of Kome,7 regned and helde ]>e kyngdom I>re and 
fourty ?ere, in j>e whiche tyme he dede many viage, and ® 
many faire victories hadde, as hit is declared ynnere yn fis • 
place.^ Trogus, libra quadragesimo primo,^^ Parthi, J?e men 
of Parthia, beej? in J>e myddel bytwene J?e Scitis,^^ men of 
Scythia, and Medes, men of Media» That londe of Parthi 
ha)? ^^ many bonde men amonge hem, for fey bee)? neuero 
i-made fre ; here fre men alwey ridej? on hors,^3 and hir 

mony wifes. They punnysche noo synne more than advoutery, jxs. Habl. 
therefore thei enterdite to theire wifes felawschip and festes 2261. 
of men. Whiche be of litelle meyte, eitenge noo fiesche but -*— 
that is geten with huntenge. Giraldus, d. 17. After that peple 
failede vnder kynge Seleucus thai dwellede vnder kynge 
Arsace, of whom thei be callede Ai'sacidesj informenge theym 
firste with lawes he gedredde a companyee of knythtes, ma- 
kenge castelles and citees. At the laste the foreseide Arsaces 
adiecte to his empyre the realme of Hircanes. Amonge whom, 
somme kynges succedenge after that, Mithridates the sonne of 
Mithridatis holdede that realme by xliij. yere after the dethe 
of Crassus, consul of Eome ; in whom he hade mony clerc 
victories, as hit schalle be schewede in his propre place. 
Tragus^ libro 41. The peple of Parthia is betwene the men 
of Scythia and Medes, amonge whom seruauntes be habundante, 
for thei haue not their manumission; the &e men of theym 

* aduoultrye, Cx. 

^ Added from a. and Cx. 
' opeUy add. Cx. 

* Sofeucus, MS. 

* |>«] om. Cx. 

< Mithridates] Added from a. and 
Cx. The MSS. of both versions 
write Metridates or Mitridates. 

* MS. adds he. The scribe has 
misunderstood the sense. 

" viages and had, Cx. 

• within forth in his place, Cx, ; 
|>is (in text) seems a clerical error 
for his» 

^^ 14, Cx. See note on text 
" betwene Scitas, Cx. 

" tfiat londe. And Parchii Itaue. 
" riden alway on horsbak, Cx. 



equis vectantur ; servi pedibus^ incedunt, Et in equis 
quidem ^ bella peragunt ; conviviaque * publica et* officia 
privafca adeunt. Liberos suos equitare, sagittate^ 
summa cura docent. Ut quisque eoruin locuples^ est, 
ita pltires in bello eqnites '' regi suo reprsesentant. Co- 
minus prseliari aut nrbes obsidere nesciunt; pugnant 
enim^ procurrentibus equis aut terga dantibus. Ssepe 
enim in ipso fervore cei*taniinis fugam simulant, et cito 
post pugnam repetunt, ut ineautius insequentes vul- 
nerent. Signtim illis in prselium® non tuba sed tym- 
panum.^^ Nee diu pugnare possunt ; intolerabiles quippe 
forent, si tanta illis esset vis et perseverantia quantus 
est impetus. Sepultura illis est bestiarum laniatus, et *^ 
osaa sola sepeUuBt 

* B. omitB pedihus, 
^quideni] quidam^B. 
' B, omits que. 

* eQ om. E. 

& et sagiitare, B.C. 

* locupks'] locaplex, A.C.I>,E. 

^ B. omits eqnites, 

8 B. omits enim. 

* pr<eUum'\ So B.C.I).B. 5 pralio. 


1« A.C.D. add est, 
" et2 vinde et, E. 



bonde men goof on foot.* And in bataile fey fi^tef on Tebvisa. 

bora, pej goof to priue oflBis and to comyn feestes, bnt 

fey techif besiliche here children to ride and to scliete,^ 
and euerich of hem by his richesse and power fyndef to 
Mr power ^ horsmen'* in bataile for to fijte. pei konnef 
nou^t fi^te in no^ comyn manere, nofer fei konnef nou^t 
bysege castelles nofer strong walled townes ; fey fi^tef on 
hors rennynge^ in ful cours and turnynge a^e, and ofte in 
hardest and strongest fi^t fey feynef for to flee and sodeyn- 
^ liche turnef and risef 7 ajen, fat fey mowe f e slyloker 8 
here enemyes wynne and slee. In bataile fei vsef taboures 
and no trompe, and fey mowe not dure ^ longe for to fi^te. 
No men scholde hem awelde and wifstonde,^*^ and^i fey 
were as stronge and stalworf e to dm'e, as they beef angry ^^, 
to rese ; ^^ hire bm^ienge is wonderful ; for bestes . [al] to 
halef and teref and etef f e ^* flesch ; and [fey] burief onliche 
fe bones. 

ryde alleweies on horses^ the seruauntes goe on foote, vsenge MS. Habl. 
horses in batayles, goehge to commune festes and priuate 2261. 
offices^ techenge the childre liberalle with grete attendaunce to 
ryde and to schote, amonge whom euery man schalle presente 
to the kynge certeyne men of armes in batelles after the 
extent of his rychesse. Whiche can not fi^hte and put seges 
to cites, for thei fi^hte theire horses I'ennenge, other elles 
fleenge and schewenge theire backes, feynenge oftetymes 
theym to flee, and after that repetenge fl^hte, that thei may 
hurte men folowenge theym indiscretely. A tympan is a 
melody to theyme in batelles, and not a claryon, whiche may 
not fi^hte longe. For thei scholde be intollerable and in- 
vincible, if they myihte haue the vertu of perseueraunce after 
theire impetuosite. The deuourenge of bestes is a sepulture to 
theyme, and after that they do take theire boones to sepulture 
or beryenge. 

* afoote, Cx. 
^ schote, Cx. 
^ king, a* $ ki^ide, Cx. 
^horsmen men, MS., by mere 
clerical error ; (not a, or Cx.) 
^ more, a, ; in comyn, Cx. 


empijg, a. 

''fyght, Cx. 
^ alylyer, Cx., who places theyr 
enemyes after slee, 
' endure, Qx^, and so usually. 

^^ «oi)> stonde (and so frequently}, 

" yf. Cx. 

^^ and hasty, added in' r. and Cx. 

'""fyghte, Cx. 

^^for beestes teren, eten, and al to 
hdlen thmr flessch, and they hurye 
only but the bones, Cx., from whom 
the words in brackets, wanting also 
in a., are supplied. 



Cap. XIIL 

De Assyria et ejus provinciis. Isidorus, libro quarto 


Assyria. NoTANDUM est quod^ Assyria ab Assur filio Sem dicta 
est, <jui earn post diluvium primum inhabitavit. Haec 
ab ortu habet Indiam, ab austro Mediam, ab occidente 
Tigrim fluvium, a septentrione montem Caucasum ubi 

Media. sunt portaB Caspies. Tragus, libra xlif. Media* con-- 
dita est a Medo filio -<Egei, regis Athenarum, qui 
aemulans virtutes Jasonis vitrici sui Mediam ^ urbem in 
honorem Medeae matris suae constituit caput regni 
Medorum. Hasc Media ab aquilone taugit Parthiain, 
ab ortu Indiam, ab occasu Chaldseam, ab austro Per- 

Persia. sida.* Isidorus, libro xiiif. Persis a Perseo nominatur 
qui* earn conquisivit et nobilem ex ignobili fecit.^ Quad 
habet ab ortu Indos, ab occasu sinum maris Bubri^ ab 
aquilone Mediam ; ab austro Carmaniam tangit. In qua 

^ Notandum est quod] om. CD. ; 
est only omitted in K. 

" Media] Medea, A.B. In C. and 
D. the foUowing sentences are com- 
pressed as follows : ** Media et Per- 
** sida a legibns Medo et Perseo 
*' cognominat» sunt, qui iUas pro- 
** vincias bellando aggressi sunt. E 
'^quibus Media ad occasum Par- 
" thiam tangit, a septentrione Ar- 
*' jneniam, a borea Caspios, a meridic 

" Persidam videlicet. Persida autcm 
" (D. omits auteni) ab ortu tangit 
** Indos, &c.** as in text. 

' Mediam] So E. ; Medam^ A. 
Justin (xUi. 4. Ed. Grasv.) has Me^ 

* Persida^ Persidam, MSS., and 
Persida for Persis below. See note 
on c. 12. 

^ quiUf A. 

* fecit after nohUem in B. 


De Assyriis, IsidomSy libra quarto decimo, Capitulum Tkevisa. 

teriium decimum. ' 

Take hede ])at Assyria ha]> pe name of Asur Sem his 
sone, for he was J>e firste J>at woned J?erynne after Noes 
flood, pis londe Assyria haj> in fe est side Inde, in fe 
south Media, in pe west J>e ryuer Tigris, and in pe north 
pG hille j?at is i-cleped Caucasus. ])ere bef pe ^ates of 
Caspy ; Jjere pe hilles bee}> longe and narwe. Trogus, libro 
quadragesimo secundo* Egeus was kyng of Athenis ; Medus 
was Egeus ^ sone, and folowed pe dedes of lason fat was 
his owne stepfader, and belde^ pe cheef citee of Media, 
and cleped pe citee Media also, in worschippe of his moder 
fat was i-cleped Media. J)at londe Media ha]? in pe north 
side Parthia,3 in pe est Inde,^ in pe west Caldea, in pe 
south Persida. Isidorus, libro quarto decimo, Persida is , 
i-nempned and ha]j pe name of Perseus pat conquered fat 
londe, and made it a worpy lond pat was raper^ vnworpy. 
Persida hap in pe est syde^ Inde, and^ in pe west po 
Rede see, in pe norp Media, and^ in pe south Carmania. 

Of Assyria, Isidorus, libro quarto decimo, Capitulum tertium MS. Haul. 

decimum. 2261. 

Hit is to be aduertisede that Assyria toke his name of Assur 
the Sonne of Sem, whiche inhabite firste hit after Noe floode. 
Assyria hathe on the este parte of hit Ynde, of the sowthc Assyria. 
Media, of the weste pai*te the floode of Tigris, of the northe 
the grete hille callede Caucasus, where be partes of Caspius 
hilles. Trogus, libro 42, Media was made of Medo son of Media. 
Egeus kynge of Atheynes, which, folowenge the vertu of laso 
his victrix, made that cite callede Media in to the honor of 
Medee his moder, whiche cite he made the hede and princi- t 2C b. 
palle place of that realme. That cuntre of Media towchethe 
Parthia of the northe pai'te, and of the este Ynde, of the weste 
Caldea, and of the sowthe parte Persida. Isidorus, libro 
quarto decimo, Persia was namede of a man callede Persius, Persia, 
that conquerede hit, whiche hathe of the este parte to hit men 
of Tnde, of the weste side parte of the Redde see, of the northe 
parte Media, towchenge Carmany of the sowthe parte : in 

* hiSf add. in a, (not Cx.) 
2 buylt, Cx. 

' the see, Cx. 

* So a. and Cx. ; ende, MS. 


rather] to fore, Cx. 
® stfde] om. Cx. 
' and] om. Cx, 
^ anct] om. a. 




Perside exorta est primum^ ars magica sub Nemproth 
gigante, qui post confusionem linguarum terrain illam 
adiens docuit Persas ignem colere et solem,^ qui lingua 
eorum El dicitur. Hujus ^ terrse metropolis aliquando * 
fuit Elam sic dicta ab Elam filio Sem, quse postmodum^ 
dicta est Elymais,^ et nunc vocatur Persepolis f de qua 
fit mentio in libro Macbabseorum.® Et ab isto Elam 
Persse® vocabantur Mamitse, sicut patet in Actibus 
Apostolorum.^^ Mesopotamia jacet inter Tigrim ab ortu 
et Euphraten ab occasu. Incipit autem a septentrione 
inter Montem Taurum et Caucasum quam a meridie 
Babylonia, sequitur Babylonia.^^ laidorus, Uhro xv. Babylonia, 
quamvis '* postmodum diceretur pars Chaldseae, primitus 
tamen tarn insignis fuit'^ ut Chaldsea» Assyria, Meso- 
potamia, in ejus nomen transirent. Cujus caput fiiit 
urbs Babylon, quam Nemproth gigas fundavit. Sed 
Semiramis regina'* earn postmodum*^ ampliavit. Petrus, 
c. ccxayvif}^ Babylon est proprium *^ nomen civitatis ; 
Babylonia est^^ nomen regionis, quamvis^® unum pro 

' primOy B. 

2 qui post .... dicitur] qui docuit 
Persas colere ignem et soJem, C. 
and D., which wholly omit from 
Hujus .... Apostolorum. 

* hujus] So A,B. (and Trevisa) ; 
cujnsy E. (and Harl. version). 

* aliquando] quondam, E. 
^postea, B., and so below. 

* Eli/mais'] Elamaida, A.B.E. 
''P. vocatur, A.B., which latter 

omits in before libro, 
^ A. adds cap» vf. See 1 Mace. 

yi. 1. 
' E. adds quondam after Persa, 
'* sicut, . ,Apostohrtm] om. A.B.; 

added from E. 

" Babylonia] A. CD. add deinde 
Ckaldeay deinde Arabia. 

*^ quamvis] licet, CD. 

^^* CD. add regio, 

" regina] A. and C add Assyria^ 

'^ earn postmodum] om. E. 

^* A. does not notice that a new 
citation begins. 0. has Petrus, cap. 

*' So A. ; BaMlon proprie, B.C. 
D.E, See Harl. version. Both read- 
ings are good. 

'' est] 6m, E.B., which last also 
omits nomen, 
^® quamvis] licet, D. 



In |»at Persida bygan first "wicchecraft in Nemproot^ ]?e Trevisa. 

geauntes tyme, fat after f e spredinge of ]?e tyme ^ of many 

langage^ and tonges went into Persida, and tau^t men of 
]>at londe to worschippe j>e fire and ]>e sonne, |>at is i-cleped 
in her langage EL pe cheef citee of ]>at londe was i-cleped 
' Elam, after Elam Sem his ^ sone ; J>at citee was afterwarde 
i-cleped Elamaide, and is now i-cleped Persipol.* Of fat 
citee spekef Holy Writt in libro Machabaeorum, and of fat 
citee fey hadde fe name, fat^ were sometyme i-cleped 
Elamyte in Actibns Apostolorum. Mesopotamia lyth bytwene 
Tigris in fe est side and Euphrates in f e west side, and 
bygynnef out of f e north bytwene the tweye hulles Taurus 
and Caucasus, and haf Babylon 7 in fe south side. Isid, 
libro quinto decimo. pel Babylonia were afterward i-cleped 
a parte of Caldea; hit was first so solempne fat it con- 
teyned^ Assyria, Caldea, and Mesopotamia^ fre londes. pe 
cheef citee of Babylonia was Babylon, f e citee fat f e geant 
Nemprot ^ bulde ; ^® and Semiramis f e queue aftirward made 
fat citee more. PetruSy capitulo 37. pe citee is i-cleped Baby- 
lon, and f e londe Babylonia ; fey fat oon be wel ofte i-take for 

whiche Persia wycche crafte began firste under Nemproth the MS. Hael. 
gigante, whiche goenge to that londe after the confusion of 2261. 
tonges tau^hte men of Persia to worschippe fire and the Sonne, a •, 

which is callede El in the langage of theyme. The chiefe ^ incipit. 
place of whom was callede Elam somme tyme,, of Elam the 
Sonne of Sem whiche was callede afterwarde Elamadia, now 
callede Persepolis,^^ of whom mencion is made in the booke of 
Machabees. And of this Elam men of Persia were callede 
Elamites, as hit is schewede in the Actes of Apostles. 
Mesopotamy lyethe betwene Tigris of the este and Euphrates Mesopota- 
of the weste, begynnenge from the northe betwene the hilles ™i*- 
Taurus and Caucasus, whom Babylon folowethe from the 
meridien. Isidorus^ libro quinto deeimo, Thaujhe Babylon Babylon, 
was callede afterwarde a parte of Calde, fyrste hit was so 
nowble that Caldea, Assyria, and Mesopotamia wente into the 
names of hit, the hede of whom was that cite callede Babylon 
whom Nemproth the gigante made, but the qwene Semi- 
ramis made hyt more large. Petrus^ capitulo 37**. Babylon 
is the propre name of ti^e cite, and Babylonia ^^ the name 
of the region, thau^he the oon be put ofte for that other. 

* Nemprot^ a. ; Nemhrotk, Cx. 

2 Cx. om, of\>e tyme. 

3 So MS. and cc ; langages, Cx., 
probably rightly. 

* Sem his] Semmes, Cx. 

* Persipdis, «., Cx» 
< tkey, Cx. 

'The MSS. of both yersions 
usually have BabUon and Babilonia» 

* contei/nethf Cx. 

^jyemport,a.; Neimproik,1he geanL 

><» huyldedy Cx. 

" PersipdiSy HarL MS. 

» BcMwnia, HarL MS. 



altero saepe ponatur ; sed Babel ^ nomen est turns. 
Orosius,^ libro if. Babylon more castrormn fiiit maeni- 
bus paribus per quadrum disposita; quorum latitudo 
fuit quinquaginta^ cubitorum, altitudo quater tantum. 
LoBgitudo muri ab angulo ad angulum sexdecim ^ mil- 
liaria tenuit, ambitus murorum quadringentorum octo- 
ginta* stadiorum fuit, boc est sexaginta quatuor mil- 
liaria. Materia muri fuit ex cocto latere et bitumine 
interstrato/ ita quod neque igne *neque aqua dissolvi 
posset. PortsB urbis centum, fossa extrinsecus late 
patens ; fluvius ' Euphrates per inedium urbis fluxit ; * 
quam tamen cepit et destruxit Cyrus rex Persarum, 
sicut infra dicitur.*^ Ra/nulphus. De hujus *^ urbis 
reliquiis, secundum Hieronymum, sedificatae sunt dua? 

urbes in Perside ; " et ^^ locus Babylonis nunc desertus 
est *' et feris plenus. 
Chaldsea. Ohaldsea, quasi Cassidsea, a Oaseth filio Naclior fratris 
Abrah88 sic dicta,^^ regio est magna juxta Euphraten, 
in cujus campo Sennar sedificabatur '* turns Babel. 
Josepkvs, libro primo}^ Cujus altitudo ducentos sep- 

* Babel autem, CD. ; Babel est 
nomen, B. 

' Bo C.D.E. ; Oracius, A. ; M. 
OrosiuSy B. This extract is much 
compressed and in part transposed 
in C.D. In A. and B. there is 
some trifling variation and transpo- 
sition, hut little compression. 

« 15, CD. 

* xlij,^ A. 

' B. omits oetoginta; and (with A.) 
has quinquaginta et unius for sexa-^ 
ginta ^uafuor just alterwards, where 
C. and D. have 1 5 . The text is right. 
See Oros. lih. ii. c. 6. 

* inlersiructo, C. 
^ amnis, B. 

^ fossa , , .fluxit^ Omitted in d 
which also omits cepit et 

^ The last part of the sentence 
stands thus in A. and B. : *• Venin- 
^* tamen hanc urbem demum dc- 
" struxit Cyrus rex Persarum." 
Similarly CD., omitting vervnia' 

•" httjus^ cujus, A.B.CD. 

" The MSS. here have the correct 
form (not Persida), 

'2 ef] ita quod, E. 

>' So A.CD. ; est zfter plenus in 

^* SIC dicta"] dicta est (after Cassi- 
daa), E. 

" adificatur^ C 

^^ secundo, B. ; no numher attached 
in CD. See Joseph. Ant, lih. i. c. 4. 


pat ojer; bote pe tour is i-cleped and hatt^ * Babel. Orosius^^ Tbevisa. 

libro secundo. Babylon was i-buld as a castel, and i-walled wip 

foure walles square al aboutes ; ^ eueriche wal was fifty cubites 
in brede, and foure tyme ^ so moche in heipe ; pe lengpe of 
euery ^ wal from oon comer to anoper was sixtene myle. pe 
walles were all aboute foure hondred and foure score forlong, 
pat is foure and fourty ^ myle, pe walles were i-made of brend 
tile and of glewe in stede of morter, so pat [noper] 7 water 
noper fire my^te ham to schifte noper to dele.^ In pe ^ citee 
were an hondred ^ates and a diche wip oute, pat was fer i-seie ; 
pe ryuer Euphrates ran by pe myddel of pe citee porwoute. 
Neuerpeles Cyrus, kyng of Persida, tooke pat citee aftirward 
and destroyed hit^ as it is inner more ^® i-write. lerom seip pat 
of pe releef of pis citee were i-buld two grete citees in Persida, 
and pe place of Babylon is now wildemesse and ful of ^^ wylde 
bestes. Caldea, as Cassidea, hap pe name of Casseth, Nachor 
his sone. Nachor was Abraham his broper. Caldea is a grete 
kyngdom bysides Euphrates ; in Sennaar,'^ ^ hile ^^ of pat kyng- 
dom, pe toure Babel was i-buld. Josephus, libro primo. pe ^^ 

but Babel is the name of the towre. OrositiSy libro secundo. MS. Hjlbl. 

Babylon was disposede as with egalle walles after the manor 2261. 

of castelles by a quadrante, the latitude of whom was of 

1^ cubites, the altitude in iiij. tymes so moche, the lenghte 

of the walle from cornelle to corner holdede xvj. myles. 

The compasse of the walles was of iiijc. and Ixxx*** forlonges, 

whiche dothe make Ij*^ myles. The mater of whiche walle 

was made of sodde tyle stones mixte with pycche, in so moche 

that thei my^hte not be dissoluede with fire or water. Thro 

the myddes of whiche cite the fioode Euphrates did flowe. 

Whom Cyrus kynge of Perse toke and destroyede, as hit 

schalle be expressede in his place. ^. Off the levenges of 

whiche cite, after the seyenge of Seynte lerom, ij. cites were 

made in Persida, so that the place of Babylon is nowe deserte, 

and fuUe of wilde bestes. Caldea is seyde as Cassidea, of Caldea. 

Casethe the sonne of Nachor broper of Abraham, whiche 

is a grete region nye to Euphrates. In the filde of Sennar Turns 

the towre of Babelle was edifiede. Josephus^ libro primo» Babella». 

I* A 4 a* 

' called and mamed, Cx. 
' Orocius, a, ; Oracius, MS. and 

* aboutCt Cx. 

* fym«] added from Cx. 
^ So also a. ; both forms occur 

in both MSS. 
^ fifty, a, 
^ nojper, a. ; netlier, Cx.; om. MS. | 

* myght^ hem schjfte ne departe, 

thiSf Cx. 

*» inner more'] afterward, Cx. 

^^ftdof] om. a. 

*2 Semaar, MS., o., and Cx. 

"So a. ; hildf MS., apparently ; 
/elde, Cx. 

»* \>atf a, and Cx. 

VOL. I. G 


septuaginta duo ^ passus tenet, latitude veto tanta erat 
ut prope earn aspicientibus longitude videretur minor. 
Ranidphua, Secundum quosdam bsec turris habuit in 
altitudine tria milliaria,^ sed secundum Ivonem Camot- 
ensem in chronica sua habuit in altitudine quinque 
milUaria et pene ducentos passus, in latitudine * quatuor 

De Arabia. Arabia ad austrum Chaldaese posita, ab ortu habet 
Persida/ ab occasu sinum maris Kubri. Terra quidem 
thurifera, myrrham habens, cinnamomum, et avem phoe- 
nicem ; cujus terrse portio versus Eurum dicitur Saba, 
qu8B^ a Sab^ filio Chus sic^ nuncupata est, quam^ a 
tribus lateribus mare Rubrum cingit. JosephuSy libro 

Mons Sina. seov/ado. In hac Arabia in partibus Madian est Mons 
Syna, cujus pars est mons Ojeb ;- mons quidem pabu- 
losus ® et excelsus, sed propter seopulos prseruptos pene 
inaccessibilis. Illuc primus omnium Moyses greges 
duxit. Dicitur etiam mons terroris et foederis; quia 
populo Israel,^^ circa radices ejus commoranti, Deus in- 

* So B. (and fhe versions); 270, 
A. ; duo millia centum IxxiJ» (so 
written), E.; 2272 passus coniinet, 

* miiia, A. 

^ A. adds vero. 

* The "whole of the previous sen- 
tence is omitted in CD. 

* ad austrum kabet Persidem, CD., 
omittmg the rest of the sentence. 

• quia, A, 

^ sic} om. C.D, 

^ hanc auiem Sabam, CD. 

" babHosus, B.; scopulosusy CD. 

*« Israel] om. CD. 


toure Babel was i-buld two hondred fre score and twelf paas Trbvisa. 

hi^e, fe lengfe somdel J?e ^ lasse to hem |)at byhelde it nyh, 

for f e brede was so moche. !1^, Som men seif fat f is * torn* was 
pre myle bije, but luo Camotensis seij> in his cronicle ])at J>is 
toure was fyue mjle and almost two hundred paas hi^e and 
foure myle brode. ^. Arabia is i-sette by south Caldea, and 
ha]> in ]>e est side Perslda, and in pe west side ]^e Bede see. 
In Arabia is store, mir, and canel ; and a brid,^ y&t hatte ^ 
fenix. pe nor]> est porcioun of Arabia hatte ^ Saba, [and 
is i-deped^ Saba]^ after Sabacus^ his sone. J)is Saba is 
i-clipped* in "pre sides wip pe Eede see. Josephus, libro 
secundoy^ In pis Arabia, in pe contray [of]^^ Madyan, is 
pe hil ^2 Syna. pe mount of ^^ Oreb is a partie of pe mounte 
of Synay, and is hi^e, and hap grete plente of gras and of 
lese ; but hit is harde to come perto for hi^e rokkes and 
skarres. Moyses was pe firste man pat ladde pyder bestes. 
Hit is i-cleped also pe mount of couenaunt and of drede : 
for God all my^ty pere vppon made ponderynge and li^tnynge, 
and ^af pe lawe to'pe folk of Israel, pat were at pe hulle 

The altitude of whom was cclxxij. passes, the latitude of MS, Habl. 
whom was so huge that hit apperede to men beholdenge ^^^* 
hit that hit was more brode than longe. !l^.' After somme 
men that towre hade iij, miles in altitude. But after luo 
Carnotense, in his cronicle, hit hade v. miles in altitude 
and allemoste ij<^. passes, and iiij. myles in latitude. Araby, 
y-sette at the sowthe parte off Caldea, of the este parte hathe 
Persida, of the weste parte the^'^ Bedde see, A plentuous 
londe of encense, hauenge myrre, cinamome, and a brydde 
callede fenix. JosephuSy libro secundo. The mownte of Fenix. 
Synay is in that Arabye in the partes of Madiam, a parte Montes 
of whom is callede Oreb, a plentuous hille and highe, but Syna et 
now hit is allemoste inaccessible for schrubbes and broken ^'®^' 
stones. Moises brou^hte his schepe to pat place firste 
of men : hit is callede also the mownte of fere and of luffe ; 
for oure Lorde apperede to Moyses in hit with thundre and 
li^htenge, the peple of Israel taryenge at the foote of hit 
where oure Lorde ^afe lawe. Wherefore men hade not 

' \>e] om. Cx. 

* the, Cx. 

' bprdCf Cx., -who writes phenyx, 

* that is caUedf Cx. 

* is namedf Cx. 

* called, Cx, 

'^ [ . . . ] added firom a, and Cx. 

B Saba Chus sone, Cx. 

» bycUppedy Cx. 

" prima, Cx. 

" Added from a. and Ox. 

*2 ike mount of, Cx. 

w o/] om. Cx. 

" ihel of the, Harl. MS, 

o 2 


tonuit, coruscavit/ legem dedit. Unde non nisi mundi 
et purificati^ accedere audebant. 

Mons ixi finibus etiam Arabiae, versus oircium, est mons 


Libani qui distinguit abinvicem^ Arabiam, Judseam,* 
Phoemcem;* mons quidem summae altitudinis, ita ut 
juges nives ex aliqua sui parte continens ® navigantes in 
marl magno ad varios portus dirigat. Est etiam mons' 
salubritatis et fecunditatis ; nam cypressi, cedri, arbores, 
et herbae ibidem crescentes thus et gummi^ distillant, 
redolentiam exhalant, quibus morbidi sanantur, venena* 

Syria nnde Syria, a quodam Siro inhabitatore nepote Abrahje 


sic vocata, jacet inter fluviura ^^ Euphraten ab oriente 
et mare magnum ab occasu ; habetque a septentrione 
Armeniara et Cappadoeiam, ab austro sinum Arabicum, 
et coiitinet in se multas provincias, scilicet Comma- 
genam, Palaestinam, Plicenicem,^' Canaan, Idumaeam, Ju- 
dseam.^* Hujus provinciae caput quondam faerat Dam- 
ascus quam dedificavit Eleezer *^ semis Abrahae, cujus 

' coruscanSt A. 
^ ibidem, add. CD, 
3 abinvicem] cm. C.B. 

* Judaam] om, B. 

* el Pkoeniciam, CD. 

" continens] in se tenens, CD. 

^ gummi] gammani) C (not D.) 
^ vcnena] et yenenosa« CD. 
^^Jlnmen, CD. 
" Phcemciam^ CD. 

"The chapter in A.CD. ends 

^ C and D. add sumnup, \ " Eleazer B. 



foot 5 so J>at no man durste nejhe,' but lie were purified Trevisa. 
and i-made all 2 clene. Trevisa. Fenix is a wonder brid, — 
for of 3 al J)at kynde is but oon alyue, ]^, In ]?e contray 
of Arabia toward Circius is fe , hil fat is i-cleped Mons 
Libani. pat hilie departe]> ]?re londes atwynne,'^ Arabia, 
lude, and Fenix.^ pat hul is ful hite, so fat snowe^ lyetb 
»11 wey in som side of fat hille. [And it] 7 ia certeyn 
merk and token to schipmen fat seilef in fe grete see 
and ledef hem to dyuers moufes and hauenes. Hit is an 
hille of helf e and of ^ plente ; for cipres, eedres treen, and 
herbes growef f eron, fat droppef gom and smellef swetely ; ^ 
by fe wliiche treen, gom, and swetnesse seke men beef 
i-heled and venyme destroyed. Syria haf fe name of Cii'us 
Abrahams neuew, and lieth bytwene f e ryuer lAphrates ^® 
in f e est side and the grete see in the west side, and haf 
in f e norf side Armenia and Cappadocia, and in f e soufe 
side f e see fat is i-cleped Arabicus, and conteynef many 
prouinces fat beef Commagena, Palestina, Fenys, Canaan, 
Idumea, ludea fat is f e luerie. Damascus was somtyme f e 
chief citee of fat pi*ouince.^* Eleezer ^* Abraham's seruaunt 

audacite to attempte to goe to hit, but men devoute and MS. Habl. 
clene in tlieire conscience. The mownte of Libanus is in ^^*^' 
the costes of Arabye abowte the sowthe weste, which divid* ^ T. 
iethe a sundre Araby, lewery, and Fenicea, Whiche is an y^^^ 
hille of excellente altitude, in so moche that hit, counteynenge 
grete habundaunce of snawe, directethe men saylenge in the 
see to diuerse portes, Hy t is also an hille of wliollesomnesse 
and of fecundite. For trees of cipres, cedre trees, and of er 
yerbes gi'oenge there, distille encense and gumme ^iflfenge 
mellifluous redolence, fro whom seke men be healede, and 
venomes be expel lede. Syria, callode by that name by Sirus Syria, 
the inhabitator of hit, lyethe betwene the floode Euphrates*^ of 
the este parte, and the grete see on the weste parte, hauenge 
in the northe parte Armenye and Cappadocia,'^ on the sowthe 
parte the see of Arabye, conteynenge in hit mony prouinces, 
Commagena, Palestina, Fenices, Canaan, Idumea, and the 
lewery. The principal place of that province was Damascus, 
whom Eleezer the seruaunte of Abraham edifiede. Rasyn, 

* approcke to it, Cx, 

* all] om. Cx. 

' qfi added from a, and Cx. 

* a sonder, Cx. 

* So also a. • FentjSy Cx., vhic^^ 
is better ; and so MS. below. 

* ilS. repeats >ai (clerical error). 

' Added from Cx 

* of] om. Cx. 

^ swete, a., Ox. 

^^ Ell/rates, MSS., as usual. 

^' So Cx. ; proiiihces, MS.' and d. 

^^ Eleaser, Cx. 

" Capodocia, Harl. MS. 


rex Easyn semper prsebuit opem decern tribubus * Israel 
contra reges Juda. Et interpretatur Damascus funderia 
sanguinem, quia ibi Cayn occidit Abel et abscondit 
eum in sabulo fluminis. 

Cap. XIV. 

De regione Judwce? 

SvjyMK regio est Syrise, sed pars ^ Palsestinae, a Juda, 
filio Jacob, sic dicta; quse tamen prius dicebatur Ca- 
nanea,* a Cham, filio Noe, sive a decern Cananseorum 
gentibus per Judaeos expulsis sen contritis.^ Petrus, 
Jud^a diyersis modis accipitur. Quandoque pro tota 
terra promissioiUB, et tunc dicitur a Jud^is, non a^uda; 
sub hoe sensu mtelligitur« quod «Pompdus magnus 
^^ fecit Jud^am tributariam/' Quandoque sumitur pro 
regno Juda ; ut ubi/ " Audiens autem quod Archelaus 

* tribibus, B. 

^ The Latin title is found in the 
English yersions and Cxr, hnt there 
is no heading to the chapter in B* 
C.D.K; A,hst&I)e Judaea» 

^ A. adds est 

* Canaan, A» 

^ seu eoniritts] om, CD, 

® inteUigatury A. 

'' uht\ So E., distinctly ; but the 
other MBS. seem to have ibii ut 
ibi, Audivit Joseph quod Archdaus, 



bulde and made fat citee Damascus. Kasyn kyng of Dam- Tkbvisa. 

ascus^ helpe^ awey ]7e tenfe lynage^ of Israel a^enst the 

kynges •* of luda. Damascus is to menynge^ sckedynge bloody 
for ])ere Caym slowh Abel and hyd hym in J?e sonde. 

De regions ludcece, Capitulum quartum decimum. 

IVBEA is a kyngdom of Syria a party of Palestyna, and 
ha]> ^Q name of ludas lacobus^ sone, and was somtyme 
i-cleped Cananea of Cam Noe bis sone, [ojfere ^ of fe ten 
manere of 8 peple fat fe lewes putte oute of fat londe. 
Petrus. ludea is i-take in many manere; ofer whiles^ for all 
f e lond of byheste, and fan be ^® baf f e name of f e lewes and 
not " of ludas; and so it is i-take in fis speche : " pe grete 
" Pompeius made ludea tributaries ;" and of er while it is 
i-take for fe kyngdom ^^ of luda; and so it is i-write of 
loseph, fat " whan fey ^^ herde fat Archelaus regnede in 

the kynge of whom, ^afe helpe alle weies to the x. tribus MS. IIabl. 
of Israel ageyne the kynges of luda. And Damascus is 2261. 
callede by interpretaeion, schedenge bloode^ For Caym 
did slee Abell f er^ and hidde hym in the soode of th^ 

Of the Region of the lewery, Capitulum quartum 


luDEA, whiche is callede the lewery, is a region of Syria, Judea. 
but a parte of Palestine, callede ludea of luda the sonne 
of lacobe, whiche was callede afore Cananea of Cham the 
Sonne of Noe, other elles of x. peple of Chananees expulsede 
and contrite by the lewes. Petrus. ludea is taken in f, 27 b. 
diuerse maneres ; hit is taken other while for the londe of 
promission, and then hit commethe of this worde, ludeus, 
and not o^ this worde> luda ; and so hit is vnderstonde in 
that sense that Pompeius Magnus made the lewery tribu- 
tary to hym. Other while hit is taken for the realme of 
luda, as loseph herenge that " Archelaus reignede in the 

' Damaske, Cx., but Damascus 

2 halpy a, (not Cx.) 

3 fen linages, Cx. 

* So a. and Ox. ; kpig, MS. 

^ as moche to saye as, Cx. (who 
makes sinular alterations eyery- 

• Jacobs, a, Cx. 

' o\>erf a, ; ^ther, Cx. 

® a. om. o/i 

® while, Cx., who omits aU. 

^* it, Cx., and similarly often. 

1» Om. Cx. (typ. error?) 

^^royamme, Cx. 

» f e^^] he, Cx. 



'' regnaret in Judsea,"' &c. Quandoque suraitur pro sola 

sorte Judae, ut ibi,^ " Judaea et Jerusalem, nolite timere/* 

Giraldus, distinctiohe tertia. In liac Judsea est terra 

Ambitus promissionis, cujus longitude ad lilteram intellecta * est 

a Dan usque ^ Bersabe,* et secundum Hieronymum in 
epistola ad Dardaniim ^ vix contiuet centum sexaginta ' 
milliaria terrse illius. Latitude vero est a Joppen usque 
Bethleem, et vix continet quadraginta sex milliaria 
terrae illius.^ Sed secundum librum Numerorum Judaea 
habet hunc ambitum ; ad meridiem mare Salinarum 
quod Mortuum dicitur, et inde per Syna et^ Cades- 
barne usque torxentem jEgypti qui fluit in mare mag- 
num^** versus occidentem; inde ad aquilonem habet 
montem Taurum ; ad orientem montem Libani et prin- 
eipia Tiberiadis et Jordanis, qui " ad radices mentis 
Libani oriuntur, Inde Jordanis fluens in mare Mor- 
tuum facit limitem inter Judseam et Arabiam. Hsec 
autem terra Judaea fuit patribus nestris promissa, sed 
non omnino *^ po&sessa, teste Apostolo ad Hebraeos, qui 

* Juda, A. 

2 So the MSS., but ubi would be a 
better reading. See above. 
' mteliecta] om. B. 

* CD. add ad; and so below. 

* E, has Paan and BersabeCy but 
trivial variations of this kind will 
not always be noticed. 

* secundum,. Vardanufnlora, CD. 
' CD. omit centum. 

® terra iUius\ om. CD* 
» Syna et\ om. CB. 

^* The text proceeds thus in CD.: 
Habet autem terra promtssionis ad 
orientem montem Libani et flumina 
Tiberiadis et Jordanis^ qua, &c, 

" gut] So A,B.E. ; quiB, CD., 
which seems better. 

*- omnino'] om. 15. 



** ludea he dredde^ for to goo J>ider ;" and somtyme it is Tbevisa. 

i-take ouliche for J?e lot of ^ j>e lynage of ludas, and so 

speke]) Holy Writt and seip : '^ ludea and lerusalem drede 
" ^ow^ nou^fc." Gi>.4 Dist tertia. In pis ludea ]>e lond of 
byheste ]>e lengj^e Jyerof is fi*om^ Dan to Bersabe, and lerom 
sei]>, in epistola ad Dat^danum, pat it is scai'seliche an hondred 
and sixty myle in lengjie, and ]>e brede is from loppen to 
Bethlem scarsJiche sixe and fourty myle of p&t lond. Bote, 
secundum librum Numerorum, ludea is byclipped in ]>is 
manere aboute^ and ha]» in )>e sou]>e side ^ ]>e Dede se. And 
pan he strecchep forp by Syna and Cades-barne noon 7 to* 
pe streem of Egipte pat ^emep® westward in to pe grete see, 
and in pe norp side pe huile pat hatte mens Taurus^^^ and 
in pe est pe hille ^* mens Libany [and the byginnynge of 
the see Tiberiadis, and of pe streem lordan pat springep at 
pe foot of mont Libany],^* bope Tiberiadis and lordan. pan 
lordan renhep in to pe Dede see and departep ludea and 
Arabia. ^3 pe i4 londe Iud,ea was byhote ^ to oure forme ^^ 
fadres, but nou^t al i-had, as Poul seip, ad Hebraeos, **AI 

" lewery." Gir. DisL iertia. The londe of promission is MS. IIakl. 
in the lewery, the longitude of whom is vnderstonde after 2261. 

the letter, From Dan to Bersabe ; and after Seynte lerom^ 

in his epistole to Dardanus, hit conteynethe ynnethe clx. 
myles of that cuntre. The latitude of hit is from loppen 
vn to BetMeem conteynenge ynnethe xlvj. myles of that 
region and cuntre. And after the boke of Nowmbres the 
lewery hathe this circuite ; at the meridien the Dedde see, 
and after that by Sina and Cades Bamee vn to the ryuer 
of Egipte, whiche flowethe in to the grete see. The londe 
of promission hathe the grete see to the weste parte of 
hit, and an hille caUede Taurus at the northe, and on the 
este parte the mownte callede Libanus, and the begyn- 
nenges of that water callede Tiberiades, and of the water 
off Jordan, whiche haue their originalle principle at the 
foote of liie mownte callede Libanus. Then that fioo4,e 
of lordan floenge in to the Dedde see makethe admision Jurdanns 
betwene the lewery and Araby. This londe of luda was fluvius. 
promisede to oure faderes, but not utterly possessedde, 

* drad, Cx. 

2 So a. and Cx. ; /or, MS. 
' 1/e, Cx. 

* Greffor,y MS. 

^/rotn] fro, Cx., and so below. 

* side] om. Cx. 
' anoHy a, 

* Cades heme vnto, Cx. 

* eome^f a. ; rennethj Cx. 

'® is named mount, Cx. 
" \>e hiUe'] om. a. 

*2 Added from a. j and so Cx., 

" Arable, Cx. 

1* W, a, Cx. 

** hyhoole, Cx. 



dicit, quod " hii omnes mortui sunt, non acceptis pro- 
" nxissionibus/^ Ex quibus liquet aliam esse terram 
promissionis, in qua est coelestis Jerusalem ; et aUam 
in qua terrestris Jerusalem, per quam ccelestis est figu- 
rata.* HssQ itaque terra JudsBa opulenta est, frugifera, 
vinifera,^ aromatica; cedris, C3rpressis, balsamis, olivis, 
malogranatis, palmis, ficubus,* melle et lacte abun- 
daus^ qusd in medio sui velut in umbilico terrae^ 
urbem habet Jerusalem. Isidorus, Hhro qmnto, ca/pitulo 
Jerusalem, primo,^ Hano urbem asserunt Juda&i Sem, filium Noe, 
id est, Melchisedech, post diluvium fundasse, et Salem 
nuncupa^se,^ quam postmodum tenuerunt Jebusaei ; es: 
quibus sortita est vocabulum Jebus, sioque ex duobus 
vocabulis copulatis, Jebus et Salem, composita est Je- 
rusalem, qu83 postmodum a Salomone dicta Jerosolima.^ 
Hsac etiam® a poetis corrapte vocata est Solima, Et 

1 quiB Jiffura eat codestis^ CD., 
which have other trifling Tariatioim. 

^ vinifera] om. 0. (not D.) 

^fictU>u8] om. CD. 

* terraf] om. CD. 

^ D. (not C) omits the heading 
of the extract. 

^ nuncupasse] yocasse, CD., which 
also arrange some words differently, 
and contract the whole period. 

' In this place the orthography of 
the MSS. (which fluctuate, how- 
ever, as usual between lerosoUma 

and Jerosolyma% is preserved in 
order to exhibit Higden's views re- 
specting the derivation of the diffe- 
rent forms of the word Jeruscden^, 
Eor the matter itself, see Smith's 
Diet Gr, and Rom» Geogr, vol. ii. 
p. 17. The ordinary Latin ortho- 
graphy (Bierosolyma, Hientscdem) 
arises from an error which is as old 
as the time of St Jerome, if not of 

^ autem a poetis corrupta, B., which 
is perhaps better. 



** pej beef ^ deed and fenge ^ nou^t J>e byhestes/' And so it Trbvisa. 

moot^ be, fat fere be tweye^ londes of byheste, erfelicbe 

and goostlyche. In f e ^ oon is heuenly Jerusalem 5 and in 
f e ^ of er, erf ely lerusalem ; [by the wbicbe ertlily Iheru- 
salem]^ fe heuenliche^ is bytokened. pis lond ludea is 
riche and fruitful, and haf plente of wyne and of spicerie, 
of cedres, of® cipres, of baume, of olyues, of pomgarnet, of 
palmesy of figes, of mylk, aad ^ of hony ; and haf in f e 
myddel, as it were in f e nauel of f e erf e, f e cite lerusalem, 
Isidortts^ libro quinto^ eapitulo prima» pe lewes self fat 
Sem, Noes sone, fat is i-cleped Melcliesedek,^^^ also made 
and bulde " f e citee lerusalem after Noes flood, and cleped ^2 
hit Salem, but aftirwarde a peple fat were i-cleped lebusei 
woned^^ ferynne and cleped^* fe citeo lebus, Of^* filke 
tweye names lebus and Salem is i-made 00 ^^ name Jeru- 
salem. Afterward Salamon cleped fe*® citee lerosolyma,*^ 
and poetis fat spekef ^^ schortliche clepef fe citee Solyma 

thapostle testiflenge, that ^'thei diedde alle, the promissiones MS.K&jil. 

" not accepte ;" by the seyenge of whom hit may be con- 2261. 

cludede an other londe to be the londe of promission in ^~" 

whom hevenly lerusalem is, and an other in whom terres- 

trialle lerusalem is, by whom heuenly lerusalem is flgurede» 

Also that londe of luda is plentuous of comes, of wynes, 

of thynges aromaticalle, of cedre trees, cipre trees, bawmes, 

oliues, pomegranardes, pahne tres, %ge trees, habundaunt in 

hony and mylke, whiche hathe the cite off lerusalem in Jerusalem. 

the myddelle parte of hit. IsidoruSy libro guinto, eapitulo 

primo. The lewes afferme and say, Sem the sonne of 

Noe, other wyse called Melchisedech, to haue made that 

cite after the floode of Noe, whom the lebuseis kepede 

after that tyme, by whom hit hade this name, lebus ; and 

so these ij. wordes, lebus and Salem, copulate to gedre, 

this worde, lerusalem, resultethe by composicion ; whiche 

was callede afterwarde of Salomon, lerosolima ; callede also 

1 5«», Cx. 

2 receyueden, Cx. 
' muste, Cx* 

* two, Cx., 

^ ihatf Cx. twice, and bo often. 

* Added firom Cx., who modeniises 
a little. 

' >e] «. and Cx. add lerusalem, 
8 of\ So a. and Cx. ; and^ MS. 
' a, omits and, (not QsS) 

1® Mekkisedech, Cx. (quid ?), but 
Melchisedech below* 

" huyldedy Cx. 

1' clepedy tDoned, ckped] Beplaced 
in Cx. by called, dwelfyd, named, and 
80 ol^n« . 

^Soofy a. and Cx. (which is 
perhaps better). 

** one, C*x. 

»» f>aty a. 

" Iherosdlyma, Cx., who also al- 

ways prints Jherusalem. 

^^ <h adds Hrof, 



postea ab Imperaiore Aelio Hadriano vocata est iElia,' 
quam majori murorum anibitu ampliavit et dilatavit ; 
ut sic locum Dominici septdcri, quod olim extra urbem 
fuerat, includeret. Ranulphus. Verumtamen Hierony- 
mus, in epistola ad Evangelum® presbyterum, videtur 
velle quod urbs Salem vel Salim quam incolebat Mel- 
cbisedech, isit alia quam Jerusalem, ubi dicit Salem esse 
oppidum juxta Scythopolim, quod usque hodie dicifcui* 
Salem ; et ostenditur ibi ^ palatium Melchisedech. De 
qua dicitur in fine Genesis quod transivit Jacob in 
Salem, civitatem Sichem, quae est in terra Canaan. 
WUldmus de Regihus. Fons intra urbem nullus/ 
sed cisternis, ad hoc prepai-atis, latices coUiguntur. 
Nam urbis ipsius situs ab austro^ montem Syon habens, 
molli clivo versus boream® descendenis/ sic disponitur 
ut pluvia stillans nequaquam lacum^ faciat, sed instar 
rivulorum in cisternis excipiatur,^ vel saltern, per portas 

' After this, 0. and D. omit all be- 
fore Habet quoque in se reyiOy wliich 
occurs near the end of the chapter. 
The MSS. have Helioy Helta (or 
Hdyai)y and Adriano» Compare the 
English MSS. 

^ So B.E., rightly ; bat the name 
is blundered in E. and the versions. 

^ ubi ostenditur^ B. 

* B. adds est, 

* aquilone, A.B. (and both the 
versions). These variations are 
instructive, and show that we have 
a later and better text in M., which 

seems to be made irom the author's 
final corrections. On the even now 
disputed point of the position of 
Sion, see Williams in Smith's Diet, 
Gr, and Rom. Gcogr, vol. ii. p. 1009, 
who maintains in common with 
most modern writers that " Sion 
" proper is the S.W. hill of Jeru- 
" salem.** 

• austrum, A.B. (and the ver- 

^ ascendens, B. 

» latum, 'B, (and so Harl, version). 

" excipitur, Br 



in her schprt speche. And after. Jmt Aelius^ Adrian ]>e Em- Trevisa. 

peroure cleped J^at cit'ee Aelia,^ and walled hit, and made it 

more aboute; so fat pure Lordes sepulcre, }>at was spmtym 
wi]> oute fe citee, is now^ wip ynne. ^. Neuerfeles^ it 
seme]> fat Hieronjmus, in epistola ad Evangelinm'* presby. 
terum, wil seie, fat Salem of er Salim, fat Melchisedek made 
and woned ynne, was anof er citee fan Iernsalem« pere he 
seif fat Salem is a toun beside Scythopolim,^ fat ^it hat^ 
Salem ; and ferynne is i-seie f e paleys of Melchesedek 
and ferof spekif Holy Writt, Genesis 5 and seif fat lacob 
wente into Salem fe citee of Sichem, fat is in fe londe of 
Chanaan. Willelmus de Begibus, libra primo. No welle 
is wif ynne Jerusalem, but watres be i-gadred, and i-kepfc 
in cisternes ; for f e citee is so i-sette fat he haf in f e 
north side fe mounts Syon, and is disposed fat fe water, 
fat fallef dounward and souf ward wif f e pendaunt ^ toward 
Jerusalem, takef no defoul,* but is elene i-now, and rennef 
into fe citee, and no fen makef, and^^ rennef into cis- 
ternes, as ^^ it were lakes and welle stremes, And somme 

corruptely of poetes Solima ; and afterwai'de callede Aelya^ MS. Haul. 

by Aelius^ Adi^ian themperoure, whom he amplifiede with 2261. 

more circuite of walles, in so moche that he includede 

the place and sepulcre of oure Lorde, whiche was somme 

tyme withowte the walles of that cyte, I^, But truly f. 28 a. 

Seynte lerom in his epistole to Eugenius expressethe, 

seyenge that the cyte callede Salem or Salim, in whom 

Melchisedech dwellede, to be an other cite from Jerusalem, 

nye to Scythopolis,^^ whiche is callede Salem yn to this tyme 

presente, where hit is schewede the palice of Melchisedech, 

of whom hit is seyde in the ende of Genesis that Jacob 

wente in to Salem, a cite of Sichen, whiche is in the londe 

of Chanaan. Willelmus de RegibuSy libra prima. There 

is noo welle within the cite, where waters be collecte, but 

in cestrens and veselles ordeynede ferfore. For the site 

of that cyte, hauenge the mownte of Syon of the northe 

descendenge towarde the sowthe with a softe dependence, is 

so disposede that fe reyne reynenge makethe not clay, but 

as lytelle ryuers, whiche is receyvede in cestrens, or elles 

^ HeltuSf and Heliay MSS. and Cx. 
2 nowe closed^ Cx.; now i-closed, a. 
» Netheks, Cx, 

* Evangeliatumf Cx. See note on 

* Sitopolym, MS, ; Stcopolim^ Cx. a. 
« hat] is called, Cx. (as usual). 

7 a. and Cx. add of» 
* dependannt, Cx. 
9./yMe, Cx. 

*« and maketh no fylthe, hat, &c., 

'" an }pey, a. ; as thomjh, Cx. 
•- Sitopolis, Harl. AlJS. 


effluens, torrentem Cedron adaugeat.^ Igitur in ipso 
verfcice mentis Syon* fuit arx seu turns pro decore et 
defensione. In declivo montis fuit templum quasi me- 
dium inter arcem et inferiorem urbem. Ideo* ssepe 
Scriptura vocat Jerusalem fiKam Syon, quia sicut filia 
protegitur a matre et ei subditur, sic civitas inferior 
subdita fiiit templo et ard. Oonstantinus magnus 
erexit aliquando in ea ecclesiam Sancti Sepulcri, quae 
nunquam ab hostibus fidei* tulit injuriam ; quod creditut 
contigisse pro igne ooelesti, qui quolibet anno in vigilia 
FaschsB^ lampades ibidem illuminat ; quod quidem mira^ 
culum, quando inceperit, incertum habetur. Hanc urbem 
cinxit aliquando rex Salamon muro tripKci non solum 
ad munimentum, sed etiam ad distinctionem inhabi- 
tantium; ita ut infra primum muriim circa montem 

' adaugetf B. 
2 St/on] om. B, 
■ Unde, B. 

*Jid€i'] om. B. 

* B. adds ibidem videtur et 



l>erof rennej) into pe brook J^at is i-cleped torrens Cedron, Tebvisa. 
and make]) pe brook torrentem Cedron wexe and bewel ^ — 
J>e more. In fe top ^ of mont Syon was a real 3 toure ^ for 
feiren[e]s^ and defens. In J>e side of mont Syon was pe 
temple as it were in ]>© myddel bytwene the toure and pe 
citee ; fe citee was lower ])an fe toure, and perfore ofte 
Holy Writt clepe]?^ lerusalem pe doubter of Syon. For as 
a 7 doutter is meynteyned and defended by ]>e moder and 
sogetts to the moder ; so ye citee was lower and sogett to 
pe temple and to pQ tour. Also^ fe grete Constantinus 
arered J>ere somtyme pe chirche of pe Holy Sepulcre. Mys- 
byleued men mysdede neuere y&t chirche ; and pskt is, as 
me trowe]>,i^ for euery ^ere an ^^ Ester eue comej) fire from ^2 
heuene, and tende]» and li^te]» ]>e lampes j^erynne ; but whan 
])at miracle bygan first, hit is vucertayne and vnknowe.^^ 
Salamon pe kyng wallede fis citee somtyme wip pre walles 
al aboute ; neuerpeles nou^t onliche for strengpe, but for 
distinccioun ^^ of dyuers manere men pat woned pere ; pe '^ 
preostes and clerkes pat serued in pe temple, also ^^ pe kyng 

the water descendenge by the ^ates of the cite increasethe MS. Harl. 
the ryuer of Cedron. Therefore per was a towre in the 2261. ^ 
altitude of the mownte of Syon for worshippe and defence. 
In the dependence of whiche hille was a temple, as in 
the mydde part betwene the towre and the cite under hit, 
wherefore Scripture callethe ofte tymes lerusalem the 
dothter of Syon ; . for like as a doubter is protecte of the 
moder, and subiecte to her, soe the cite inferior is subiecte 
to the temple and to the towre of Syon. The nowble and De ecslesti 
grete Constantyne made in hit a chirche off Seynte Sepulcre, Iff"® J?"^' 
whiche hathe not suflGrede iniury vn to this tyme of enmyes ®?^^?? ^ 
of the feithe, whiche men suppose to be causede for heuenly p^Si», 
fyre, whiche dothe iUumyne the lampes there of on the 
vigile of Pasche or Ester, whiche miracle is incerteyne as 
to the begynnenge off hit. Kynge Salomon compassede that 
cyte with a threfolde walle not oonly for defence, but for the 
distinccion of men inhabitenge hit, soe that the temple of 

> be wel (diyisimX MS. and Cx. 
and a. 

^ ti^pe or sommet of the, Cx. 

» ryal, Cx. 

* a. adds y^made, 

^fayretiesy Cx. 

^ For this once Cx. has left clepeth 
in bis own text 

' a. omits a. (not Cx.) 

' subgette, Cx., and so below. 

^ Also"] Given as the last word in 
the preyions sentence In a. and Cx. 

*® as men suppose, Cx. 

1* an] on, Cx., who has ««en. 

^^fro, Cx. 

** vnknowen, Cx. 

^* So a. and Cx. ; destrucctotmf MS. 

" >c] So Cx ; ]>at, MS. ; a. has 
some omissions here. 

1' and alsOf Cx. 


Syon essek templum Domini, mansiones quoque hebdo« 
madariorum^ sacerdotum ac miDistrorum, domus etiam 
regia* cum mansionibus domesticorum. In secundo am- 
bitn habitabant potentes viri et prophetse, nnde legitur 
in ]ibro Begum quod Olda prophetissa habitabat in Jeru- 
salem in secunda, id est, in secunda disfcinctione. In 
, tertio ambitu® habitabant opifices et plebes. Ranulphus. 
Mods Juxta* Jerusalem, ad orientem templi, erat mons Oliveti, 


propter abundantiam olivarum sic vocatus ; qui ab Au- 
gustine super Jobannem vocatus est mons ehrismatis et 
unctionis, mons luminis et pinguedinis, mons refectionis 
* et medicaminis, eo quod fructus olivse sit unctuosus, 

luminosus, deliciosus. Signanter autem dicebatur mons 
luminis, quia^ oriente sole recepit^ lumen a sole per 
diem, a luminaribus templi per noctem. In quo qui- 
dem monte Salamon aliquando, muKerum amore infa- 
tuatus, erexit delubra et excelsa, sicut patet ij, Eegum 
X**. De quo etiam monte Christus coelos^ a^cendit, et in 

' There is little doubt tliat this is 
the 'true reading, bnt the MSS. 
curtail the word strangely, thus : 

* et ministrorum ac domus rc(fia, B. 

' distmciioney B. 
* Et juxta, A. 
^ eo quod, B, 
® recipit, B. 
' ccehs'\ om. B. 



and his mayne wone]) * wij> ynne fe firste wal by "pe mount ^ Tbevisa, 

Syon. WiJ? ynne pe secounde wal woned prophetes and 

my^ty men and 8talworJ>e ; so speke]) Holy Writt, fat Elda ^ 
prophetissa woned in lerusalem in f e secounde distinccioun.^ 
Wi]> ynne f e J?ridde woned J>e comoun peple and craftes men ^ 
in fe waL^ l^Y Faste by lerusalem^ in J)e nor]) side of })e 
temple, is f e mount of Olyuete for plentee of olyues. Seynt 
Austyn super lohannem clepe]> it Jye huUe of crisma ^ and of 
vnccioun, ]?e hille of li^t and of fatnes, fe Mile of medicyne 
and of fedynge ; for ye fruit ^ of olyue is ful of li^t, likynge, 
and vnctuous ; and it was speciaUcbe pe hille and ]>e mont 
of li^t, for it was beschyne wij> ^^ li Jt of pe sonne al day 
and wi]> li^t of the temple al ny^t. In ]7at hille Salamoli, 
whan he wax ^^ mad and al by schrewed for loue of wonmien, 
he bulde temples in^^ hi^e places for mametrie ; so seip Holy 
Writ, secundo Eegum, decimo capitulo.^^ Out of fat mount 
Crist steihe ^^ vp into heuene ; and in fat mount he schal 

oure Lorde was within the fyrste waUe abowte the mownte MS. Habl. 
of Syon, the mansiones also of the ebdomadaries, prestes, 226^* 
and minstres, the kynges palice, with mansiones for his men. 
Nowble men and prophetes inhabite within the secunde walle, 
as hit is redde in the boke of Kynges that Olda prophetissa 
dwellede in lerusalem in the secunde distinccion. Men of 
crafte and commune peple dwellede in the thrydde distinc- 
cion and circuite of the walles. ]^. The Mownte of Oli- Mons 
uete is nye io lerusalem, 'at the este parte of that temple, Oleveti, 
callede Oliuete for habundaunce of oliues, whiche is callede 
by Seynte Austyn on lohan,*^ the hille of creme and of 
noy[n]tpnge, the hiUe of li^hte and of fattenes, the hille of 
re&eschenge and of medicyne, in that the frute of oliues 
is Tnctaous, Imninose, and^deUcious. Whiche was caUede 
significatiuely the mownte of li^hte, for the sonne schynenge 
hit receyvede li^hte of hit, and of the temple by ny^hte. f. 28 b. . 
In whiche mownte Salomon thro f e luffe or women made 
hie places and chirches in hit, as hit is expressede Be- 
gum x^ From whiche mownte Criste ascendede to heuyn, 

' dweUedeUf Cx. (the preterite 
seems right,) and simflarly below. 
2 mount ofy a. and Cx. 
» Olda, Cx. 

^ Soa. and Cx.; destntcci0un, HS. 
* men ofcrctfte, Cx. 
^ a. and Cx. omit in ^ wdL 
' R. added from a. and Cx. 
^ crisme, Cx. 
^fruyyt^ a, 

VOL. I. 

** ««>] by, a. 

" tDcus] voexe, Cx. 

»2m] and,Cx. 

" So MS. and a. ; but Cx. absurdly 
has Romanos 2% 1^ capitulo, 

^*8teiy, a.$ aacended^ Cbc., who 
omits vp. 

** /oA»., Harl. MS. (which else- 
where writes loknes for Johannes, 


fine ibidem judicabit orbem. In httjus montis pede 
oritur torrens Cedton qui fluit in valleiji Josaphat, inter 
cttjus ripam et montem Mt Kortus ille quem Christus 
totleus intravit ad orandum^ in quo etiam* horto^ captus * 
fuit. Juxta quern fiierat aliquando villula Gethse- 
mane,* et in ipso monte* ei*at viculus sacerdotum qui 
dicebatur Bethphage, et in latere montis erat urbs La- 
zari, Marth^B, et Mariae, nomine Betbania. ffugutlo. 
Ad septentrionalem plagam montis Syon est mons 
Calvariae, ubi crucifixus est Christus, qui, lingua Syra, 
dictus est Golgotha/ quod interpretatum sonat Calvaria, 
quse est pars frontis patens supra supercilia, pro eo 
quod ibi decalvabantur ossa latronum, damnatorum, et 

decapitatorum. Csetera de mrrabilibus templi require 
in libro Eegum. 

De man IddoTUs, Uhro qumtodecmw, cwpiHlo pnmo? Habet 
quoque in se regio Judsea mare solitudinis, quod dicitur^ 

^ eti(tm\ et, A. 

2 Iwrto] bm. B. 

3 Geiksemany, E. j Geiksetnani, 

^ monte] om. B. 

^ Gotgatha, MSS., and so also in 
the MSS. of both the versions. 

* secundOf B. Both references are 
^Ise» and possibly Isidore is not the 
authority fbr this statement at all. 

' quod dic%tur\ sive, 0* 


deme fe worlde at pe laste.i At pe foot^ of fe^ mount Teevisa. 

springej» J^e brook torrens Cedron, and eometh-* in to pe 

valey of Ios6phat« Bytwene pe brynke of tortens Cedron 
and pe mount was pe orche^erde p&t Criste went ynne ful 
ofte^ for to bidde® and praye ; in fat orche^erde^ Crist 
was i-take, by pe whiche was a J>rope^ j?at hilt^ Geth- 
semany. In ]^at mount was pe litel strete of preostes, |?at 
beeti<> Be[th]phage.'^ In pe side of pe hille was pe yn ^^ of 
Lazarus, 1^ of Martha, and of Marie Mawdeleyn ; fat toun 
bi^t ^4 Bethania, Hugo, In pe norf side of mount Syon is 
pe mount Caluerie ; ** (far i^ Crist deide on fe rode ;) and is 
i-cleped Grolgotha in fe longage *7 of Syria* Golgotha is to 
menynge a baar scolle. For whan f eues and mysdoeres were 
fere byheded,i8 f e hedes were i-left f ere^ and so at f e laste 
f e sculles wexen al bare. Of re wondres of f e temple loke 
in libro Begum. Isidorus, libra quintodedmo^ Cdpitulo primo. 
Also in f e reem *^ of luda is f e see of wildernesse fat is 

where he schalle iugge also euery man in the day of iugge- MS. Haul. 
mente» In the foote of whiche hille the ryuer of Cedron 2261. 

is spronge, whiche flowethe in to the vale of losaphath, 

betwene the brynke of whom and the mownte was that 
gardyn in to whom Criste entrede ofte tjmes to pre^, in 
whom he was taken, nye to whom was a litelle towne 
callede Gethesemani, in whiche mownte was also the strete 
of > prestes, whiche was callede Bethfage, and in the side 
of the mownte was the cite of Martha, of Lazarus, and of 
Mary, Bethania by name. Hugo» The mownte off Caluarye Mons 
is at the northe plage of the mownte of Syon, where Criste Calvaria. 
was cruciflede, whiche is callede, after the langage of men 
of Sire, Golgotha, soundenge by interpretacion, Caluaria, in 
hat the boones of men condempnede and hedede were 
made bare there. As for other metuayles of the temple 
haue respecte to the bokes of Kynges. Isidorus^ libro quinto- 
decimoy capitulo prima. The region of luda hathe in hit 

^ at kute, Gx. 

* aUefootCi Cat. 

* ihaiy Cx. 

^ renneth, Cbt. 

* wel oftti "• 
^ bidda^ a. 

' orcherdf a* 
^ a thorpe, Cx. 

* heet, «. and Cx» 
»» h^ghf, Cx. 

' Sethfage, a. and Cx. 
^ fymn, a. and Cx. 

* Zazar, Cx. 

* Myt'} was ndmed, Cx. 

* mont of Caluary, a. and Cx. 
« So «. ; \>at, MS. J there, Cx. 

langage, a, and Cx« 
^ hyheueded, a, 
^ rayamme, Cx* 




Mortuum, distans a^ Jerosolimis stadiis ducentis, quae 
reddunt^ viginti quinque milliaria ; dividitque Judseam, 
Palsestinam, et Arabiam. Isidorvs, Mymologiarum 
libro (dif? Extenditur autem lacus ille a ftaibus Judsese 
non longe a Jerico usque ad Zoros Arabise stadiis sep- 
tingentis octoginta, qusB faciunt milliaria nonaginta qua- 
tuor. Latitude* ejus^ stadiorum centum quinquaginta, 
usque ad vicinia Sodomorum. Dicitur autem lacus 
ille Lacus Salinarum, quia sales ibi fiunt. Dicitur^ 
et lacus aspbalti, quod est bitumen tenax, eo quod locus 
ille sit bituminosus, qua ^ de causa ventis non movetur, 
resistente semper bitumine^ quo omnis aqua stagnatur. 
Neque ullam navem aut aliam ^ materiam sustinet nisi 
bituminatam.^ PetruSy capitulo quinquagesimo}^ Cujus 
loci bitumen seu" gluten nihil potest dissolvere/^ nisi 
duutaxat sanguis menstruus. I&idorus, libro tertio-^ 
ded/mo. Dicitur etiam mare Mortuum, quia nihil 
vivum gignit aut recipit. Nam neque pisces, neque 
aves mersiles admittit. Sed et*^ qusecunque viva im- 

^ quod distat a» C. D. 
^faciuntf C. 

* xvj^,t'E,, wrongly. See lib. xiii. 
c, 19. 

* C. and D. add vero ; D. omits the 
preceding words. 

^ ejus] om, B. 

* dicitur] om. C, P. 
' qua] hac, C, D. 

® aliam] om. C., which places 
sustinet at the end. 

^ hituminata, B. 

** 20, B. Both references seem to 
be false. Petrus Comestor (^Hist Lib, 
Gen. c. 53) has much in common 
with this chapter, but not the clause 
for which his authority is cited. Jo- 
sephus (Bell. Jud, lib. iv. c. 8. § 4) 
is the authority for the statement. 

" sive^ B. 

^ dissolvere potuit, C, t). 

*« et] om. B. 



pe Dede see, and from lerusalem two hondred forlonges ; Tjievisa. 
Jut makip fyue and twenty myle, and departe|) ludeam, — - 
Palestinam^ and Arabiam*' Iddorus^ JSfk* libro tertiodecimo, 
pat lake ^ i^trecclie]? from pe endes 3 of ludea no^t fer from 
lerico anon to ]>e Zores ^ of Arabia seuene hondred forlonges 
and foure score, ]>at^ makij> fonre score mjle and foartene. 
pat lake is^ in brede seuene score forlong and ten,' and 
streccbej? nyb^ to J>e contrees^ of Sodoma. pat lake is 
i-cleped lacus Salinarum, for salt is i-made J>ere. Also 
fere is moche glew in ]?at contray ; and ]?erfore it meue]) *^ 
nou^t for wyndes, for ]?e glew wi]?stondeJ> alwey : for water 
pat hap glew stonde]) stille, and ]>at lake susteynep no schip 
ne non ojere matere, but it be glewed. Petrus, capitulo 
quinquagesimo, Nopyng may vndo j>e glewe of pat place, but 
onliche pe blood pat is i-cleped sanguis menstruus* IsidoruSy 
libro tertio decimo. It isi^ i-cleped also pe Dede see, for 
pat see bryngep forth no ping pat is quyk and on ^^ lyue ;13 
so pat he fongep noper water foules, noper fisshes ; so pat 
what quik pingi^ pat it be i^ pat duppep perynne, anon it 

the Dedde see, beenge from lerusalem ii«. forlonges, whiche MS. Habl. 
do make xxv*^. myles, diuidenge the lewery, Palestine, and 2261. 
Araby. Isidorus, JSth., libro 13^ That place is extendede — 
from the costes of the lewery, not ferre from lerico, to 
Zores of Arabye vij<^. forlonges and Ixxx**, whiche do make 
xc. myles and iiij. The latitude of hit is of cl**. forlonges 
vn to nye places of Sodome. That place is callede the 
place of saltenesse, in that salte is made per. Also that place 
is callede the place of pycche, for it is ful per of ; whiche 
water susteynethe not eny schippe, but if hit be welle 
pycchede, or enny other mater. Petrus, capitulo quinqua- 
gesimo* The pycche or glu of whiche place noo thynge 
may dissolue, but the bloode of a woman suflfi'enge the 
monethely iufirmite : whiche place noryschethe not fysches 
or fooles ; but whikke thynges caste in to that water lepe 

1 So a. and Cx. ; Abraham^ MS. 

^ So Cx. ; lakes, MS. and a. 

' ende, Cx. 

* lerico vnto yores, Cx. 

^ JHif] the whiche, Cx, 

« So Cx. ; lakes is, a. The MS. 
omits is, but has lakes, 

' an honderd andfyf&iy furlonges, 

» ney^y a. 

^ centrales, a. 

'* moeueth not with, Cx. 

'^ a. and Cx. place also after is. 

'* olpie, a,; a fyue, Cx. 

^^ a. adds also l>at se may fonge 
noting \>at is quyk and <m lyzie, Cx. 
agrees with MS., except in haying 
it r^eyueth for hefongeit, 

^* a. omits \>ing. 

^^ \>at it be'j om. Cx., who has 




mers&ris statim prosiliuat, mortua vero absorbeutur; 
adeo ut^ lucer?ia aocensa superoatet, ©xtmota darner* 
gatur. Joeephm, liJbro pnmoJ^ Hoc patuit in diebus 
Vespasiani principiis de duobiij^ hominibTis qui, naanibus 
post terga ligatis, ibidem projecti statim rejiciebantur.® 
IsidoTuSy libro qumtodecimo^ capitvh tertio, Eegio 
etiam^ ilia dicta est Pentapolis, a quinque urbibus^ impi-. 
orum ibidem^ submersis ct iucineratis. Terra qmdem 
olim magisi quam Jerusalem uberrima^ (nam inter ejus 
lapides sapphiri et gemm® pretiosissimae inveniebantur, 
et aurmn inter ejus glebas, sicut testatur Job xxiiij®.) ® 
sed nunc species et umbra ignis in ipsis faviUis et 
arboribus videtur.^ Nam poma virentia sub tanta 
specie maturitatis nascuntur, ut desiderium edendi 
gignant; quae, si carpas manu, fatiscunt in cinerem, 
fumumque exhalant quasi adhuc ardeant, Manulphus, 
Est autem^^ et alia Pentapolis, regio in Africa." 

* in tantum ettam uty 0«, D., which 
also haye supematat; C. (not B.) 
has demergitur, 

^ B. misplaces the extract from 
Josephufi in the following chapter. 

^ patiebantur, B. 

■* Tumot E., wrongly. See lib. xiv. 
c. 3, § 24, 

^ auiem, A. 

® civitatibuSy 0. 

^ ibidem'] om. B. 

^ nam ... Job] om. 0., D. B. has 
after Job, capituh suo 14. The 
passage intended is Job xxviii. 6. 

' videntur, C. D. 

^" tameuy B, 

" Est alia tamen Pentapolis regio 
in Africa, A. 



lepe]? vp a^en ; and alle dede J>inges it swelewithi so fer Trevisa. 

for}), ]?at a lanterne wif ly^t fletef and swymmeth aboue,^ 

And ^if J?e li^t is^ i-queynt, it duppe}> doun and drjnchep. 
losepnus, libra prima, pat was assaied and i-knowe in pat 
grete princes tyme Vespasianus^ be tweie men pat were 
i-bounde hir hondes by hjrnde hem and i-cast yn pere, but 
anon pey were i-cast vp a^e. Isidarus, libra nana, capiiula 
tertio, pat kyngdom hatte* Pentapolis^ also, for fyne 
wicked citees pat pere were a-dreynt- and i-brent to assbes. 
pat was^ som tyme more riche and more plentevous pan 
lerusalem ; for saphire ® and oper wel precious stones and 
golde also were i-founde among pe cley of pat londe, as 
lob witnessip, vicesimo quarto capitulo. But now pere 
semep somer schadue ^ and liknesse of fuyre bope in ves- 
sellesi® and in trees. For apples i^ pat pere growep semep 
so faire and so ripe, pat who pat hem seep hym wilnep^^ 
for to ete $ but pilke apples pat ^^ fallep to asshes ^^ anon as 
pey ben ^^ i-handeled, and smokep ^^ as pei afire were. !]^. 
But pere is anoper Pentapolis in Affrica. 

furthe anoon, dedde thynges be deuourede per anoou ; in so MS. ILuiL. 
moche that a lawnterne y-ly^htede putte in to hit swymmethe 2261. 

above, and a lawnterne extincte is drownede in to hit. ' 

lasephuSf libra prima, Whicbe thynge was experte, in the 
dayes of Vespasian prince, of ij. men, the whiche were caste 
in to that water, theire hondes y^bounde behynde theym, 
whom the water wolde not receyve. Isidarus, libra nana, 
capitulo tertio. That region was callede Pentapolis, of the 
V. cites of wickede men drownede there. That londe was 
somme tyme more then lerusalem in plentuousenesse ; for f. 29 a. 
saphires and other precious stones were founde amonge the 
stones of hit, and golde, as lob testifiethe, capitulo xxiiij^. 
For now the similitude of fire apperethe in the trees. 
For apples be spronge per vnder suche a similitude of 
ripenes, that thei move the appetite of man to eyte of 
theyme ; whiche apples y-taken be redaote vn to esches, as 
if thei brente, to this tyme. ^, Also per is m other region 
callede Pentapolis in Affrike. 

* he swolwe];>, a. 

^ ahoue] om. -Cx. 
^ is"] be, Cx. 

* Vaspasiamts, MS., a, acnd Ox. 
^ hatte'] is called, Cx. 

^ So a. and Cx.; Pentapoius,'M.S*t 
and so below. 

' was'] vera, Cx., yrho has no 
stop after asshes. 

^ yapMres, a. ; saphirs, Cx. 

* schadowe, a. 

^' herbiSf Cx. 

*^ aj^olis, a, 

" wylleth, Cx. 

" \»at] to, a. Probably the word 
should be simply cancelled. 

^^ tkfflke appek faUen anon to 
asshest Cx. 

" 5eeJ>, a. 

1^ So a. ; smoked, MS. ; smoken^ C%. 


De regicme Ga/naan. 
Capitulwn quintuindecimum} 

Canaan regie est Syrias^ a filiis Canaan filii Cham 
post diluvium primitus possessa^ septem in se continens 
nationes, quasi ex primo Cham fiUo Noe haereditarie 
maledictas. Palaestina provincia est SyrisB, dicta quon* 
dam FhUistea^ cujus metropolis dicta est Philistiim, nunc 
vero ^ Ascalon, ex qua urbe tota ilia provincia Falaestina 
seu Philistea vocata est> et incolss ejus Palaestini seu 
Philistei, quia Hehreus sermo p litteram non habet sed 
pro eo utitur pk; inde Philistei^ quasi Palaestini; qui 
tamen dicti sunt allopkyli, id est alienigeruBy eo quod 
semper fuerint a filiis Israel alieni. Hgec regio habet 
ab austro ^gyptum, ab occasu^ Tyrios, ab aquilone Ju- 

* The descriptions of the provinces 
are thus arranged in C. and D. : 
Galilee, Palestine» Phenicia, Ca- 
naan, Cedar, Egypt. 

* AssyruB, C» 

' auteniy B. 

^ ad oceasum, A. 



De Canaa terra. Capitulum guintumdeeimum. Taevisa. 

Caxaak is a reem^ of Syria ^ and hatte Canaan, for 
Canaanes 3 children were 'pe firste ]?at woned )>erynne after 
Noes flood 5 and conteyned seuen ^ naciouns acorsed as it 
were by heritage of Cam,^ Noes sone. Treuisa^ Cham 
was Noes sone, and hadde his fader ^ cors ; for he lowh '^ . 
his fader to scorne, for he say ^ his priue harneys ^ al bare 
and vnheled, while he lay on slepe. ]^. Palestina^^ is a 
prouince of Syria, and J'at hi^te somtyme Philistea ; ]>e 
cheef ^* citee ^erof hi^te Philistim,^^ and now hatte Ascalon.**^ 
And after fat 14 citee is |>e prouince i-cleped Palestina oJ?er 
Philistea. And men of J>at contrey hatte Palestini and 
Philistei also ; for in ]>e speche of Hebrewes ^^ is no />, 
but instede of p ]rey use)) ph ; ))erfore Philistei and Pales- 
tini beef all oon, and beef also i-cleped allophyliy fat is to 
menynge aliens and straunge men, for fey were alwey aliens 
and straunge to the folk of Israel, pat prouince haf in 
f e south side Egipt, in f e west Tyrus, in f e north ludea, 

Capitulum quintumdecimum. Habl.MS. 


Canaan is a region of Syria, ^^ possessede firste of the childre .* 

of Canaan, sonnes of Chayin, after Noe floode, conteynenge Canaan, 
in hit yij. naciones as cursede by enheritaunce of Cam the 
Sonne of Noe, Palestina is a prouince off Syria, callede Palestma. 
somme tyme Philistea, the chiefe cyte of whom was called Philistea, 
Philistijm and now Ascalon, of whiche cite alle that prouince 
was callede Palestina or PhUistea, and the inhabitatores of 
hit were callede Philisteis, for men of Ebrewe vse not this 
letter, yj but ph in the place of hit. Of whom the Philisteies 
were callede alopkiii,^'' that is to say aliauntesy in so moche 
that they were straunge alleweyes to the childer of Israel. 
That region hathe Egipte on the sowthe parte of hit and 
men of Tire at the weste, the lewery at the northe, and 

^ rcyamme, Cx. 

^ Sifia, MS., which has also other 
slightly nnclassical forms of proper 
names in this chapter. 

' So a.; CtmneSy MS. 

4 tj,y Cx., who has aUe before 

^ i»e Chanif a. 

^Jhders, Cx. (not a.) 

' lowy, a, 

* sawe, Cx. 

» membrySf Cx. 

i<^ o]>er Fhylistea, added in a. 

11 chif a. 

«So a,; PAi7w<i,MS. 

'^ So a. and Cx.; Ascelon, MS. 

" J>c, o. and Cx. 

" Hebrew^ Cx. 

^^ Stria, Harl. MS., and so 

" The translator's orthography, 

who evidently thinks a\\6(pvAot is 

Hebrew, has been allowed to stand. 

Just before he has wrongly written 

/for J». 



dseam, ab ortu Idumseam, sic dictam ab Edom qui et 
Esau, quae quidem Idum^a terra est fortis, montuosa, 
et oalida, extendans se ad mare Rubrum.* J$id(mi8^ 
libro nono? lu hao Idumsea est fona Jobyn quater in 
anno colorem mutans, ternis scilicet jnensibus tenens 
colorem pulvereum, aliis tribus sanguineum, aliis tribus 
viridem, reliquis ^ tribus limpidum et aqueum colorem.* 
Palaestina etiam solebat in se comprebendere * Samariam 
regionem cujus metropolis Samaria, sed nunc Sebaste.^ 

Samaria. Samaria siquidem, a Somer ' monte dicta, jacet media 
inter Judseam et Galilaeam ; de qua ejectis aliquando et 
captivatis incolis introduoti sunt Assyrii qui solam legem 
Moysis ^ admittunt, in ceteris vero a Judseis discrepant. 
Et dicti sunt Samaritee, quod sonat custodea, quia populo 
terras captivato ad custodiam deputabantur,® Sichem vel 
Sichima modica est terra in Samaria, a Sichem, filio 
Emor, qui earn incoluit, sic vocata. Et est Sichem urbs, 

* Fcdcsstina provincia ...i?«6rMjn] 
C. and D. contract the text into one 
short sentence. A. omits se after 

2 14, A., B., C D, The place in- 
tended occnrs at lib, xiii. c. 13, § 8. 
Isidore, however, has,</b6 for Jobyn. 
The account of the Samaritans, 
indeed, a little below, is taken from 
lib. ix. c. 1. § 54., and that of 
Galilee from lib. xiv. c, 3. § 23» 

^ et reUquis, B. 

* colorem limpidunif C. and B., in 

which other trifling vs^riations also 

* PalesUna vero continet in se, C. 

^ sed nunc Sebaste^ om. in C, 
whichadds quondam vocahaiur before 
Samaria. D. has et nunc ab Au' 
gttsti nomine vocatur Sebasten (sic). 

^ Samar, A.; Samer, B. 

8 Moifsi, MSS. 

® Et dicti,,, deputabantur^ om, C, 
D., in which the whole description 
of Sichem is also omitted. For de- 
putabantuT (so A. smd B.) K has 



in I pQ est Idumea. Idumea ha]? J^e name of Edom ; Edom^ Trevisa. 

and Esau is all oon, lacobus broker, pat Idumea is a 

strong londe, bully and hoot, and strecchej) to fe Rede 
see. IsidoruSy libra nono. In fis Idumea is lobus ^ welle. 
J)at welle ehaunge[jj] ^ hewe and colors foure sijes ^ a tore by 
pe monthes ; J>e firste ]>re monies pale as asshes ; pQ se- 
counde J>re monfes reed as blood 5 J>e Jiridde ]>re monJ>es 
grene as gras ; and pe four]?e pre monies cleer as water,*^ 
Falestina was i-woned to conteyne ]?e lend Sanaaria. pe 
cbeef ^ citee of pat lond was somtyme i-cleped Samaria, 
but now be is i-cleped and hatte Sebaste. Samaria hap pe 
name of pe hille pat hatte Somer, and Samaria liep bytwene 
ludea and Galilea. Men pat woned in Samaria were i-dryuo 
oute, and Assyrii were i-brou^t ynue. Assyrii boldep 
Moyses lawe, and in^ oper discordep from the lewes, and 
hotep also Samaritas^ pat is to menynge kepers. For whan 
men of pe londe were i-take, pey were ordejoied wardeynes 
of hem.^ Sychem, pat hatte Sichema^^ also, is a litel lond 
yn Samaria, and hap pe name of Sichem, Emor his sone, 

Idumea on the este parte. That londe is my^hty, fuUe ofMS, Harl. 
hilles, and hoote, extendenge hit to the Eedde see. Isidorus, 2261. 
libra quartadecima. The welle of lobyn is in that Idumea, ^^ ^ 
chaungenge his colour .iiij. tymes in oonyere; in thre mo- j^^j^jj 
nethes holdenge the colour of duste, in other thre the 
coloure of bloode, in oper thre raonethes a grene coloure, and 
in other thre a clere colour of water. Also Palestine was 
wonte to comprehende Samaria in hit; the chiefe place of Samarias. 
that region was callede Samaria, but nowe hit is callede 
Sebaste. Samaria toke the name of hit of the mownte 
callede Samer, whiche lyethe in the myddes betwene the 
lewery and Galile ; the inhabitatores of whom somme tyme 
eiecte and put in captiuite, men of Assyria were introducte, 
whiche admitte oonly the lawe of Moyses. In other thynges 
they discorde from the lewes and be callede Samaritannes, 
whiche sowndethe kepers^ for they were deputate to the 
kepenge of that londe, the peple of hit putte in captiuite. 
Sichen or Sichenia is a lyttelle grownde in Samaria, namede Sicheu. 
so of Sichem the sonne of Emor, whiche inhabite hit firste. t 29 b. 

^ and in, Cx. 
^ Edom\ added fix>m Cx. 
Jobyns, a. ; Jacobs, Cx. 
chaungethf Cx. 
^ a. has some omissions here. 
* a. and Cx. have some slight 
omisQionfi in the foiegoing eenteuce. 


' chify a. 

^ in] added from a.; Cx. has but 
in somme thynges they discorde, 
^ hum, a, 
^® Sychima, a. 
" Ydumeay Harl. MS. 


quae nunc Neapolis dicitur, quam Jacob aliqtiaiido pecu- 
nia et labore gravi comparatam dedit filio suo Joseph su- 
per sortem, sicut dicit Hieronymus supra Genesim xvill, 
Et fuit haec aliquaado urbs refugii cum suburbanis 
suis in finibus montis Ephraim,* sicut patet Josuse xx. 
Nam et ilia terra fuit de tribu Ephraim, et ibi sepulta 
sunt ossa Joseph, postquam translata fuerant de jEgypto, 
ut patet Josuse ultimo. In quo loco fratres Joseph 
paverant greges sues; quern tamen locum postmodum 
destruxit Abimelech, filius Jeroboal. Et interfectis 
habitatoribus seminavit ibi sal,^ ne terra ilia* denuo 
germinaret, sicut habetur Josuae ix. Ibi quoque fuit 
fons Jacob, super quern Christus fessus ex itinere re- 

Gaiitea. GalUaea regie est inter Judaeam et Palsestinam, quae * 
et duplex est, superior et inferior, ad invicem contigue 
ajiherentes Syria) et Phceniciae.* Utriusque Galilaeae 

* Effroifm or Effraim, MSS. 
^ ibidem salem, A« 

* iUa} om. A. 

*qaai] omi CD. 

^ Fenici, B.; Phenki, D. 



]?at first woned ferynne. Also J>ere is a citee fat liatte Tiievisa. 

Sychem, and now is i-cleped Neopolis. J)at citee lacob 

bou^te som tyme wij> money and grete trauaille, and Jaf it 
to loseph his sone ouer^ his lotte, so seij> Hieronymus,^ Genesis, 
octodecimo capitulo. And fis was a cite of refute ^ and 
of socour, so it is i-write losuae vicesimo capitulo. For 
fat lond 4 was de tribu and of fe lynage of Ephraym ; and 
fere were loseph is* hones i-buried, after fat^ fey were 
i-brou^te ou^t of Egipte ; witnesse of Holy Writt, losuoe 
ultimo capitulo. In fat place loseph his*^ breferen fedde 
and kepte flokkes^ of bestes : but afterward Abymelech,^ 
lerobabeU^ sone, destroyed fat place, and slow fe men fat 
woned f erynne, and sewe salt f erynne, for fe lond schulde 
na more" bere fruit and come ; witnesse losase nono capi- 
tulo. Also 12 j^ere is lacohus welle, fat^^ Criste reste by, 
whan he was wery of wey and of goynge. Galilea is a 
londe bytwene ludea and Palestina, and is double, f e ouer 
Galilea and f e nef er Galilea, and ioynef to gidres, and also 
to Syria and to Phenicia ;14 in eyf er Galilea is good lond 

And Sichem was a cite whiche is callede now Neapolis, MS. Bxru 
whom lacob bou^te for moneye and grete,^''» ^iffenge hit to 2261. 
loseph his sonne, as Seynte lerom seyethe on Genesim 
ca®. xviij®., whiche was somme tyme the cite of refute with 
the suburbarbes of hit sette in the costes of the mownte of 
Efiraym, where the bones of loseph were buryede ^^ after 
that thei were translate from Egipte, as hit is schewede 
losuae ultimo capitulo. In whiche place the breder of 
loseph kepede bestes : whiche place Abimelech destryede 
after the son of Zorobabel, sawenge there salte, the inhabi- 
tatores of hit y-sleyne, that the londe scholde not be plen- 
tuous, as hit is schewede losuas nono capitulo. Where the Pons 
welle of Jacob was, on whom Criste beenge feynte of labor lacob. 
did reste. Galile is a region betwene the lewery and Galilea, 
Palestine, whiche is duplicate, the superior and inferior, 
drawenge to gedre as contiguate to Syria and to Phenicia ;^^ 

* aboue, Cx. 

^ Iherome, Cx. 

* refttge, Cx. 

* So a. and Cx. ; MS. adds l>at 
(derioal error). 

* los^ks, Cx.; loseph his, o. 
^JHtf] om. Cx. 

' Josephs, Cx. 
® drones and flockes^ Cx. 
» So Cx.; Abimalecke, MS. 
>• lerobabeh, a. and Cx, 

'1 nomore, Cx. (not a.) 

*2 and, Cx. 

*^ i^ai] where, Cx. 

" Fenicia, MS. and Cx. 

w The HarL MS. has omitted 
trauaille, or some such word. 

^* The MS. had translate before 
burpede, but a pen is drawn through 

" Feniceay HarL MS. 




gleba est fertilis ; lactis ^ utiles et salubres qui pro sui ^ 
magnitudine et piscium multitudine maria nunoupantur, 
sicut patet de lacu Tiberiadi» et GenesaretK^ Item* 
in occiduis partibus Galilseae inferioris versus mare 
magnum juxta Ftolemaida (quae est Aeon civitas) * est 
fons quidam^ quo metalla injecta^ mutantur in vitrum. 

Cedar est regio '^ in superiori parte Palasstinse, quam 
incoluit Cedar primogenitus Ismaelis,® et post eum Is- 
maelitse,^ qui verius dieuntur Agareni quam Saraceni, 
quia ^^ de Agar ancilla matre IsmaeKs " sunt progeniti ; 
sed nomen de Sara sibi^^ usurparunt.^^ Methodius, 
Hii domos non sedificant, sed per vastam solitudi- 
nem vagantes '* tabemacula inhabitant, de prsedis 
et venationibus victum^^ quserentes. Hii aliquando 
congregati exibtuit de desettis et occupabunt^^ orbem 
terrse per octo hebdomadas annorum, urbes subvertent. 

^ Utriusque gleba fertUis* Locus 
habentf ^c., C, D. 
« suq oiii. C. (not r>.) 
»SoB.j G^esdr, A.J O.J B., E. 

* Item] om. C, D. 

* quee est Aeon civitas] om, C, D. 
^ injecta] om. B. 

' nomen est regUmiSi 0«, D. 
" Ismael^ A. 

* Cedar, flius Ismaelis, et post- 
mdum IsMaditcB, B»$ hanc {iameriy 

B.) terram postremo (postmodum^ B.) 
incoluerunt Ism», C, D. 

" qui, A. 

" matre /«i».] om. C., B. 

^* ibi tisurpant, B. 

'^ sed ... ttsurparunt] qtuidi nsur* 
pato nomine, C, D., which arrange 
the clanses differently. 

^* vagantes] om. B. 

" victum] vitam, C, B. 

^'^ occupabunt] obtinebunt^ C, D. 



and gi'eet plente of corne and of fruit, grete lakes and Trevisa. 

huge, profitable and heleful,^ and som lake* is so huge^ and 

so ful of fische pat me clepep it a^ see. So J?e lake 
of Tiberiadis is i-cleped pe see of Tiberiadis, and Genosai* 
pat lake is i-cleped ^so. Also in pe west side of pe ueper 
Galilea toward pe grete see fast by pat citee Ptolemaida,^ 
pat hatte Acon^ also, is a welle pat tornep into glas^ al 
metal pat is cast perynne. Cedar is a londe yn pe ouerside 
of Palestina, and hap pe name of pat Cedar pat wonede 
perynne,^ pat Cedar* was Ismael his eldest sone* pe 
ofspringe of Cedar and of Ismael were afterwarde i-cleped 
Ismaelitae, and also Agareni more ri^tfulliche pan Saraceni,^ 
for pey come of Agar pat was Ismael his moder and serued 
Sarra, but afterward for pryde pey toke wrongfuUiche pe 
name of Sarra and cleped hem Saraceni. Methodius, pese 
men hauep nooti hous but walkep in wildetnesse and wonep 
in tabernacles and in teeldis,*^ and lyuep by prayes ^* and by 
venysoun* pese men schole^^ eomtyme gadete to gidres 
and goo out of wildernesse and occupie the londes aboute 
ei^t wekes of ^eres, pat is ei^te sipes seuene ^ere, and pey 

r.fcj -• I- iMj 

eiper of hit is plentuous, hauenge projfitable waters and MS. Harl. 
wholsome, whiche be callede sees what for the magnitude 2261. 
of theyme and for the copious multitude of fisches, as the 
water of Tiberiadis and of Genazareth, Also there is a 
welle in to whom metalles caste he turnede in to glasse in 
the weste partes of the inferior Galile, towarde the grete 
see uye to Ftolemaida,!^ whiche is the cite of Achon. Cedar Cedar, 
is a region in the superior parte of Palestine, whom Cedar 
the firste son of Tsmael didde inhabite ; after hym callede 
more truly Agareni then Saraceni ; for the progenye of 
theyme descendede from Agar, seruaunte and moder of 
Ismael, vsurpenge to theyme the name of Sara« Methodim^ 
Theye edifie noo howses, but, goenge by a waste wildemes, 
inhabite tabernacles, gettenge theire meyte thro preyes and 
huntenges. These men somme iyme congregate schalle goe 
furthe from deserte, and schalle occupye alle the worlde by 
viij. wekOS off yeres, subuertenge citees and defilenge holy 

^ heSjpJtdi a. and Cx. 

* oretet Cx. 

^ So a, and Ox. ; pe^ MS, 

* Pihohmmda^ MS., a., and Cx. 

* Acres, Cx. 
' aghs, a, 

"* i>at wonede l>erynne'] Added from 
a. aad Cx. 

» Cedar} Added from », and Ox. 

» Sareeeny, MS» 

^^ tenteSf Cx. 

" praye. Ox. 

^^ schtdle, a.; shal, Cx* 

1« Ptohmmda, HarL MS. 



sacra loca polluent, saeerdotes^ Occident, ad sanctorum 
sepulcra ligabunt jumenta sua; et hoc pro nequitia 
Christianorum.^ Bcmulphus. Ista videntur impleri sub 
ultimis temporibus Heradii Imperatoris, quando ^ Macho- 
metus pseudo-propheta Fersas occupa-vit, iEgyptmn et 
Africam subjugavit, nefariamque sectam Saracenorum 
commentavit,* sicut inferius post tempera Heraclii 
planum erit.^ 

Phcenicia. Methodius. Phoenicia est regio in qua Tyrus et Sidon 
comprehenduntur ^ habens ab ortu Arabiam, ab austro 
mare Rubrum, a septentrione montem Libani, ab occasu 
mare magnum. Isidorus, libro secundo, capitulo quinto, 
Istis Phoenicibus tradidit Phenix filius Agenoris quas- 
dam litteras vermiculatas, undo et color ille Phoenicius 
dictus est, et postmodum littcra mutata Puniceus dice- 
batur. HugvMo, capitulo Phcenix, Et quia Phcenices 
fuerunt primi litterarum inventores adhuc Ktteras capi- 
tales rubeo colore scribimus, ut sic reprgBsentemus eos 
fuiase litterarum repertores. 

^ B. adds autem, 

^ nequitits Chrisiianorum qnasfa- 
ctent, added in 0«, D, 

^ Hoc impletum est tempore Heradii 
imperatoris quando^ Sfc», C, D, 

* commentavit'] adinvenit» C, P. 

' sicut infra sub tempore Heraclii 
continetuTy C, D. 

^ regio est in qua sunt Sidon et 
7)frtt8, C, D*, which omit the re- 
mainder of the chapter after mare 
magnumy as does also B, 



schuUej) 1 ouertome citees and townes, and slee preesfces, and Tbevisa. 

defouie derkes and holy places, and teie her ^ bestes to tombes 

of holy 3 seyntes ; fat schal byfalle for wickednesse of euel 
lyuynge of Cristen men. ^. pis doynge seme]> fulfilde in 
]>e laste tyme of Heraclius J>e emperour, whan** fat false 
prophete Machometys^ occupied Persida^ and made Egipte 
and Affrica sogett,^ and wroot and broutt yn ]>e false lawe 
and secte of Sariwms, as it is inneriiore» pleyn i-write 
after Heraclius tyme. Phenicia* is a lend in ]?e whiche 
is conteyned tweye londes, Tyrus and Sidon, and haf in fe 
est side Arabia, in ]>e souf fe Bede see, in fe norf ]>e hil 
f e mount Libany,*® and in f e west fe grete see. Isidarus, 
libro secundoy capitulo quinto, Phenix, Agenoris sone, by 
toke rede lettres to fe Phenices, fat beef men of Phenicia, 
and ferfore fat colour was i-cleped Phenidus ; and after- 
ward f e lettre chaunged, and fan it was i-cleped PuniceuSy 
fat is, reed. HugOy capitulo Phcenix* For Pheniciens^^ were 
f e ^2 firste fynderes of lettres, ^it we writef capital lettres 
wif reed colour, in token and mynde fat Phenices were 
f e 1^ firste fynders of lettres. 

places «challe sle prestes makenge faste theire bestes atMS^H^Bi.. 
the sepulcres of seyntes, and this schalle falle for the 2261. 
wickidnesse and synne of Cristen men. ^. 'Fhese thynges 
seme to have bene fuUefiUede in the tyme of Heraclius 
themperoure, when Machomete the false prophete occu- 
piede Persa, Egipte, and made Affi*ike subiecte to hym, com- 
mentenge the wickede secte of Saracenys, as hit schal be 
expressede after the tymes of Heraclius. Phenicia is a region Phenicia. 
in whom Tyrus and Sidon be comprehendede, hauenge of £ 30. a. 
the este parte off hit Araby, of the sowthe the Kedde see, 
of the nprthe the mownte of Libanus, of the weste parte 
the grete see. Isidorus, libro secundoy capitulo quinto, 
Phenix the sonne of Agenoris toke to these Feniceonnes 
Bomme redde letters, wherefore that colour was callede 
pheniceus, and after a letter chaungede hit was puniceus. 
Hugo, capitulo PJuBnix. And for cause men of that cuntre 
were the firste fynders of letters we wryte vn to this 
tyme the capitalle letters with a redde color, that we may 
represente theyme to be the firste fynders of letters. 

< shaly QiLy as usual. 

* here, o. 

' a. omits holy. 

* So Cx. ; what, MS. 

* M€tchometes, a. 

* So Cx. and a. ; Persidia, MS. 
^ subgette, Cx. 

^ ynnere more, a. 

» Fenicia, MS., but Phenyx and 

VOL. I. 

Phenisia just below ; and so a., 
(nearly). Harl. MS. has .F every- 

*^ Perhaps this is meant for the 
genitive ; and if so should be edited 
/jihani, as Cx. has it, who omits \>e 
hil; a. agrees with MS. 

*' Phenices, a, and Cx. 

*^ a. and Cx. omit l»e (twice). 




Cap. XVL 

De JSgypto} 

Ab iEgypto Danai fratre dicta est j3Egyptiis, quae quon- 
dam® Aerea^ vocabatur, ab ortu habens mare Kubrum, 
ab austro Nilum flumen et iEthiopes, a septentrione 
mare magnum et partem Syrise superiorem^ ab occasu 
Libyam. Est itaque -^yptus regio imbri insueta,^ a 
solo Nilo flumine irrigata et foecundata, frugum et 
mercium copiosa. Petrus, capituh nonagesimo quarto,^ 
iEgyptus^ contra naturam aliarum regionum^ quando 
abundat iragibus,® sterilis'' est in pascuis, et e contra. 
Nam diutumior^ mora Nili fluminis super terram tem- 
pera ^ cultursD ^® impedit vel sata extinguit, et tunc pas- 
cua nutrit. Ibi abundant cocodrilli,^^ et hippotauri, qui 
sunt equi fluviales*^^ ^gyptus ad ortum sui vastam 
habet eremum ^^ varia monstra continentem^ ad ejus oc- 

^ Title wanting in the Latin MSS. 
B. ha8 Egiptus in margin. 

^ ^gyptus ab ^gypto Danuifrci- 
tre sic dicta quondam, CD. 

» So the MSS. See Eus. Chran, 
Can, (voL 2. p. 61., ed. Anch.) 
Isid. lib. xiv. c, 2. § 27,, where it is 
written Aeria. 

* inconsueta, C. ; m^nsueta, D. 


^ in Jrugibzis, B. 

' tunc sterilis, C. (not D.) 

^ Diutumior enim, CD. 

^ tempom] tempore, £. ; opns, B. 

** cukura] colendi, CD. 

" So all the MSS. 

^ypotauri (sic) et Jluvtdks equif 

^3 Ad orientem sui vasium (sic) kabet 
tremunif CD. 



De ^gppti provinciis. Capitulum sextum decimum. Tkbvisa. 

Egipte haj> fe name of Egipt, Danay his bro})er,' and 
hi^te 2 somtyme Aer[e]a,3 and ha]> in ])e est side fe Eede see, 
in "pe south ]>e ryner Nilus and Blomen^^^ in fe north fe 
grete see and fe ouere partie of Syria^ and in pe west 
Libya. Egipt is silde bereyne,® and ha]? water and moisture 
onliche of J>e ryuer Nilus, and is riche of come and fruit and 
marchaundise.^ PetruSy capituh nonagesimo quarto. Egipte 
a^enst kynde of oper londes hap plente of com ; he is 
bareyne^ of lesue,^ and whan he haj> plente of lesue it» is 
bareyne of com. For whan pe ryuer Nilus is vppe and ouer 
wexip and ouerflowej) pe londe and abidejj longe in seed 
tyme, or^^ pe flood wif drawe, it lettef sowynge and drenchej?^* 
pe seed ; and bo corne is destroyed, and lesue and gras 
growep after in tyme. J)ere beej> cokkedrilly ^^ and hippo- 
tauri *' also, fat bee]) water hors.^^ Egipt ha]> in pe est side 
a grete wilderaesse and dyuerse manere bestes wonderliche 

Capitulum sextum decimum, 

Egipte toke the name of hit of Egjrptus, bro]>er off Danay, MS. Karl. 
which was callede somme tyme Aeria, hauenge on the este 2261. 

parte to hit the Redde see, of the sowthe Nilus and men 

of Ynde, of the northe the grete see and the superior parte -^fiyP*™^- 
of Syria, of the weste parte the mownte of Libanus. 'this 
region of Egipte is not vse^e to reyne, hauenge water oonly 
of that floode callede Nilus, plentuous of come and copious 
of marchandise. Petrus, capitulo nonagesimo quarto. When 
Egipte is plentuous of come, hit is bareyne in pastures, 
ageyne the nature of other regiones and in contrary wyse ; 
for the taryenge of ])at floode callede Nilus on the londe 
lettethe the tymes of plowenge, other destryethe comes and 
then hit noryschethe pastures. Cocodrilles be habundaunte 
there and horses of the floode, callede hippotauri.^^ Egipte 
hathe at the este parte of hit waste deserte, conteynenge 

' Danays hroder, Cx. 
' highte, Cx., inconsistently. See 
p. 115. 
' AereOy a. ; Aeria, Cx, 

'^ So a. $ Blomem, MS. ; Bloc merit 

^ t$ sylde bereyne, a. ; is zdde be- 
raynd (so), Cx. j bareyne, MS. 
* offruyt and of, Cx. 
' haraffUy a. 

' lesef a ; pasture, Cx., Mrho omits 
two or three lines here. 

^ he^ a. (more consistently.) 

^* ar, a. 

" adrencke\f, a. 

*2 cocodnUy, a, ; cocodryUy, Cx. 

1' ipotatfri, MS. ; ipotauryy a. ; 
ypotamy, Cx., which is nearer the 
truth, hut may be his own correction. 

^*hors] horses, Cx, (not a.) 

» ypotaurty HarL MS. 

I 2 



cidentem est regio Canopea, quse quidem insula finis 
est ^gypti, et Libyae principium, Ibique est ostium 
Nili fluminis, ubi cadit ^ in mare magnum. Ranvlphus. 
Nilus tamen qui et Gyon,* quamvis ^ legatur de Para- 
diso procedere, asseritur tamen oriri* in oocidentali^ fine^ 
iBthiopiae, non procul ab Atlantico monte^ qui inde cir- 
cuiens ^Ethiopiam, descendit per jEgyptum, cujus plana 
irrigat, atque ratione limositatis quam secum trahit ter- 
ram foecundat. Et sic, secundum Hieronymum super 
Amos prophetam, Nilus Dei dispositione totam iEgyp- 
tum irrigat. Oumulis enim arenarum daudentibus 
ostium ejus ne cite in mare magnum descendat, post 
irrigationem praefatam solutis arenis ^edit in alveum 
suum. Et ^ tandem ad ^ mare tendens juxta Canopeam 
et Libyam a mari magno absorbetur. Vult tamen Isi- 
dorus, libro tertio decimo, quod Nilus aquilonis ^ fiatibus 
repercussus ^^ aquis sic retro luctantibus intumescit." 

* ubicadW] cadentis, D. 
^ aut Gion, B. 

3 quamvis^ si, C. ; licet, D, 

* oritur tamen, CD, 

* orientaliy D. 

* ad occidentaJesJineSf B. 

' St sic, CD. 

« in, B. 

* ab aquUonis, A* 

" repercussis, A. 

^* intumescitj intnmescat, CD. 


i-schape,* and in pe west Canopea, fe whiche ilond is ]>e Thevisa. 

ende of Egipte and bygynnynge of Libya, pere is ]>e 

mouf 2 of Nilus, for fere Nilus falle]? into pe grete see. !^. 
pej me 3 rede in bookes, fat Nilus, fat hatte Gyon also, 
rennef out of Paradys ; ^it it is i-seide fat Nilus springef 
vp in fe west 4 ende of Ethiopia nou^t fer from fe huUe 
fat hatte Mons Atlas.^ And fan Nilus goof forf aboute 
Ethiopia and doun into Egipt, and ouerflowef f e pleyn 
contraies of Egipt, and, by cause of slym fat rennef f erwith, 
he^ makef fe londe fatte and good to here good 7 corne and 
fruit. So, self Hieronymus vppon fe prophete Amos, by 
Groddis owne ordenaunce Nilus ouerflowef and wateref al f e 
lond of Egipte, for hepes of grauel stoppef his cours, fat he 
may nou^t anon ^ falle into f e grete see ; but after fat 
he haf so biflowe and i-watred f e lond, f e hepes of grauel 
to schedef and to fallef j ^ and fan f e water fallef into f e 
Chanel a^e, and so^^ rennef into fe grete see. Neuerfeles** , 

Isidre seif, libro tertio decimo, fat Nilus is i-dreue a^e*^ ^^d 
i-lette of his cours wif f e norf ern wynde ; and so f e water 
swellef, and ^* flowef and wexef greet ; but Beda in libro de 

diuerse wonders, at the weste parte of whom is a region MS. Habl» 
callede Canopia, whiche yle is the ende of Egipte and the 2261. 

begynnenge of Libia, where the durre of the floode callede 

Nilus is, where hit fallethe in to the grete see. ]^ Nilus 
or Gyon tha^^he hit be affermede to haue begynnenge from 
paradise, hit is' seyde to haue his originalle in f e weste 
partes of the end of Ethiop, not ferre from the mownte 
Atlantike, whiche compassenge Ethioppe descendethe by 
Egipte, the pleyne cuntres of whom hit dothe watre and 
makethe the londe plentuous thro slycche that hit drawethe 
with hit. And so, after seynte lerom super Amoff prophetam, 
that floode called Nilus thro the disposicion of G^d, watrethe 
alle Egipte, the grete hepes of gravelle schuttenge the durre 
of hit, ^at hit scholde not descende soone in to the grete £ 3o. b. 
see : after the seyde waterenge, the hepes of the gravelle 
loosede, hit descendenge nye to Canopea and Libia is re- 
cey vede of the grete see. Neuerf elesse Isoder wille, libro 
13% that Nilus swellethe thro northe wyndes waters mak- 
enge grete stryvenge* behynde hit ; but Beda, de Naturis 

^ wrouytf a.; shape, Cx. 

^ So a.; and Cx. ; money, MS. 

3 Though men, Cx. (as usual) ; 
not a. 

* est, a. (not Cx.) 

^ Atldas, MS., a., and ^x. (as 

« fie] it, Cx. (and so often.) 

' Cx. omits good. 
*a«o«] lyghtly, Cx, 
' departe and befaUe, Cx., who 
prints, however, to shedeth below. 
" so"] om. Cx. 
" netheles, Cx. 
'2 dnfuen agayn, Cx. 
" and] om. Cx, . 



Sed Beda, in Kbro de naturis rerum, didt quod Zephjmis 
flans in mense Maio arenas cumulat qnibus * Noli ostia 
praestruuntur. Sicque Nilus, ex repercussione et prse- 
structione^ intnmescens, plana terrae irrigat, cessante 
autem vento solutisque arenis redit in alveum, per 
quern in mare magnum descendit.^ 

Cap. XVIL 
De Scythia} 

MEMOEAKDUld: est hie quod^ ScytMa duplex est^ 
superior in Asia^ inferior in Europa. Scythia ergo^ 
superior regio magna ostein aquilone> plurimum inha- 
bitabilis propter fiigus. Ab ortu Indise/ a^ septentrione 
oceanO; a meridie Caucaso^ ab occasu usque ad Germa- 
nise principium quondam ^^ porrigebatur. Modo vero 
minor effeeta ad sui occasum Hyrcani^ copulatur. In 
qua terra sunt montes Hyperborei, gripbes immanes, 
aurum, gemmae, et smaragdi Tragus, Ubro eecfwado}^ 
Gentis iUius agrorum^^ nulli fines distincti neque ex- 

' ex quibtts, B. 

^ So A. ; presHecione, E. B. omits 
et prasintctione. 

^ SedBeda .... descenditj om. 

* Title wanting in the tatin MSS. 
B. lias Scythia (Scicia) in margin. 

^Memorandum .... quod] om. 

• ergo} So A.BiD.B. 5 vero, C. 

^ est magna, A. D. omits est 

^ Judea, A. ; Judeam, B., wliich 
has also oceanim, and Caucasum 
just afterwards. 


^^ quondam] om. D. ' 

" prtmOf B. (at length), wrongly. 
See Jii|p, lib. ii. capp. 1-5. 

1* agr&rum] om, C. (not D.) 



naturis seij) fat ])is * northeme wynde blowe]> in May, and T bevisa. 

stoppe]? 2 jje cours of j>e water of Nilus wif hepes of 

grauel ; and so fe water arise]) and ouerfloweth ]>e londe ; 
but whan I?e wynde cesef, J?e grauel . to schedep and ]>e 
water falle^ in to fe chand, and so turneth^ dounward 
in to fe grete^* see. 

De Scythia.^ Capitulum sepUmum decimum* 

Hebe take hede of tweie londes, eiper hatte ^ Scythia ; ye 
ouere is in Asia, ]?e nefere in ^ Europa ; pe ouere Scythia 
is a grete londe in fe north, and ha|> moche wildemes by 
cause of greet colde and chele, and strecchef® somtyme 
estward anon to^ Ljde,^'^ northwarde to*^ occean, southward 
to ye hille Caucasus, westward anon to Germania;^^ ]yjjj^ 
now he is i-made lasse, and v ende]> in ye west side to ^^ 
Hyrcania. In ye whiche londe beej> ye hilles Iperborey, 
greet grypes, gold and smaragdes, and oyer precious stones. 
TroguSy libro secundo. pilke men destinge]> nou^t no]>er to 

rerum, seyethe in this wise, that the sowthe wynde blawenge MS. IIasl. 
in the monethe of May makethe hepes of gravelle, fro whom 2261. 
the durres of that floode callede Nilus be stoppedde, fro "~~ 
whiche stoppenge the pleyne growndes of Egipte be replete 
with water ; that wynde seasenge and the gravelles y-loosede 
hit retumethe in to his place, by whom hit descendethe in 
to the grete see. 

Capitulum septimum decimum. 

Hit is to be attendede that Scythia is duplicate, the supe- 
rior in Asia, the inferior in Europa. The superior Scylhia 
is a grete region moche inhabitable in the northe parte of 
hit for coldenesse, coplede of the este parte to Ynde, of the 
northe to the occean, of the sowthe the hille caUede Caucasus, 
somme tyme porrecte in to the begynnenge of Germanye, 
now hit is made lesse, and copulate to the region of Hircany 
to the weste parte of hit. In whiche londe be the hilles 
Tperboreus, huge griphonnes, golde, gemmes, and smaragdis. 
Tragus^ libro secundo. There be noo endes 'distincte of the 

' J)ts] J>e, Cx. 
2 stopped^ Cx. 

• tumeV\ renneth, Cx. 

* So Cx.; rcJe, MS. 

« Both MS8., a. andCx. here and 
below give Sdcia or Sicia ; other 
proper names are also a little cor- 

^ that eche of hew. is named, Cx. 

'' is in, Cx. 
' streiyte, a. 

® anon to"] vnto, Cx., and so below. 
^» So a. and Cx. ; >c ende, MS. 
" to] toward, Cx. 
'2 lermania, MS., and «, ; but 
elsewhere (asp, 171) spelt correctly, 
» So 0., Cx. ; of, MS. 



cult]» Nulla illis^ domus. XjTxores et liberos in plaus- 
tris vehunt. Coriis ferinis tecti, laneis vestibus non 
utuntur. Lacte et melle pasti, aurum et argentum non 
curant. Nihil parant quod amittere timent. Nullum 
apud eos deUctum forto gravius. Victores effecti» nihil 
prsater gloriam concupiscunt. Nulli hominum unquam 
jsubacti,' Vesorem* regem ^gypti debellaverunt;* Ba- 
rium regem- Persarum fiigarunt; Cyrum regem trucida- 
runt; Zephironem,^ Alexandri magni ducem, cum suis 
copiis deleverunt, Asiam ter conquisierunt/ quse eis post- 
modum per mille quingentos annos® vectigalis mansit^ 
Viri eorum Parthos et Bactrianos, feminse eorum Ama- 
zonum regna condiderunt. Incertumque est apud illos 
quis sexus illustrior fuerit. In prima namque expedi- 
tione ^® Asiana, post Vesorem regem uEgypti ftigatum, in 

^ ittis] om. A. B has eis. 

' effecti\ om, CD. 

« 8ubact%\ subject!, CD. 

* Vesogem^CSi. The name of this 
king is given as Vexcris in Greevius' 
edition of Justin (m. «.), where, 
however, the MSS. differ ; Vossius 
conjectures Sesosis, B., by accident, 
has victorie here, but reads Vesorem 

' So E., in full ; debelltwunt, 

• Zephironam, A.B.CD. The true 

form is ZopyrioTut* See Justin, lib. 

ii. c. 3. 

^ conquesieruntf MSS. 

* armos'] om. E. 

' qtuB' eis per multoa annos vecti- 
galisfuit, CD. 

** expeditione"] om. A. 



sette her feeldes by boundes, nofer by meres ; ^ fey hauej? Trevisa. 

non house yn for to wonye ; her wyfes and here children 

pei ledep in cartes ; and fey beef i-clofed in wylde bestes 
skynnes. WoUen clof es usef fey nou^t : ^ fey lyuetf by 
mekk ^ and by hony ; fey recchef nou^t of gold, nof er of 
siluer;4 fei greifef «"^ no fing fat fey dredef to lese, fey 
acountef no trespas gretter fan robberie ; here werrioures ^ 
and victoures desiref not ^ but worschippe : fey were neuere 
soget to no man.^ J)ey oueircome ^ Vesore f e kyng of Egipte 
in werre and batayle, Darius f e kyng of Pers '* fey chasede , 
and ferede, and made him flee. Cyrus fe kyng fey slowh. 
Also fei destroyed Zephirona and his riches ; Zephirona was 
fe greet Alexander his ledere.^^ pries fey conquered Asia, 
and Asia was afterwarde tributarie to hem a f owsand ^ere 
and fyue hondred. pe men of f is peple be ^^ by hem selue 
and fe ^^ women by hem self. Also fey made ^** kyngdoms of 
dyuerse londes ; f e ^^ men made of Parthia and Bactria, and 
f e wommen i^ made of Amazonia kyngdoms mytty and stronge, 
and so it is among hem vncerteyn and vnknowe whefer is 
more worfy and more noble in kynde,i^ men or wommen.^^ 
In f e firste iourney in Asia after fat fey hadde i-dreue and 
i-chased and i-pursewed Vasore f e kyng of Egipt in to f e ^^ 

feldes of that peple. Thei haue noo howses, caryenge theire MS. Habi.. 

wyfes and chil&en in waynes couerede with the skynnes of 2261. 

wilde bestes and not clothes of woUe, . fedde with mylke 

and hony, ^iffenge noo attendence to golde and siluyr, whiche 

ordeyne not eny thynge that thei drede to lose. There is 

noo trespace to theym more grevous than thefte, whiche 

beynge victores desire no moore but glory ; not subiecte to 

eny man, causenge Darius kynge of Persa to take fli^hte, 

sleenge the kynge callede Cyrus, and Zephirona ^^ the nowble 

di^ke of kynge Alexander with his hoste, conquerenge twyes 

Asia, whiche was tributary to theim by m*. and y^^ yeres ; 

the women of whom made the realmes of Amasonnes ; hit 

is incerteyne to theym whefer kynde be more nowble. In 

tjie firste expedicion Azian,^® after Vesour the kynge of Egipte 

' neUiermarke her fddes by boundes f 
ne by dyches, Cx. 
^ none, Cx. 

* melk, a.; mylk, Cx. 

* selver, a, 

^ make, Cx* 

* jnen ofwarre, Cx. 
^ nothing, Cx. 

^ subget yet to (my man, Cx. 

* ouercame, Cx. (not a.) 

" BeffemPersarum,a, \fered Darius 
the kynge, Cx., who has sloughe Cyrus 

^* Alysaunders capytayn, Cx. 
'* 6e] Added from Cx, (ahsent 
from a.) 
" om. J>fi. 

" made^ Added from a. and Cx. 
1* So Cx. ; i>at, MS., a. 
^* wymmen, Cx. (bis), 
" nature and kynde, Cx. 
'* in the, Cx. 
" Sirus and Zephizona, Harl. MS, 

^ So Harl, MS. (z and y are iden- 
tical in this MS.) 



redeundo circa Ajsiam pacandam quindeeim annis viri 
immorati, quereKs iixorum tantam moranx non feren- 
tium revocantur. In secunda expeditione, viris dolo 
interfectis, uxores debitam de hostibus iiltionem sump- 
serunt. In tertia vero ^ expeditione, viris per quatuor 
aimos absentibus, nupserunt conjuges serviis propriis 
ad custodiam pecorum domi relictis, qui simul vincti 
dominos suos post victoriam reverses beUo excipiunt. 
Quibus vicissim^ varia sorte sic bellantibus, monentur 
domini mutare genus pugnsD, tanquam non cum* lios- 
tibus sed cum servis conflicturi. Unde et depositis 
armis militaribus, flagella manu ferunt, et sic servos 
terrent* et abigunt. Qui vero capi poteranfc, una cum 

* vero] om. B, 

^ sic vicissiniy B., which has also 
the sic immediately following. 

3 cum] om B. ; but which has it 
just afterwards. 

* UfTunt, A. apparently. 



tomynge aje, pey abedei fiftene ^ere for to make pees in Tbevisa. 

Asia. But wyfes made grete pleyntes and sorwes^ fat hire 

housbondes were so longe from home,^ and so pe men were 
of sent^ and torned home to 5 dwelle wi]> hir wifes. In 
fe secounde iornay ]?e men were by traisoun i-slawe, and 
pe wifes took greet wreche of fe enemyes. In fe fridde 
iornay 6 fe men were oute and absent foure ^ere to gidres, 
and []>e]7 wifes wedded hir owne seruauntes and bonde 
men pat were i-left^ at home for kepynge of bestes. But 
whan here lordes and housbondes had pe victorie and 
tomed home ajen, 'pe wyfes and here^ newe housbondes 
gadred hem to gidres and arrayed hem in a greet bataile ; 
to fi^te a^en hire olde lordes and housbondes p&t were 
comyng home ;^^ and whan pey mette to gidres hap ^^ was 
vnstable and vnstedefast ; ones *^ wi]> pat oon side, and eft 
wij) pat open panne ^^ pe lordes bypou^te hem, and toke 
hem to rede ^* operwise to fi^te wip hir owne ^^ bonde men 
pan wip *^ enemyes of straunge londes, and caste awey hire 
owne armure and wepene of kny^tis, and bere whippes in 
hir hondes 5 and so fered pe cherles,^^ and droof hem away, 
and made hem to lie. And afterward, al pat my^te be 
i-take of pilke false eherles and of pe false wifes pat hadde 

y-putte to fliihte, taryenge xv. yere to make Asia to theire MS. Hakl. 
pleasure, were callede home ageyne thro the instaunces of 2261. 

iheire wifes wyilenge not to suffre the taryenge of theyme. 

In the secunde expedicion, the men sleyne by treason and 
gyle, theire wifes toke dewe vengeaunce on theire enmyes. 
In the thrydde expedicion, the men beenge absent by iiij. f. 31, a. 
yere, the wifes of theim were maryede to theire seruauntes 
lefte at home to kepe bestes, whiche ioinede to gedre re- 
cey ved theire lordes with batelle returnede after peire victory, 
whiche fi^htenge thro diuerse chaunce were movede at the 
laste to putte aweye theire armor of cheuallery, vsenge not to 
conflicte as with theire enmyes but with theire seruaundes, 
takenge a flayle in theire honde, ferenge theire seruauntes 
and dryvenge theyme aweye. And somme of the seruauntes 

' ahode, Cx. 

* sorwe, o. 

» So Cx. ; hire, MS. 

* sentefore, Cx. 

^ and dweBede, a. and Cx. 

* So a. ; iordat/, MS. 

' Added £K)m Cx. ^ absent from a, 

« lefty a,, Cx. 

» Me, Cx. 

'" homeward, Cx.$ hoom, a. 

^^ fortune, Cx, 

^2 So a. and Cx.; unstedfastnesse 
M>«>, MS. 

" that, Cx. (typogr. error ?) 

** and toke hem to rede"] and con* 
eluded, Cx. 

*** owne"] Added from a. and Cx. 

1« wiik iheifr, Cx. 

" Cx. omits some words which 
follow down U> false wifea. 



adulteris uxoribus, partim ferro, partiiu patibulo, sunt 
peremptL Post hsec apud Scythas pax fuit^ usque 
ad temporal Darii regis Persarum, qui ab illis con- 
tritus in redeundo Maeedones perdomuit et . Athenienses 
DeBactria, Bactria, quam primum incoltdt Cham/ filius Noe, 
jacet a mari Caspio usque ad Indum* fluvium pro- 
tensa, habetque ab ocddente montem Caucasum, ab 
austro Parthos. 

De monte 

Hie autem Caucasus^ inter omnes montes orientales 
prolixior® et formosior, '' a finibus Indise® usque ad* 
montem Taurum ^^ porrigitur. TJnde " unus atque idem 
mons Taurus et Caucasus ^^ reputatur. Sed volunt qui- 
dam ^* ut " occidentalis pars Caucasi versus Armeniam sit 
Taurus.'* Habet autem Caucasus ab aquilone Caspium 
mare et Hyrcaniam/* ab austro Parthiam, Assyriam," et 
Babyloniam.'® Qui quidem mons pro varietate collimi- 
tantium'* regionum variis appellatur nominibus. Itaque ^® 

* paxfuii apud Scyt/tas, B. 

^ tempus, B. 

' In prima namque . . Athenienses 
debellavii] om. CD. 

^ Sham, E. 

» Nylum, C, distinctly (not D.) ; 

^ A. and B. add est 

^fatnasior, CD. 

^ Judea, B. 

» ad] om. B. 

*® Taurum montem, CD. 

» Unde et, CD. 

'' mons cum eodem, CD. 

" guidenif A. 

" quodf B. 

1* Sed volunt . . Taurus^ om, CD. 

*^ Hispaniam, C, distinctly (not 

" Syriam, B. 

*^ Bahyloniam et Mesopotamiam 
tangit, CD. 

^* Sic A.B.E. ; de proprietate ha- 
bitantinm, CD. 

^ /to, A. 


i-broke spousaille hadde schenful ^ deth ; for som were Trevisa. 

i-slawe with iren, and som wer^ an honged ful hite. After 

J?is phare^ was pees in Scythia for to Darij his tyme^ 
kyng of Persida. panne Darius was ouercome of fe Scytes ^ 
men of Scythia, and in Jje tornyuge homward he ouer- 
come Macedones, ]>at beej> men of Macedonia of ]>at londe, 
and werede vppon Athenienses men of Athenis. 

Bactria is a lond ^ J>at Cham, Noe ^ sone, woned first ynne, 
and strecchef from pe see Caspius anon to pe ryuer of 
Inde, and ha]? in pe west side ]>e mount Caucasus, and in 
fe south Farthia. pis hille Caucasus is lengest of alle J)e 
est hilles, and most famous, and strecchej? from fe eudes 
of Inde anon to ]>e hille ]>at hatte Mount Taurus, so ]>at 
mont Taurus ^" and Caucasus is i-conteyned al oon hille ; 
but som men sei|> p&t pe westside of Caucasus, )>at is to- 
ward Armenia, is and hatte mount Taurus, pat mount 
Caucasus ha]> in ]>e northside ]>e see ]>at hatte Caspius and 
Hyrcania jiat londe, and in^ pe southside Parthia and 
Assyria and Babylon.^ pat hil, for dyuerse contrees and 
londes fat strecche|> and reche]? jjerto, haf ^^ many and 

taken with theire wifes in advoutery were hongede and somme MS. Harl. 
sleyne with swerde. After that tyme peace was amonge ^^^* 
theyme vn to the tyme of Darius kynge of Persa, whiche 
ouer commen of theyme in returnenge from theim hade 
victory of the men of Macedony and did fi^hte also ageynes 
men of Atheynes. 

Bactria, whom Cham, sonne of Noe, inhabite firste, lye^he Bactria. 
from the see Caspy to the floode of Ynde proitendede, 
hauenge of the weste parte to hit thp mownte Caucasus, and Mons 
of the sowthe men of Parthia. This hille callede moste Caucasus, 
nowble in fame amonge alle other mowntes of the este ^^ 
to the mownte of Taurus from the costes of Ynde, where Mons 
the hille callede Taurus and Caucasus be reputate oon. But Taurus, 
sonpne men wille that the hille callede Tam'us is made of 
the weste partes of Caucasus towarde Armenye. This hille 
Caucasus hathe of the northe to hit the see Caspy and Hircany, 
of the sowthe Parthia, Assyria, and Babylon, whiche hille 
is callede in diuerse maneres and name for the diuersite of 

» schendefuiy a. ; shameful, Cx. 

*/artf,«. ; iowmcy, Cx. 

« vnto tlie tyme i^ Darius, Cx. 

* So Cx. ; Cyte«,MS.; Qftees, a. 

^ aiid werede ... a lond] Added 
firom a. and Cx. 

« Noes, o. 

' so l^at Mont Taurus'] Added 
fh>m a. and Cx. 

* a. adds in, 

' Babiloun, MS. and a. 

i^ That hiUe, by cause it stretcheth 
to dyuerse contreys and londes, hath, 
^c, Cx. 

" The verb ( == porrigitur^ is 





De Al- 

versus orientem, ubi in celsiorem surgit ^ verticem, pro 
candore nivium ibidem jugiter morantium, Caucasus 
dicitur, quod sonat ^ candidum. Et, secundum fratrem 
Albertum, mons iste tantae est altitudirds,^ quod qui sub 
eo degunt vident super eum radios solis occidentis per 
tres horas infra noctem, et itidem^ mane^ per ires 
horas ante diem super orientalem partem mentis.^ 

Hyrcania regio'' habet ab ortu mare Caspium, ab 
austro Armeniam, a septentrione Albaniam, ab occasu 
Hiberiam.^ Jacet autem» sub jugo Caucasi montis, 
a sylva Hyrcania sic vocata/^ regio qusedam" feras 
fovejas, tigrides et pantheras. Eegio vasta et lata, 
habens gentes xKv., quarum qusedam '« terraa colunt, 
qusedam de ^® venatione vivunt, quaedam humana came '* 
vescuntur. Ibi sunt aves Hyrcanse, pennas liabentes 
de nocte lueentes. Hiberia*^ est regio sub monte 
Tauro jacens, quae ^^ versus occasum et ^'' juxta pontum 
jungitur ArmenisB. 

Albania habet '® ab ortu mare Caspium, descenditque 
per ora septentrionalis oceani usque ad Mseotides pa- 
ludes ; habetque ^^ populum albo ^ crine nascentem cum 

* exsurgit, C. 

^ qitod lingua eorutHf D. 
' mons . . . aliitudinis] om. A. 
B. omits mons iste, 

* So B.E., distinctly ; iterum, A, 
^ de mane, B. 

® Et, secundum . . . partem mantis'] 
om. CD. A. and B. have montis 

''regio'] om. CD. 

® Hibemiamy E. 

^ Ja4iet autem] Est itaque regio, 

'• «ic vocata] nuncupata, CD., 
wbich omit regio , . . pantheras. 

1^ quadam] qnidom, A.E. ; qni- 
dem, B. 

'* quidam. A., and so below 
*' de] om. A. 

" carne humana, CD. 

" E. has for rubric t De insula 

^* quce] om. A. 

" C and D. omit qua and et, 

" after ortu in CD. 

^^ huneque, E. (misreading the 
copy); habet D, 

^^ cum dibo, B. 


dyuers names, pat hille is hiteste in* fe est side, and Trevisa. 

for whi^tnesse of snowe fat liep alwey J)eron he is clep^d 2 

Mons Caucasus, ])at is to menynge a^ white hille. Albertus 
seif fat hil is so hi^e, fat men fat Wonef ferbj seef fe 
Sonne hemes * in fe west side fre houres wif ynne fe* ny^t, 
and so meny houres to fore f e day in f e est side of fat ^ hille. 

Hyrcania fat londe haf in fe est side fe see Caspias, in. 
fe south Armenia, in fe north Albania, and in fe west 
Iberia fat lend; and lief beside^ fe mount Caucasus, and 
haf f e name of fat wode fat hatte Hyrcania. In fat londe 
beef dyuers wylde bestes and foules, tigris fat beeste,^ 
and pantera also, pat londe is wyde and large, and haf 
foure and fourty manere men. Som tilief ^ lond, and som 
lyuef by huntynge, and som etef manis flesche. pere beef 
briddes fat hatte ^® hircane, hire fetheres schyne by ny^te. 

Hiberia fat lond lief " vnder mont Taurus, and lith west- 
ward fast by Pontus, and ioynef to Armenye. Albania 
fat lond haf in fe est side fe see Caspius, and strecchef 
dounward by f e mouthes of f e North Occean anon to f e 
wateres fat hatte Meotides. And f e men of fat lond beef 

men inhabitenge hit. For towarde the este, where hit MS. Harl. 
dothe aryse in moste altitude, for the huge whitenesse of 2261. 
men that dwelle there, ^ hit is callede Caucasus, whiche 
sowndethe whyte. And, after Alberte, hit is of so huge 
altitude that men lytfenge vnder hit see on hyt the beames 
of the sonne beenge in the weste by iij. howres with in the 
iiy^hte, and also in the mornenge iij. howres afore day 
on the este parte of hit. The region Hircany hathe Hyrcania 
on the este parte to hit the see of Caspy, on the^'^g^^* / 
northe Albania, on the weste Hiberia, beenge subiecte 
to Caucasus, callede Hyrc|inia of a woode so namede, 
whiche is a region noryschenge wilde bestes, tigres, 
panteres, a waste region and brode, the peple of whom 
somme tylle erthe, somme lyve by huntenge, somme of 
theyme do eyte the flesche of man. There be bryddes 
in that region hauenge fethers schynenge in the ny^hte. 
Hiberia is a region vnder that hille Taurus, whiche is Hiberia. 
ioinede to Armenye towarde the este. 

Albania hathe on the este parte to hit the see of Caspy, Albania, 
descendenge by the regiones of the northe occean to 
Meotides paludes. That region hathe peple with white f. 31. b. 

^ on, Cx. 

* i-cleped, a. 
» the, Cx. 

* heme, Cx. 

^ Cx. omits |»e. 
^ |>e, a., Cx. 


by the syde of^ Cx.; beside of, a. 

* » heeste\ So Ox. ; fod, MS., o. 

» tyUen, Cx. 

^^ birdes that bencaXied^ Cx., who, 
however, has heyghteytXBi before. 

" Ml, o. 



oculis pictis ^ et glaucis, melius , de nocte quam de die 
videntes.^ Hujus terrse sunt canes tarn immanes et' 
feroces ut tauros premant, leones * perimant, e * quibus 
unus, Alexandre magno missus^ triumphavit in stadio 
de leone, elephante, et apro. 
De Gothia. Gothia est regio Seythise inferior • versus circium, cui 
subjacet insula Ootlilandia omni mercium genere copiosa. 
Habet^ ab aquilone Daciam et oceanum septentiiona- 
lem. Dicitur autem Gothia a Gog fiUo Japhet,® cujus 
gentes potius Gothos quam Gogos nominaverunt. Gens 
quidem * fortis, ingens, terribilis, de quorum *® stirpe pro- 
cesserunt Daci in Europa, G^tuli in Afiica^ Ama^ones 
in Asia. 

Armenia, qud3 alio nomine dicitur Ararath^ ab Ar- 
menio Jasonis milite" nuncupata est, qui^^ Armenius, 
amisso Jasone Thessalo rege suo,^* reeoUecta^* multitu- 
dine militum qui passim vagabantur,^^ Armeniam occu- 
pavit ^^ et inhabitavit. Quae quidem *^ regio protenditur 

De Ar- 

* octdisque pictriis (quid ?), B. 

' adeo ut TiieUus . . . videant, CD. 
^ ingentes sunt canes tarn/», CD. 

* et leones, A. 
« c] de, CD. ♦ 

* So A.E. ; inferioris, B.CD. C. 
and D. omit versus circium, 

^ Hahet autem hac Gothia, CD. 
(the latter has gens,) 

^oceanum, a Gog {Gotk,T>.)fiUo 
lAphet sic dicta, §*c., CD. 

* quidem^ om. CD* 

** quarum, D. 

*^ milite Jasonis, 0.3X 

»« hie, CD. 

^* amisso rege Jasone Tkessah, 

" coUecta, A. 

^^ vacahantur, B. ; multiiudine ejus 
qu(B passim vagabatur, CD. 

" cepit, CD. 

" hcec, fc.D. 


i-bore wij> white here and wif ^elowe ^ ey^en i-peynt, and Thevisa. 

seep better be ny^te fan be daye. pe houndes of J>at 

londe beef so greeto, so grym, and stronge fat fey f rowef 
doun boles 2 and sleef lyouns. Oon of filke houndes was 
sent to kyng Alexandre, and fau^te wifynne lystes wif a 
leon and an olyfaunt, and wif a wylde bore, and hadde 
fe maystrie. 

Got ha is fe nefer partie of Scythia toward Circium.^ 
To fat lond Gotha lief f e ilond Gothlandia ; fat y londe. 
haf plente of al manei;e marchaundise, and haf in fe north 
side D«icia, and in fe southe syde^ occean, and hatte 
Gothea of Gos, laphef his sone. pe^ men of fat lond 
beef rediloker^ i-cleped Gothy fan Gogi, and bef wel 
stronge men and huge J grym and stei'ne,- and of hem com 
f e Dacies in Europa, Getuli in AfTrica, Amazones in Asia. 

Armenia, fat hatte also Ararath, haf fe name of Arme- 
niiis, lasons kny^t, the whiche Armenius, whan he hadde 
i-lost lason,® l^yng of Thessalia,® he gadered kny^tes fat 
roiled 1" aboute, and toke Armenia, and woned ferynne. 

heii'e. peyntede eien and ^elowe, seenge better in the ny^hte MS. Hakl. 
then in the daye. The dogges of whiche region be so 2261. 

greete and feerse that thei depresse bulles and peresche 

lyones, of whome oon was sonde to kynge Alexander, 
whiche hade the victory with in a forlonge of a buUe, an 
elephaunte, and of a boore. Gothia is a region of Scythia Gothia. 
towarde the weste, to whom the yle of Gotlande is sub- 
iecte, copious of alle kyndes of marchandise, hauenge on 
the northe parte to hit Dacia and the northe occean. 
That londe wjis called e Gothia of Gog, the sonne of 
lapheth, the peple of whom be callede rather Gothos then 
Gogos, whiche be niy^hty men and teiTible, of whom men 
of Denmarke, in Europe, come, Getuliones or Getules in 
Afirike, and the Amasonnes in Asia. 

Armenia, whiche of erwise callede Ararthe, toke the name Armenia, 
of hit of Armenius, kny^hte of lason, whiche Armenius 
lason his kynge loste gedrenge a multitude of kny^htes, 
whiche wente abowte as vagabundes, occupiede Armenye 
and inhabite hit, whiche region is protendede betwene 

* yleWf a, 

^ boohs, a. ; btdles, Gx. 

'' So a. and Cx. ; Cireon^ MS. 

* southe syde] So Cx. ; nor\f, MS. 
Dacia and \>e nortli occean, a., which 
agrees with the Latin, and is pro« 
bably right. 

* So o, ; J)af, MS, 
^ reedloker, a. ; redyilyer, Cx. 
' and hen right stronge men, grete, 
grym, and sturne. Ox. 
^ a. and Cx. adds his, 
» Tessalia, MS., a. (not Cx.) 
" roiUede, a. ; royled, Cx. 

yoL. I. K 



inter montem Taurum efc Caucasum a Caspio mari 
usque ad Cappadociam. Hatet autem in longitudine 
undecies centum millia passuum> in latitudine vero 
septingenta * millia.^ Ibi est mons AxaratH,^ ubi area 
Noe^'consedit post diluvium, et sunt duse Armenise/ 
major et minor, superior et inferior, sicut duse Pan- 


Cap. XVIII. 

De Gappadocia. 

Cappadocia regio ® equorum nutrix ab ortu habet 
Armeniam, ab occasu Asiam minorem, ab aquilone 
Amazones, ab austro Taurum^ montem, cui subjaeet 
Oilicia, Lycia,® et Isauria, usque ad Cilicium sinum qui 
De pro- prospicit ® contra insulam Cyprum. Asia minor ab ortu 
tangit Cappadociam, a cseteris lateribus clauditur ^^ mari 
magno. Nam a septentrione habet Pontum Euxinum, 
ab occasu Propontidem, ab austro iEgyptium mare. 




* So E. at length and rightly ; 
septuaginta, A. (at length); lxx*% B. 
The versions also differ. 

2 Habet . . . miliia] om. CD. 

^ Araraika, B. 

*iVog] om. CD. 

^ CD. add sicut Pannonia du<B, 
omitting the test. E. omits sieut 

dua PannonicB, The text agrees 
with A.B. (which latter h^s scilicet 
hefore major), and the versions. 

* regio] om. CD. 

^ CD. add habet. 

^ Lycial om. A.CD. 

^ 8pectat, CJ>, 

^® D. adds undique. 



pat londe strecchej) by* pe mount Taurus and Caucasus Trevisa. 

from fe see Caspius anon to Cappadocia,^ and haf in leng]?e 

eleuene hondred Jiowsand paas, and in brede seuene hon- 
dred myle. pere is fat hille mount Ararath,. pere Noe is 
schippe abood^ after Noes flood, and pere is Armenyes 
tweie,4 ])e more and fe lasse, fe ouer'*» and fe ne]?er, and 
so beef tweye Pannonyes also. 

De Cappadociafi Capitulum octavum deeimum, 

Cappadocia fat londe noriscbef and fedef many hors,^ and 
haj) in fe est side Armenia, in fe west side ^ Asia fe lasse, in 
fe norf Amazonia, and in fe south mount Taurus, perto 
be-lyef ^ Cilicia ^^ and Isauria anon to fe see Cilicius fat 
strecchef toward the ilond of Cyprus, pe lasse Asia ioynef to 
Cappadocia in the est side, and is biclipped and i-closed in f e 
of er sides wif f e grete see. For he haf in f e noiiih side fat 
mouth and see fat hatte Euxinus,ii in f e west f e mouth and f e ^^ 
see Propontides, and in f e south f e sec of Egipte. pis lasse 

the hUl Taurus and Caucasus, from the ^ see Caspy vn ms. Harl. 
to Cappadocia. This region hathe in longitude xj^. ml of 2261. 

passes, in latitude Ixx** mt. There the mownte of Ararth 

is, where the schippe of Noe remaynede after the floode. 
Also fer be ij. Armenyes, the moore and lesse, as fer be 
ij. Pannonyes. 

Capitulum octavum decimum, 

Cappabocia is a region nutrix of horses, hauenge on the Cappadocia, 
este parte to hit Armeny, on the weste the lesse Asia, on 
the northe the Amasones, on the sowtlie the hille Taurus, to 
whom Cilicia, Lycia, and Isauria be subacte vn to the water 
of Cilicia, which hathe prospecte ageyne the yle of Ci- 
presse. Asia the lesse towcheth in the este parte Capa- Asia 
docy, on other sides hit is schutte with the grete see. For Minor, 
in the northe parte hit hathe the see Eusyne, and of the 
weste Propontides, on the sowthe parte the see off Egipte, 

» to, Cx. 

2 Capadocia, MS. and Cx., and 
so below. 
^ aJfode, Cx. 

* ther he two Armenyes, Cx. 
^ ouerer, Cx. 

* The proper names in this chap- 
ter are more than usually corrupted 
and distorted, in both versions, as 

well as in the text Their false spell- 
ings will not in general be noticed. 

' horses, Cx. (not a.) 

^ Cx. omits side» 

^ hiUe\>y a. ; ther by lyeth, Cx. 

^^ Scicilia; MS. and Cx., which 
have SiMctts and Sylycns below. 

'^ Eusynus, MS. 

'- J>e omitted in a. and Cx. 

K 2 


Continet autem in se plures provincias. Nam primo 
De Bi- ^ ab aquilone habet Bithyniam in ^ Ponti exordio Thraciss 

thynia, bIyc 

Phrygia adversam, quj© etiam^ dicitnr Phrygia major, cujus 
De Galatia. metropolis est Nicomedia. Deinde Galatia, a priscis 
Galloram gentibus per regem Bithynise ad bellandnm^ 
invitatis sic denominata et occupata. Sed tunc dice- 
batur Gallogr^ecia, et populi ejus Gallogra^ci, tanquam 
ex GrjBcis et Gallis mixti/ qui nunc dicuntur Galatje, 
quibus Paulus unani scribit epistolam.^ Tertio est^ 
I>e Phrygia minor, sic dicta a Phrygia, filia Europae, filige 


mmore, A<^enoris, quae etiam dicitur Dardania, a Dardano filio 

sive Dar- o ' u > 

Jovis. In qua terra est civitas^ Troja,® quae et Ilium 
dicitur. Dicitur autem Troja a Tros^ filio Erichthonii, filii 
Dardani, filii Jovis.^^ Cui region! ^^ ab oriente est Lydia, 
De Lydia. ab occasu Hellespontus. Quarto est Lydia ad orientem 
Phrygiae minoris,^^ in qua rex iUe dives Croesus ^^ quon- 
dam regnabat, quae quidem terra dum pro brevitate 

* in] am, B. 

- ctf B, ; dicitur etiam, CD. ; ad- 
versamque et dicitur^ A. 

3 hellumy CD. 

^ et populi . . . mixtt] oxn. CD. 

^ quibus . . . epistolatn] om. CD. 

° est"] om. CD., in which the fol- 
lowing sentence is slightly altered. 

* 2Voya, E. not A,B. 
» So the MSS. 

'*• Dicitur autem . . . Jovis] om. 

" regioni] om. CD. 

^- mittoris] om. CD. 

" Crcesus rex dives, CD., (which 

' civitas] om. CD. I ^^^^^ ^*^ quondam after Croesus), 



Asia conteynej) meny prouynces and londes. For firste in |)e Tbevisa. 

norJ> side he conteytte]> Bithynia in fe bygynnynge vppon ]?e 

see a^enst Thracia, and liatte also Jje more Phrygia. pe chief 
citee of Bithynia hatte Nicomedia. J)anne is G-alatia and haj> 
]?e name of men fat were i-cleped Galli, J)at come at pe prayere ^ 
of J>e kyng of Bithynia to helpe hym in his werres, and woned 
in ]7at lond Galatia : but po }mt lond hi^te Gallogrecia and ])e 
qien of ]>at lond hijte ^ Gallogreci as men i-melled of Gallis 
and of Grecis ; but now ]>ey bee]? i-cleped Galate,^ and to 
hem Poule wroot ^ his pistel ad Galatas. pe fridde is pe lasse 
Phrygia and ha|> pe name of Phi'ygia, Europa his ^ doubter, 
Agenore his doubter. And fat Phrygia hatte Dai'dania also ^ 
of Dardanus lupiter "^ sone. In fat londe is f e citee of Troye, 
fat hatte Ilium also. IVoye hatte after Tros,^ Erichthonius 
sone, fat was Dai^danus sone, fat was lupiter^ sone. pat 
lond *^ haf in fe est side Lydia^ and in fe west fe mouth and 
fe see Hellespontus. pe fourf e is Lydia, and is in f e est side 
of the lasse ^' Phrygia. In fat Lydia regned somtyme fe 
riche kyng Cresus, but whan fat lond was to litel for tweie 

conteynenge in hit mony prouiuces. For hit Iiathe firste MS. Hasl. 
in the nortlie Bithynia, in the begynnenge of Pontus 2261. 
ageyne Thracia, whiche is callede also Phrygia maior, the -djiT ' 
chiefe cite of whom is Nicomedia, afterwarde callede Ga- ^ 
latia, of peple desirede to fithte by the kyng of Bithynia, 
then callede Gallogrecia, and the peple of hit Gallogreci, 
as peple mixte of Frensche men and of Grekes, whiche 
be callede now GaJate,^ to whom Paule did wryte an 
^pistole. The thiydde is the lesse Phrygia, callede by that Phrygia 
name of Phrygia the doihter of Europa, the do^hter of ^^^^* 
Agenoris, whiche was callede Dardania, of Dardanus the 
son of lupiter. In whiche londe is the cite of Troye, f. 32. a. 
namede so of Tros, son of Erichthonius, son of Dardanus the Troja. 
son of lupiter. To whiche region Lydia is in the este 
pai*te, and Hellespontus of the weste parte. Lydia is at theljydia. 
este pai'te of the lesse Phrygia, in whom Cresus, the ryche 
kynge, reignede somme tyme, whiche londe for the litelle 
quantite of hit my^hte not suiFre and suffice to ij. brefer, 

' preterCf a. 

^ GaUogreeia .... kiyte"] added 
from a. and Cx. 

' Cfcdaikey MS., a., and Cx., and so 
the Harl. MS., as well :as all the 
Latin MSS. ^ 

* wrytethy Cx. 

^ Europaes, Cx.; and Agenors 
^ also] added from a. 
' lupiter hiSf a. ; lupyters, Cx. 
« So o. ; Troosy MS. and Cx. 
^ Ok addB his, 

'" fonrf] added from a. and Cx. 
" eeste^ Cx. 



sui duos reges, fratres, Lydum et Tyrrhenunij ferre non 
posset,' Tyrrhenus, agitante sorte, cum multitudine egres- 
sus, locum in superioribus partibus Gallise^ occupavit, 
quern Tyrrbeniam^ nominavit. Ab isto Tyrrheno Tyr- 
rhenura mare videtur denominari, sicut Lydia terra a 
Lydo, reliquo fratre, cujus metropolis est Smyrna, aS 
quam Johannes * Evangelista scribit in Apocalypsi. Et 
principalis fluvius Lydise dicitur Pactolus, aureas secun- 
dum poetas gignens arenas.^ Quinta provincia Asiae 

Be Pam- minoris dicitur Pamphylia,® quae et Isauria, habens me- 
tropolim Seleuciam, quam Seleucus Antiochus fundavit.'^ 

De Cilicia. Deinde est ^ Cilicia, in qua continetur Lycia sive Lyca- 
onia, cujus urbes celebres erant Lystra et Derbe,^ sicut 
patet in Actibus Apostolorum, per.quas de*^ Syria ad 
Italiam navigatur. Harum omnium urbs metropolis erat 
Tharsis ^^ inferius versus mare.^^ 

Amazonia regio est partim^'^ in Asia, partim^^ in 
Europu. Albanise est vicina, et fuerunt Amazones primo 
Gothorum uxores, quae, viris suis dolo^* interfectis, 


debitamde hostibus ultionem sumpserunt. Nam spolia 
accepenmt,^^ masculos occiderunt, foeminas reservarunt. 

Be Ama- 

^ potuitf B. 

* GalilecB, B. 

3 Tiream, MSS. 
^ B. prefixes heaius. 
^ 4^u<B quidem terra , * . Urenas'] 
cm, CD. 

* Quinto est Pampkylia, C-D. 

" quam . . . fundavit] onii CD. 
» est] om. A. 

^ Listris et Derhen, MSS., and 
similarly both the yersions; 
^^ de] om, A. 

" The MS. reading is here best 
retained ; in fact, Tarsus (not Tar- 
tessos) is most probably the same 
as Tarshish. 

'^ Ci). thus contract the two last 
periods : Deinde Cilicia^ in qua est 

" B. has partim est (twice. ) 

" ddo]^om, C (not D.) 

** c^^fHint, CD. 



breferen fat were kynges, pat hitte Lydus and Tyrrhenus, Tkevisa. 

hit by lott happed ^ pat Tyrrhenus went oute wip many men, 

and gat hym a lond in pe oner partie of Gallia, and cleped his 
lond Tyrrhenia.2 Hit semep pat pe see Tyrrhenus hap pe 
name of pis king Tyri-henus, as pe lond Lydia hap pe name of 
his broper Lydus. pe chief cite of Ly(fia hat Smyrna, to 
pat 3 citee lohan pe euangelist writep in pe Apocalips.^ pe 
chief ryuere of Lydia hatte ^ Pactolus, and bringep forth 
goldene graule, as poetis tellip^ The fifte prouince of pe lasse 
Asia hatte Pamphylia and Isauria also, pe cheef citee of pat 
lond hatte Seleucia. pat citee Seleucus Antiochus bulde and 
arerede. pan is Cilicia and conteynep Lycia, and pat hatte 
Lycaonia. perynne were noble citees Lystra and Derbe, 
as it is i- write in Actibus Apostolorum. By pilke citees me 
seilep s out of Syria to Italia, but pe cheef citee of alle pese 
was Tharsis dounwai'd toward pe see. Amazonia pat lond 
is som in Asia, and som in Europa, and is nyh to Albania. 
pe firste Amazones were pe wyfes of Gothes, pat took wreche 
of hire housbondes dep pat were traytouresliche i-slawe.^ 
For 'pej toke prayes and slowe men and saued wommen, and 

Lydus and Tyrrhenus, ij. kynges. Tyrrhenus enchaunce MS. H^u 
movenge goenge furthe with a grete multitude occupiede 2261. 
a place in the superior pai'te of Fraunce, whiche londe he 
namede Tyrrheni%2 lyke as that londe Lydia was namede of 
Lydus his brother, the chiefe cite of whom is Smyrna, to 
whom Seynte John Euangeliste wrytethe in his Apoca- 
lypsis : the pfincipalle floode of Lydia is caDede Pactolus 
gendrenge gravel of golde. The v*'*« prouince of the lesse Pamphylia. 
Asia is callede Pamphylia and Isauria, hauenge Seleucia 
the chiefe cite of hit, whom Seleucus Antiochus causede to 
be edifiede. After that is Cilicia, in whom Lycia or Lyca- Cilicia. 
onia is conteynede, the nowble cites of whom were Lystra 
and Derbe, as hit is expressede in tho Actes of thapostles, . 
by whom hit is saylede from Syria to Ytaly. The now- 
bleste cite off theyme alle was Tharsis, more inferialle Thavsis 
towarde the see. i^rhs. 

Amazonia is a region parte in Asia and parte in Europe, Amazonia, 
nye to Albania, and the Amazones were firste the wifes 
of Gothes, the husbondes of whom sleyne by gyle, they 
toke dewe vengeaunce on the enmyes of theym perfore. 
For thei robbede, sleenge the male childer and reseruenge 

* happened hy lotte, Cx. 

- Tirea, MS.; Turea, Harl. MS. 

^ of Lydia • . . \tat citee j Added 
from a. and Cx. 

* seynt lohan emngdyst wryteih in 
tkapocalipsis. Ox. 

* men sayUe^ Cx. 

« traitourliche i-slawei a. ; traifourly 
slayne, Cx. 


Diu Sine viris vixerunt. Tandem duas^ reginas sta- 
tuerunt, quarum una exercitum extra dncebat, altera 
rempublicam domi regebat. Per centum fere ^ aunos 
magnam Asiae partem perdomuerunt.^ Demum* ex 
finitimis locis maritos sobolis gratia sumpserunt/ certis 
temporibus coeuntes et^ certis tempoiibus abstinentes/ 
MascuUnos® foetus aut mactabant aut certo tempore 
ablactatos^ patribus transmittebant. Foeminas vero^^ 
resetvantes ad venandum, ad sagittandum, ad militan- 
dum" informabant. Et ne mamillarum grossities sa- 
gittationem ^^ impediret, septimo setatis anno dextram 
mammam exurebant Inde ^^ dictae sunt Urimammse 
vel Amazones^ quasi sine mamma. Quarum ^* feritatem 
primo perdomuit Hercules, deinde Achilles, et ^^ tandem 
Alexander magnus. Ranulplms. Et ^® quamvis Isidorus, 
Etymolog. lib, xiv., dicat Amazones per Alexandrum 
magnum deletas, historia'^ tamen Alexandri dicit Tha- 
lestrem ^^ Amazonum reginam Alexandre petenti tributa ^^ 

^ Duas tandeftt, CD. 

'^fermey A. CD. 

•^ m. p. A, svhigehant, CD. 

* TandetRy CD. 

* siimebantj CD. 
® ef\ om. B. 

^ coeuntes et iterum vacantes, CJ), 

* nuisculos, CD. 
°ablactafy)s] om, CD. 
^^ et foeminas, B. 

^ ' ad venandum et militandumi CD. 
*2 sagittationiy D. 
" et inde, CD, 
'* Harutity CD. 

** deinde Achilles ef] om. CD. 
»«^q om. CD. This sentence 
is blandered in B. 
*' ostia, A. 

** TkaJestrem^ om. CD. 
^® tributa peteniij D» 



leued longe wij> oute housbondes, and afterward made hem Tuevisa. 
tweie queenes ; fat oon ladde fe oost and meynteyned the — 
werre, and werred faste ; )?at ojier quene was at home, and 
ruled J>e lond, and gouernede fe peple at home. And *]?eBe 
wommen helde vnder hond a grete deel of Asia aboute an 
hondred yere. And at fe laste ^ }>ese wommen wolde haue 
children, and toke housbondes of fe next conti'ayes aboute, 
and certeyn tymes lelte [her] ^ housbondes ligge by hem, and 
certeyne tymes absteyned hem. But J)ey slow^ alle J)e knaue ^ 
children,. oJ>er certeyn tyme i-wened sent hem to J>e fadres, 
and saued alle ^ mayde children, and tau^t hem to schetynge, 
and to^ dedes of ai*mes and of chyualrie. And for grete 
bresfces schulde nou^t lette hem to schete, of eueriche maide 
of seuen ^ere olde fey brende of fe rijt brest ; and ferfore 
p&y were cleped Unmammoe, fat is to menynge brend 
bristes ; and fey were i-hote Amazones, fat is to menynge 
wipoute brest. Hercules was fe firste fat chastised fe 
schrewednesse ^ of fese wommen, and fan Achilles, and fan 
at fe laste fe grete Alexandre.^ "JEji. And fei, Isid. Eth. 14, 
seie fat fe grete Alexander destroyed Amazones, neuerfeles 
f e storie of Alexander self, fat whan f e kyng Alexandre 
asked ^ of hem tribute, Thalestris fe quene of Amazones 

the childer female, lyvenge longe with owte howsebondes. MS. Harl. 
At the laste thei made ij. qwenes, oon of whom gouernede 2261. 

the hoste, that of er kepede residence 8;t home, hauenge vie- 

tory ouer a grete parte of Asia by c. yere. At the laste 
thei toke to theym men of ferre costes for cause of mul- 
tiplicacion, vsenge the acte venerealle in certeyne tymes, 
and absteynenge of er certeyne tymes, anther sleenge the 
male childer other elles sendenge them to the faders after 
a certeyne tyme, reseruenge the female childer, informenge 
f eym to hunte, to schote, and to vse cheuallery, brennenge 
the ry^hte pappe of theyme in the vij*« yere of theire age, 
lesfce the grosenes of hit scholde lette theyme to schote. 
Wherefore thei were caUede TJrimammse, or Amazones, as f. 32. b, 
with owte a pappe ; the cruellenes of whom Hercules did 
mitigate firste, after that Achilles, and at the laste kynge 
Alexander. ^, Thau^he Isidorus, Eth. 14% seye Ama- 
zones to be destroyede by kynge Alexander, neuerthelesse 
the story of Alexander seythe that Thalestris, qwene of ^ 

^ atte lasUy Cx. 

- Added from Cx«, who has theyr; 
absent fh>m a. 

* wicn, Cx,, who omits otiuer . . . 

* aUe] the, Cx. 

^for to shote and to do, Cx. 

^ schrewednesse] ylle disposlcioii) 

^ and aite laste the grete Afysaun" 
der, Cx. Alexander and Alexandre 
are both so ^tten in the MS. and 
a. at length. 

' asked] axede, a. ; axed, Cx. 




Littera rescripsisse in hunc modum : " De tua prudentia ^ mi- 

missa . .... 

Akxandro " randum est ^ quod cum fceminis congredi voluisti ; quia 

de regina , , . , 

Amazmum! " si favente nobis fortuna succumbere * te contingat, 
" merito es confusus, cum a fceminis sis devictus.^ 
" Quod si, iratis nobis diis, nos deviceris, parum bono- 
" raberis qui^ de fceminis triumphasti." Placatus ex 
his Alexander libertatem illis concessit/ diceris quod^ 
mulieres amore non terrore ^ forent ^^ devincendse.^* 2Vo- 
gu8, libra secundo}^ Hsec autem Thalestris regina, post- 
quam concubitu Alexandri ad sobolem capiendam per 
quadraginta dies usa fdisset, in regnum reversa, brevi 
post tempore, cum gente sua, intercidit^^ 

Cap. XIX. 

De Africa et ejus provinciis, 

Isidorus, libra quarta decvma}^ Omnes historici 
astruunt quod ^^ Africa sit dicta ab Afer,^^ fiKo Madian, 
filii Abrahse ex Cethura progeniti ; proceditque ^'^ a fini- 

1 This is the rubric of E. 

2 prudentia tua, B. 
^ estnUrandunif D. 

* occumbere, 0. (not ]).) 

* mulierihus sis dejectus, C.D. 
(which latter has devictus.) 

" quia^ D. 

' donavitf C.D. 

* quod] om. CD. 

® per amorem non per t, CD. 

J' sunt, A. 

^^fore devincendas, C.D. 

" A. omits the reference ; which, 

however, is correct. See Just. lib. 
ii. c. 4. in fine. B. has libra primoi 

** interiity B. Tragus . * . inter- 
cidit^ om. CD, 

" 13», A. wrongly. Kefference 

omitted in B. See Isid. lib. xiv. c. 6. 

^* Omnes , . . quod"] om. CD., 

which, consequently, alter the con- 
struction below, 

" So A. ; Affer, B,CD.E., (bttt 

Jfer below in E.) ; see also the 

versions. The Vulgate has Opher, 
*' quia, A* 


Amazones, did wroot to kyng Alexandre in J>is manere : " Of Tbetisa. 

" ]>j wittes we wonder, i |>at J>ou desirest to fi^te wij> wommen ; 

"for ^if fortune fauerij» 2 vs, and J>ou be ouercome,^ it is^ 
" grete schame and vilonye, whan J)ou art ouercome of 
" wommen. Also ^if ^ oure goddis heep wrooj? wi]) vs and 
" J>ou ouercome vs, for to wyune ]?e maystrie of wommen 
** )>ou getest but litel worschippe." Kyng Alexandre was 
i-plesed wif ]?is, and graunted hem fredom, and seide : 
*' Wommen moste be ouercome with fairenesse and loue, and 
" nou^t wi]? stemesse and drede." Trogusy libro secundo. 
pis queene Thalestris, after }?at sche hadde be kyng Alex- 
andre his lemman fourty dayes, sche torned a^eyn in to 
here owne lond, and afterward in schort tyme fil^ yn wif 
here peple. 

De Africa et ejus prouinciis» Isidorus, libro quarto decimo, 

Capitulum nonum decimum. 

Alle auctors of stories witnessi]? ]?at Affrica ha]? Je name 
of Aifer/ Madians sone, Abrahams sone, fat was geten on 

wryte to kynge Alexander in this forme»^ « Hyt is to MS. Harl. 

'• meruayle of thy prudence wyllenge to make batayle with 2261. 

" women : for if hit happe vs to haue the victory, fortune « ^7^ 

" schewenge fauor, thou scholde^ be conftisede by merite, 

" sythe that thou was ^ ouercommen with women ; and thau^he 

" thou haue the victory of vs, thow schalle^ obteyne but 

" ly telle worschippe, hauenge victory of women/* Kynge 

Alexander pleasede grauntede to tlieyme liberte, seyenge, 

" Women ar to be ouercommen not with feere, but with 

" luiFe." TroguSy libro secundo. That qwene Thalestris, 

after that sche had vsede the bedde of kynge Alexander by 

xl*^ dales to haue a childe, returnenge to here realme felle 

at variaunce soone after with here peple. 

Of Affrike arid the prouinces ofhyL Isidorus, libro quarto 
decimo. Capitulum nonum decimum. 

Alle scriptoi*es historicalle and croniclers affei*me ]?at 
Aifrica toke the name of hit of AiFer, son of Madiaii, the son 

' wytte is wonder^ a, Cx., which is j ^ The MS. readingof the yersions, 
probably right. i though rather incorrect, is retained, 

^fauoure, Cx. 

3 So o. and Ca, MS, adds of wom- 

* is] flhal be» Cx. 

^ and yfy Cx. 

^ MS. adds fid, seemingly by a 
clerical etror j o. and Cx. hate it not. 

because Africa is always writteii 
Affrica^ or Affiitte therein. 

^fforme, Harl. MS., which com- 
mdnly uses the^ merely as a capiUil 

^ So the HarL US. 


bus iEgypti juxta meridiem per ^thiopiam inferiorem 
usque ad montem Atlanticum/ ab orienfce et septen- 
trione man magno clauditur, ab occasu veto liabet ocea- 
num occidentalem. Ranulphtis.^ Iste Afer, secundum 
Joseplium, libro prime, capitulo octavo,^ et secundum 
Isidorum, Etymolog. libro nono, duxit exercitum versus * 
Libyam, auxilioque Hereulis majoris hostes superans, 
gentem et patriam ex suo nomine dictam Africam no- 
minavii^ Cujus filiam Etheam Hercules desponsavit, 
ex qua genuit Dodorim, ex quo Pharon. Haec regio 
Africa plures continet provincias, videlicet,^ occiden- 
talem partem j^thiopise, Libyam/ Tripolim, Gsetuliam, 
Numidiam, Mamitaniam duplicem, de quibus hie per 
De -.Ethiopia tres habet partes ; prima namque ^ pars occi- 


dentalis monfcuosa est, quae ab Atlantico monte celsis- 
simo protenditur usque ad jEgyptum, media pars are- 
nosa est; tertia, quae orientalis est, pene deserta est.^^ 
Et ilia" situatur inter australem oceanum et Nilum 
fluvium, liabens ab ortu mare Bubrum. Dicta est 
Ethiopia a colore populorum, quos solis vicinitas torret. 

» «5^«^ A, montem^ CD, \ ^ Lihyam] added fi-om B.C.D. 

"' Reference added from A.B. I , ^„^;^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ j^ 

^ The true reference is to Antiq. 
lib. i. c. 15., ^here the MSS. differ j " «Z"^' (?0> B. apparently, 
much in the forms of the proper 
names. Josephus is quoting Alex- 
ander Polyhistor, who again derives 
his account from Halchus. 

* adversua, C. 

^ nuncupavitf P« 

^ scilicet, CD. 

" qute est orientalis, pcene deserta^ 
B. ; tertia vero, qtue orientalis, est 
ptene deserta, C.D., "which also 
slightiy alter the following sentence. 

" C. adds autem ; B. has que ; D« 
has etutm» 



Cethura. AfFrica strecche]? forj) from pe endes of Egipt by Tbetisa. 

J)e south by fe neyj>er Ethiopia anon to the hillei Atlas, 

and is i-closed yn wi]> ))e grete see bofe in fe estside and 
yn fe northside also ; and ha]) in |)e west side ]>e west 
occean. ^, losephus, libro primo, capitulo octavo, and 
Isidoi'us, libro nono, seij? fat fis Affer ladde his oost toward 
Libya, and ouercome his enemyes by fe help of ]>e more 
Hercules ; and nempned ^ pe men and the lond after his owne 
name, AfFrica. Hercules wedded Ethea, Affer 3 is doubter, 
and gat on hir Dederym ; of Dederym com Pharon. J)is 
Affrica conteynej) many prouinces and londes ; first he con- 
teyne]) ^ fe west dele of Ethiopia, fan Libya, Tripolis, Getulia, 
Numidia, and tweie Mauritania. Of alle fese now by ordre 
ir> onre speche. Ethiopia ha]> fre parties, fe firste is hilly 
and montuous, and strecchef from )>e mount Atlas anon to ^ 
Egipt ; fe myddel partie is ful of grauel ; fe fridde, fat is 
fe est partie,<5 is almost alle wildemesse. pat partie is 
bytwene fe soufe occean and fat "^ ryuer Nilus, and haf f e 
Reed see in f e estside, and hatte Ethiopia of f e colour and 
hewe of f e men of f e lond, fat bef blewe ^ men, and is for ^ 

of Abraham, geten of Cethura. Whiche procedethe from the MS. Hari. 
costes off Egipte, nye the meridien by the inferior Ethiop 226 1. 
vn to the mownte Atlantyke, schutte of the este parte and 
northe with the grete see, hauenge on the weste to hit the 
westerne occean. B. This Affer, after losephus, libro 
primo, capitulo octavo, and also after Isidor, in his Ethimolo- 
gies, libro nono, hade an hoste, ledenge hit towarde Libya, 
hauenge victory of his enmyes thro helpe of grete Hercules, 
namede that cuntre Af&ica, after his name ; whiche toke to 
his wife Editha, doubter to Hej'cules, of whom he gate 
Dodoris. This region of Aflfrike conteynethe mony pro- 
uinces, that is to say, the weste parte of Ethioppe, Libya, 
Tripolis, Getulia, Kumidia, and tweyne Mauritanyes, of 
whom hit schalle be se'yde by ordre. Ethioppe hathe thre Ethiopia, 
partes ; the firste parte of it, that is in the weste, is fuUe 
of hilles, whiche is protendede from that hie hille Atlantyke 
vn to Egipte. The mydde parte is ftiUe of gravelle. The 
thrydde parte, that is of the este, is alle moste fuUe of 
deserte, whiche is sette between the sowthe occean and 
the floode of NUus, hauenge on the este to hit the Eedde 
See. Hit is callede Ethiopia, of the colour of peple whom 

» Cx. adds of, 
2 named, Cx. 
^ Affersy «., Cx. 

^ MS. origmally had many (clerical 

* antrn to\ vnto, Cx. (as usual.) 

* MS. and a. add and, 

' |>a<] the, Cx. (not o.) 

* hlajCy Cx. 


Et continet monstruosos populos, videlicet,' Garamantes, 
Troglodytas,^ qui cervos cursu prsetereunt, quorum aliqui 
inaledicunt soli propter ejus nimium fervorem.® AKqui* 
serpentes comedunt, aliqui^ leones et pantheras veoantur. 
Aliqui * specus excavant et inhabitant/ quibus stridor 
est potius dn ore quam vox. Alii incedunt nudi, nullo 
exercitio occupati. Alii sine capitibus, os et oculos 
in pectore habent. Apud aliquos eorum quadrupedia 
nascuntur sine auribus, etiam et elepliantes. Aliqui 
eorum canem habent pro rege, cujus motu augurantur. 
Aliqui solis loeustis vivunt, sole vel fumo induratis. 
Ibi sunt chamseleon et basiliscus, rhinoceros, cameli, par- 
di,^ et dracones, ex quorum capitibus et cerebro gemmae 
extrahuntur. Isidorus, lihro tertio dedmo. In Africa 
apud Troglody tas ^ est fons, cujus aqua potata canoras 

scilicet, 'B. \ pilosi: chamcdeon et ha^Uiscus , * . 

^ Troffoditas, MSS.) and similarly 
the MSS. of the versions. 

3 Dicta . . . fervorem] Slightly 
contracted in CD. 

* Alii, CD. (thrice.) 

* After this CD. have ; ignes ibi 
de nocte videntur» ^atyri quoque ac 

dracones. Alter which the citation 
from Isidore. 

« So all the MSS. and hoth ver- 
sions ; hut camehpardi is in all 
likelihood the true reading. 

" apnd Troglodtftas"] om. CD. 



gret breimynge and hete of the Sonne, ))at is hem i ful nyh.^ Trevisa. 

In Ethiopia heep meny dyuerse peple grisliche and wonder- 

liche i-schape ; som hatte Garamantes and som Troglodyte, 
and bee]) ^ swifter fan hertes. And som curse]? J)e sonne for 
his grete hete ; some etef serpentes and addres 5 som huntef 
leouns and panters. Some diggep caues and dennes, and 
wone]> vnder erjie, and maki]> hir noyse wi]? grisbaytynge ^ 
and chirkynge of tee]? more than wif voys of ]?e Jrote, Som 
goop naked and no werk wirche}),^ some wij» oute hedes 
and haue]> mouj; and y^en in pe ^ breest. Among som of 
hem beej> foure foted bestes wi]>oute eren, and olyphantes 
also, Som of hem ha]) an hound for hire kyng and deuyne 7 
by meuynge and sterynge of hym, som^ leuej) onliche^ 
by honysoukels i-diyed wif smoke oj^er wij) pe sonne. pere 
beep also camelions and basiliscus, vnycornes, camels, pardes, 
and dragouns, fat hauej) in here brayn and hedes many 
precious stones. Camelion is a flekked best in colour liche 
to alupard; and so is pardus, and pantera ^^ also, and som 
dele of ])e kynde; but pantera is frende to alle manere bestes 
but to ^* ])e dragoun al lone ; for hym he hate]? as deth. 
BasUiscus is kyng of serpentes Jiat wip smyl and si^t sleep 
beestes and foules. IsidoruSy libro terUo decimo. In Afirica 
amonge pe puple Troglodyte ^^ is a welle pat makep hem ])at 

the ny^henesse of the sonne dothe brenne, whiche con- MS. Harl. 
teynethe in hit peple to be meruaylede, that is to saye, 226I. 
Garamantes, Troglodytes, which renne and turne hertes and ■: — 
other bestes thro rennenge, somme of whom curse the sonne Troglodyte, 
for the grete feruent hete of hit. Spmme do eite serpentes, 
•somme men of theyme hunte panteres and lyonnes. Somme f 33. ^, 
of theyme make caves in the erthe, whiche berke rather 
then speke lyke men. Somme men of theyme goe nakede, 
not occupyenge theyme in eny exercise. Somme with owte 
hedes, hauenge theire mowthe and ei^en in the breste. 
Somme of theyme haue a dogge to theire kynge, thro 
movenge of whom thei vse wycchecrafte. There be also 
cocatrice, cameles, cattes of the mownteyne, and dragones 
from the hedes of whom and breyne pannes gemmes be 
extracte, IsidoruSy libro tertio decimo» There is a welle 
amonge the Troglodytes in Affrike, the water of whom y- 

' whiche is to hem, Cx. 
2 nt^y^ a, 

* whiche ben, Cx. 

* gruntyngCf Cx. 

* doo no werke, Cx. 

^ in J>fi3 So a. and Cx. ; wi>o«fe, 

' deui/ne]>, a., Cx. 

* MS. omits «01». Added from a. 

^ So a.; fiQuyht, MS.; somme lytte 
only, Cx. 

" panthera, Cx.,who however has 
panters above. 

" saufto, Cx. 

1^ peple ^t ben called Q>at hatte, 
a.) Trogo^te, Cx. 


facit voces. Item apud Garamantes dicunt esse fontem 
ita algeiitem de die, ut bibi non possit; ita* ealentera 
de nocte, ut^ tangi non valeat. 

J)e Libya.» Libya Cyrenensis habet ab ortu ^Egyptuni, ab austro 
iEthiopiam occidentalem, ab oecasu Syrtes majores et 
Troglodytas, a septentrione mare niagnuin. Est autem 
Libya dicta vel quia Libs, id est ventus Africus/ inde 
flat, secundum Isidorum, libro xv^., vel a Libya, filia 
Epaplii, filii Jovis, ibidem regnante. Et gentes ibidem 
dicuntur Phutei a Phut filio Cham;' 

Deregione Tripoli tana regio habet ab ortu® aras Philsenorum 

tana, inter Syrtes majores et Troglodytas situatas,^ ab austro 

Gaetulos et Garamantes, usque ad oceanum iEthiopicum 

protensos/ ab oecasu habet Byzantium usque ad lacum 

Salinarum, a septentrione habet mare mediterraneum 

et Syi^tes minores.® 

^ at ita, C. (not D.) i « habet after ortu in A. 

** quod, A, 

^ E. has for rubric, De Lihya 

•* SoA.B.; AfrieiiovAfrim7),'Fj, 

^ a septentrione ♦ . . filio Chani] 
om. CB. 

' situatas] om. CD. (with other 
very slight omissions.) 
* protensus, A. 
^ minores] om, A.B. 



clrynkeji Jierof to haue good voys, sch[r]ille,2 and clere. Tkeyisa. 

Also among pe ofere peple Garamantes is a welle al^ day "— 

so colde fat no man may ferof ^* drynke, and al^ ny^t so"^ 

bote l)at no man may it^ touche. Libya Cyrenensis fat 

lond ha]? in fe est side Egipt, in J>e souj side^ Ethiopia, in fe 

west J>e perilous place of ])e see pat hatte fe more Syrtes,® 

and Troglodytas ^ also, in the norf fe grete see, Isidorus, 

libro quinto, seij? fat [Libya haf fe name of fat wynd fat 

hatte Libs, and is f e wynd fat blowef out of Alfrica, of er] J'* 

Libya haf f e name of Libya, Epaphies doubter, fat Epaphi 

was lupiter his sone. J)at womman Libya reigned in fat 

lond Libya, and fe peple of fat lond hitte Phutei ^^ of Phut, 

Chamys sone. Tripolitana fat regioun haf in fe est side 

aras Philenorum, fe auters and wenedes'^ of fat peple fat 

beef i-sette bytwene f e peple Troglodyte and f e more Syrtes. 

Syrtes maiores beef perilous places faste by f e ^^ see, fat is 

mare Arenosum. And Tripolitana haf in fe south side 

Getuios and Garamantes, fat strecchef anon to f e occean of 

Egipt, and haf in f e west side Byzantium anon to f e lake 

fat hatte lacus Salinamm, and in f e norf side he haf fe 

see of myddel erfe and fe perilous place fat hatte Syrtes 

minores, fe lasse Syrtes. Getulia is fe myddel londe of 

drunke yeldethe clere voices. Also tliei seye an other welle MS. Hakl. 

to be amonge the Garamantes, the water of whom is soe 2261. 

colde on the day that hit may not be drunke, and soe hoote 

ill the ny^hte that hit may not be towchede. Libya Cyre- Libya. 

nensis i^ liathe of the este parte to hit Egipte, of the sowthe 

parte the weste Ethioppe, of the weste the more Syrtes and 

Troglodytes, of the northe the grete see. And Libya is 

callede, for libs, the sowthe wynde, blawethe from thens, and 

after Isidorus, libro xv**, hit is callede of Libya, the do^hter 

of Epaphus, reignenge f er ; and peple be namede there 

Phutei of Phut, the son of Cam. The region Tripolitan Tripoli- 

hathe of the este to hit the cuntre of Philenes, sette be- tana. 

twene the grete Syi^tesand the Troglodytes, and of the weste 

parte Byzantium ^^ vn to the Dedde see, hauenge of fe northe 

to hit the see Mediterrany and Ihe lesse Syrtes. Getulia Getulia. 

is a litelle region of Affricke. Sothely Getulia toke the 

* drungye\>f a. 

^ So Cx. (shri/U) ; schU, «, 

* Cx. adds tlie (bh), 

* ofya»\ drynke tkerof, Cx. 

* so] it is so, Cx. 

* it] om. Cx. 

' tvestf a.; Cx. omits side. 

* Cirtes, MSS. of both versions. 

» So a. and Cx., but misspelt ; 

VOL. I. 

Trogodite, MS. Trevisa's usage is 
inconstant, see below. 

^« The words iti brackets added 
from a. and Cx. 

» Putei, o. 

** wpndes, Cx. 

^^ a. and Cx. add grawJy, 

^* Cretensis, Harl. MS. 

^* Bisancinm, Harl, M^. 




DeGffitulia. GaBtulia est media regio Africse, sic denominata a 
Getis, qui a Gothis * processerunt. Et, ut dicit Grego- 
rius in Homilia,* piscatores non habet.^ 

Cap. XXI. 

De Nwmdia. 

NuMiDiA habet ab ortu Syrtes minores, ab austro 
^thiopes, ab occasu Mauritaniam^ a septentrione mare 
Siculmn. Hsec regie habet in se Rusicadam^ et Car- 
thaginem magnam, quae sic condita fdit secundum 
auctores.^ laidorus, libro qui/rvto decimo, ca/pitvlo xii^. 
Phcenices, a Rubro mari profecti, Sidonem et Tyrum in 
Syria, Uticam in Africa, Thebas in Boeotia/ Gades in 
fauce ocddentaUs oceani condideruntJ Nam mos erat 
antiquis Phoenicibus mercandi causa a dome longius® pro- 
ficisciy et cum alienigenarum animos commercio novarum 
rerum sibi oonciliassent,® loca condendis urbibus apta 
capere.*^ Trogus, Ubro oeta/vo deeimo. Ex his profecta 

' A space left for the word in B« 

^ omdiis, B. 

3 CD.thus (after 4/rica): a Gothts 
qui earn occnparunt denominata ; pis' 
catores non habet 

* Buscidam, MSB. 

^ secundum auctwes] cm. O. 

^ CD. add duce Cadmo. 

' et Gades iTistdam in ultima f. o, 
c, CD. 

^ longius'] om. D. 

^ reconeiliassent, CD. 

^* capere (carpere, C) eceperunU 
CD.; sibi procuraverunt, "B, 


Affrica, and ha]? 'pe name of Gethes ; ])at folk com of Gothes,i Tbetisa 

and in an omelie Seint Gregorie seip ]>at J?ilke men hauef 

no fisheres. 

De Numidia.^ Capitulum vicesimum, 

NuMiDiA ha]) in pe est side Syrtes minores, pe lasse 
Syrtes, a perilous place,^. in pe southe Ethiopia^ in pe 
west Mauritania, and in pe norj) pe see Siculus. In J>at 
lond is Busicada^ and Carthago^ pe grete citee^ bat was 
in ]?is manere arereJ and i-buld, as auctors tellif. Isidonis^ 
Itbro quinto decijno, capitulo tertio decimo. Phenices, men 
of Fhenici% ]>at lond, wente from pe Eede see and bulde ^ 
fese citees : first in Syria pel bulde Sidon ^ and Tyrus,® in^ 
Affi*ica Utica, in Beotia Thebe, and in pe moup of pe' 
west occean Gades; for in olde tyme pe Phenices were 
grete marchaundes, and passed into dyuers londes vrip 
marchaundise J^at ]7ei brou^te, and feng^ |>erfore londe 
and place to bulde on citees and townes* Tragus, libro 

name of hit of Gethes, of whom Getuliones didde precede, MS. Haul 
and, as Seynte Gregory seythe in a^^ omely, that region hath 2261. 
no fischers in hit for the wontenge of fisches. 

Capitulum vicesimum, 

NuMiPiA hath on the este parte to hit the lesse Syrtes, Numidia. 
of the weste men of Ethiope, on the weste Mauritany,^* and 
on the northe parte the see of Sicilia.^^ This region hathe 
in hit Rusicada^ and Carthago,^ whiche was edifiede in this Carthago. 
manor after auctores* Isidorus, libro vicesimo quinto, capi" 
tulo tertio deeir^o. Men off Phenicia, goenge from the Bedde 
See, made the cites of Sidon and of Tyrus in Syria, Utica 
in Affi*ike, Thebas in Beotia, Gades in the mowthe of the 
occean. For a consuetude was vsede amonge theyme 
somme tyme to goe in to ferre regiones from theire cuntres, 
and when thei perceyvede the hertes of straunge peple to 
haue iheyme in fauour, thro the merchaundise of newe 
thynges thei toke places apte to make cites. Tragus, libra 

^folke of the Grothes, Cx. 

2 Nwmedia, MS. (not Cx.) Va- 
rious other unimportant deflections 
from the classical forms will not be 

^ a. and Cx. add in the see, 

* Buscida, MSS. of both versions 
and Cx. 

* Cartago, MSS. of both versions 
and Cx., here and belov. Cartage 

has been retained below, as an En- 
glish form. 

* buylded, Cx. ; who has buyld 

' SydouTif MS» 

^ So a. and Cx. ; of Tims, MS. 

^feng'\ resseyued, Cx. 

" So the MS. 

*i Mduritamyf Harl. MS., and so 

« Siltcia, HarL MS. 

L 2 



Dido, qu8B alio nomine Elissa vocabatur, electa secum ro- 
bustorum juveniim multitudine, Cyprum insulam primo 
venit, ubi assumptis secum Ixxx. virginibns ad sobolem 
propagandam Africam devenit. Ibique* empto loco 
pro refocillatione navigantium qui corio bovis cir- 
cumduci ^ posset, corium in tenue ' .filura secari jussit/ 
locumqne emptnm^ circuraduci, qnem Byrsam, id est 
Coriumy vocavit. Iddorus, libra qumto dedioio, Sive 
Carthago. Carthadam,® quod sonat villayn novam. Tandem' verso 
nomine locus ille Carthago vocabatur. Trogits^ lihro 
octavo dedmo? Sicque conditur Carthago Ixxij. auTiis 
ante urbem Bomam. RanulphuaP Idem dicit Papias ; 
cum ergo^^ secundum historicos Roma sit fundata quarto 
anno Achaz regis Juda," si isti quatuor anni, et sedecim 
anni regis Joathse, et quinquaginta duo anni regis Ozise,^® 
qui regem Achaz prsecesserunt, simul numerentur, pate- 
bit quod circa primum annum regis Oziae Carthago 
fuerit fundata. Veruntamen*^ Isidorus Etymolog., libro 

> Ubi, CD. 

« iegi, CD. 

' tenuissimumf C.T). 

*juhet, C.J) 

* C.D. add eodem, 
« Cartadam, MSS. 

* deinde, C. (not D.) 

® The reference added from C.D. 
See Just, Lib. xviii. c. 6. 

* In CD. the article from BannU 
phus stands thus : ** Ycrias tamen 
** iestimandum est* quod si («t, cm. 
** B.) Ciirthago condita sit ab illaDi* 
** done qnam JEneas reliqiiit, quod 
<* {et quodj D.) Carthago fundata 
** sit 570 annis ante urbem Bomam. 

*' Nam tot anni sunt inter »Tair ju- 
" dicem et Romulum. Quod autem 
^ quidam dicunt Car<haginem fuisse 
" conditam tempore regis David a 
" Carthedone Tyrio, sive a filia 
" (fliOf C) ejus Didone, potius 
** puto Carthaginem tunc fuisse ara- 
" pliatam, et illain Didonem aliam 
•* fuisse a prima." After this the 
paragi-aph on Mauretania begins. 

*• igitur, A. 

" Jttdttf added from A.B., which 
write Iiide, though having Lalt 

<^ Azariah is intended. 

" Verumptame», A.B.K. 


octavo decimo. Dido, fat hi^te Elissa also, went oute of Trevisa. 

Phenicia wi|) a gi*ete companye of ^ODglynges i-chose, and 

seilede first into Cyprus.^ And pere J>is womman Dido 
toke wi]) hir foure score maydens for to brynge forf chil- 
dren^ and com into Afiric%^ and peve fore ese and reste of 
here men, fat were wery of seillynge, aclie.boujte as moche 
lond as sche my^te byclippe wij? an oxe hide,* and kutte^ 
fe hyde into^ a J?ong fat was ful long and ful^ smal, 
and bicHpped ferwip a grete place, and cleped hit Byrsa, 
fat is a pwong, IsidoruSy lihro quinto decimo. Of er Car 
thada,6 fat was a newe toun. After fat f e name was 
chaunged and fe^ place i-cleped Carthago.^ And so Car- 
thago was i-buid f re score ^ere and twelue to fore f e citee 
of Rome* ^. Papias seif f e same ; and ^ stories tellef fat 
Eome was i^bulde f e fourfe ^ere of Achaz, kyng of luda. 
pan ^if we acounte rediliche and putte to giders foure ^ere 
of Achaz, xvi. ^ere of lotham,!^ and two and fifty ^ere of 
Ozias, fat regned to fore Achaz, hit folwef fat Carthago 
was i-founded aboute fe firste }ere of Ozias fe kyng, 
Neuerfeles Isidorus, libro quinto Etii., and Magister, in^* 

octavo decimo. Dido goenge furthe from theyme, whiche MS. Harl. 
was callede by an other name Elissa, takenge a multitude 2261. 
of yonge men with here, come firste to the yle of Cyprus,^ and „ 7T 
Ixxx. virgynes to norysche multiplicacion, come to Aflft'ike, • * • • 
whiche byenge a place f er for noryschenge of men, trauayl- 
euge as ferre as the skynne of an ox myihte extende, 
causede hit to be kytte in as smalle partes, and so the 
grownde to be compassede abowte, whiche place was callede 
Byrsa,^* that is to say, leder, Isidorus, libro xv^. Or elles 
that cite was callede Carthada,^ and after warde Carthago, 
whiche cite was edifiede Ixx*» yere afore the cite of Rome. 
I^. Papias seythe the same, sythe after alle wryters^ histo» 
ricalie Eome was made in tlie iiij^^« yere of Achaz kynge 
of the lewere. If these liij, yere, and xvi. yere of* kynge 
loachim,*^ and lij'* yere of kynge Ozias, whiche precedede 
kynge Achaz, be annumerate, hit is expressede that lij^ 
yei*e resulte fat Carthago was made in the iiij*^^ yere of 
Achaz kynge of lewcry. Neuerthelesse Isidorus wille, 

^ Opres, MS., a., Harl. MS. ; 
Ciprisy Cx. 

* oxe huyde, a. ; oxes hf/de, Cx. 
^ h/ttCf Cx. 

* tOf a. ; vntOf Cx. 

5 Cx. omits the second /a/. 
« Canada, MSS. of both versions;, 
and Cx, • 

' So Cx, (Me) 5 to J>c,%S, 

* thnSf Cx. 

^ and] added from a., and Cx. ; 
the latter has historyes, 

" ^® loihasj MS., a. ; lonathas, Cx. 

" ?w] added fi*om Cx. 

'2 Birisa, HarL MS. 

" So the HarL MS., but lotham is 



qmnto, et Magister in^ Historiis^ Scholasticis, videntur 
sentire quod fundata sit ^ circa xxxiv"» annum regis Da- 
vid, Marianus autem dicit quod circa quartum annum 
AmasisB regis Juda, Non ergo potent ad litteram stare 
quod* tradit Virgilius, et Phrygius Dares in historia sua 
de bello Trojano, quod scilicet* iEneas vidit Didonem, 
cum iEneas obierit ante fundationem Carthaginis, quam 
Dido fundavit, plus quam trecentis annis ; vel erit dare 
aliam Didonem ab ista antiquiorem, vel quod Carthago 
prius fuerit ® fundata. Proinde dicit Augustinus, primo 
Ubro Confessionum in fine, quod docti negabant' 
^neam vidisse Carthaginem aut Didonem. Igitur se- 
cundum Orosium, libro quarto, Carthago in circuitu 
murorum habuit xxij. miUia passuum. Altitudo muri 
quadraginta cubitus; latitudo triginta pedes; et tota 
pene man cingebatur absque faucibus quae tria ® millia 
De Mauri- Mauritania duplex est, Prima CsBsariensis, quae habet 


ad orientem Numidiam,^ ab austro arenas oceani, ab 
occasu flmnen Maluam,*® a septentrione fauces maris 
magnl Mauritania Tingitana^^ ultima est provincia 
Africse, habens ab ortu flumen Maluam, a septentrione 

' in] om. A, 

2 So E. at lengfih ; A.B. abbre- 
yiate the words ; the singular would 
he preferahle. See the yersions. 

^Jitit, A. 

* quod] sicut, A.B« 

^ scilicet] om. A.B. 

« So A.B. ; Juerat, E. 

' negabunt, A.E. 

^ trio] in mU., B. The text runs 
awkwardly. See the versions. 

' Prima habet ab ortu Numidiam^ 


^^ Apparently an error for Mu- 
htcham. Both yersions have like- 
wise Malua in all the MSS. 

" TingtHna, MSS. 


Historia Scholastica, seif ]>at^ it semef fat Carthago was Tbbvisa. 

i-founded aboute pe foure and J^ritty ^ere of kyng Dauid. 

Marianus seij> pat Carthago was i-bulde aboute pe four]>e 
^ere of Amazias, kyng of luda. pan it may nou^t stonde 
pat Virgilius and Phrygius Dares in his storie of pe bataille 
of Troye seij?, pat .Eneas sih pat womman Dido, for Eneas 
was dede pre hondred ^ere and more or^ Cartage was 
i-founded pat Dido foundede ; oper pere was anoper Dido, 
an 3 elder pan sche ; oper Cartage was raper ^ i-founded.^ 
J)erfore Seynt Austyn, libro prime Confessibnum, seip pat 
wise men denyep pat Eneas sij Carthago oper Dido pat 
womman, J)erfore Orosius, libro quarto, seip pat Carthago ^ 
is al aboute two and twenty powsand paas, and eueiy wal 
is fourty cubites ^ hi^e, and pritty foot brood 5 and pe citee 
is byclipped wip pe see wel nyh al aboute, ou[t] ^ take 
faucibus quae tria milia aperiebantur.^ 

Mauritania is pe name of twei londes, pe firste Cesariensis, 
pat hap in pe est side Numidia, in pe soup pe grauel of pe 
see 1^ occean, in pe west pe ryuer Malua» and in pe norp 
pe gewes of pe grete see. 

Tingitana is pe laste prouince of Afirica> and hap in 
pe est side pe lyaer MaLua, in pe north pe see 
Gaditanus, in pe west pe hulle Atlas, and the see 

Ethimolog., libro y% and the Maister in his story scholas- MS. Habl. 
ticalle, that Carthago was edifiede abowte the xxxiiij*^ yere 2261. 

of kynge Dauid ; wherefore the seyenge of Virgille and of 

Phrygius Dares in his story of the batelle of Troye, that 
Eneas see Dido ; or elles hit is to ^iffe a more elder Dido 
then this. For Eneas dyede moi'e then iii« yere afore the 
edifienge of Carthago, or elles hit wille folowe that Carthago 
was made a fore. Where of Seynte Austyn seythe in his 
booke of confessiones, libro prime, in the ende, that wyse 
men denye Eneas to hare seen Carthago. Therefore after 
Orosius, libro iiij***, Carthago hade with in the circuite of 
the walles, xxij. ml. passes. The altitude of the walle 
was of xl** cubites, the latitude of xxx^ foote alle moste 
compassede abowte with the water of the see. There be Maurita- 
tweyne Mauritanyes, that firste is Mauritany Cesariense, ^^ 
whiche hathe at the este of hit Numidia, at the sowthe the 
gravelles of the occean, at the northe the floode callede 
Malua, of the weste the chekes of the occean. Mauritania 

* as, Cx. 

^ afy a. ; efy Cx. 

^ and, Cx. 

'' ra]>er] added from o. 

* i-buld, «. and Cx, 

« i>at Carthago} added firom Cx. 

' cubitf a, 

^ out, a» ; oute, Cx. Trevisa and 
the HarL translator seem to haye 
been puzzled with the Latin text 

^ tiiat iif, m, were opend, Cx. 

*•* Cx. omits see» 



fretum Gaditanum, ab occasu montem Atlanticum et 
oceanum. Dicitur autem Mauritania ^ a mauron, quod 
est nigrum, quasi nigrorum patria. In hac Africa est 
tnons Atlas ad occidentem, non longe ab oceano,^ ita 
supra monteis alios* elevatus ut circulum lunarem 
credatur attingere ; ubi de nocte crebri ignes, fauni et 
satyri videntur, tubse, fistulse, et cymbala frequenter 
audiuntur. Augustinus de Civitate, libro octavo 
decimo.^ Atlas fuit astrologus, et® frater Prometliei, 
qui ideo ^ portare coelum fingitur ; a quo et '^ mons ille 
Atlas dicitur, quern® propter immensam altitudinem 
coelum portare vulgus credit. Hugutio,^ capitulo 
Phoenix. Nota'^ quod Puni, Poeni, Punici, et Punices, 
dicuntur" tarn Phoenices quam Afri sive Carthagi- 
nenses, quia Dido Carthaginensis fuit de terra Phoenicise 

Cap. XXIL 
De EiiTopa et ejus pi^ovinciis, 

RanulphusP Ponit Isidorus, libro quarto decinio, 
quod ^* Europa sit dicta ab Europa, filia Agenoris regis 

* q, n. p, after Mauritania in C.l)., 
which add : alia Mauritania dicitur 

^ mon longe ab oceanoi] om. CD. 

* alios] om. CD. 

* i 9, E., vrongly. See Lib. xviii, 
c. 8. and c. 39. E. also heads the 
previous paragraph : Augustinus de 
Civitatejibro zviij. likewise wrongly; 
for the two passages above named, 
which alone name Atlas, do not 
contain what is here said. 

* astrologus c<] om, CD. 
^ quia idem, D. 

' et] om. B. 

? cujus nomine Atlas dicitur mons 
iUe, quern, CD. 

^ Hugo, A.B. (a frequent varia- 

'* JNotandum, D, 

^^ quod Punici et Punices dicuntur, 

** de civitatibus Ph. veniens, CD. 

w So E. : the other MSS. omit 
the name. 

" Ponit , , . . quod] om. C.D., 
which also contract slightly the 
first two sentences throughout. 


occean. Mauritania haj) }>e name of mauron^ })at is blak^ Tkevisa. 

as it were ])e contray of black men. In J?i8 Afii»ica is fe 

liulle Atlas in ]?e west side and ende, nou^t fer from 
occean. And Atlas is so M^e ouer pe ^ huUes, fat lewed 
men wenej) J>at it rechej? to Jie mone. pere is ofte by ny^te 
i-seie fire, fauni, and satyri, fat beej> spiritus ^ of fe ^ aier 
dyuersliche i-schewed. Also fere is ofte i-herde tymbers, 
pipes, and trompes. Augustinus de Civitate Dei, libra 
octavo decimo. Atlas was ah astronomyour, Prometheus 
brofer ; f erfore ^ som men ^ feynef fat Atlas beref lieuene. 
And of f is man Atlas f e hul haf his name and hatte Atlas 
also, and^ is so hi^e fat fe lewed peple wenef fat he 7 
beref heuene. Take hede fat Puni, Peni, Punici, and 
Pun ices also beef i-cleped Phenices, Afri, and Cartha- 
ginienses, as f ei were men of Phenicia, of Affrica, ofer of 
Cartage. For fat womman Dido,® fat founded Carthago, 
was a comlynge, and com of ^ Phenicia. 

£>e Europa et ejus partibus. Capitulum vicesimum primum, 

IsiDORUs, libro quarto, seif fat Europa haf the name of 
Europa, Agenores doubter, king of Libya ; and lupiter, 

takethe the name of hit of maurouy that is blacke, as the MS. Harl. 
cuntre of blacke men. In whom is the mownte callede Atlas 2261. 
at the weste, not ferre from the occean, whiche is so eleuate ^^ 
ouer other hilles that is ^iffen to credence the altitude of ^^^g 
hit to towche the cercle of the moone, where claryones and 
symbales be herde oftetymes in the ny^hte. Augustinus de 
Civitate f libro octavo decimo. Atlas was an astronomier f. 34 a. 
and the broder of Prometheus, whiche was feynede to 
berre heuyn, of whom this hille callede Atlas toke the 
name of hit, whom commune peple suppose to berre heuyn 
for the huge altitude of hit. Also hit is to be attendede 
that Puni, Peni, Punici, and Punices be callede as welle 
men of Phenicia of Afirike and of Carthago, for Dido 
dwellenge in it was of the londe of Phenicia. 

Of Europe and of the Provinces of hit. Capitulum 21. 

IsiDORUS rehersethe, in his xiiijt'^e boke, that Europa Europa. 
toke name of Europa, doubter of Agenoris, kynge of Libya, 

' f e] other, Cx. 

2 spiritis, a. ; sprites, Cx. 

«>e] om. a. (not Cx.) 

*for, «. 

* Cx. omits men. 

® it is, Cx. 

' itf Cx. (and so often.) 

• Didoo, a. 

^fro, Cx. 



Libyse, quam Jupiter Cretensis rapuit sibL Hsec 
autem Europa, pars mundi tertia, indpiens a flumiiie 
Tanai et Moeotide palude, descendit per septentrio- 
nalem oceanum usque in fines HispanisB apud Gades 
insulam« Ab oriente et austro marl taagno cingitur.^ 
Plures continet provincias et insulas, de quibus hie per 

ordinem aliqua sunt tangenda,^ Est autem sciendum 
quod ex parte orbis septentrionaUs Moeotides paludes 
et fluviua Tanais distinguunt Asiam majorem ab 

Fluvius autem* Tanais dictus est a Thano prime 
rege Scytharum, qui fluvius exoriens* a Eipseis mon- 
tibus® descendens intrat pontum Mediterraneum. 

Scy thia inferior regio '' frigida est ® valde. Incipit a 
flumine^ Tanai/® inter Danubium et oceanum septen- 
trionalem usque Germaniam protenditur. Sed propter 
barbaras gentes quas continet generaliter Barbaria" 

DeAiania. Alania/* pars Scythise inferioris/* declinat a lacu 
Moeotidis usque Daciam. 

De Mcesia. Mcesia ^^ ab ortu clauditur ostiis Danubii ; ab euro 



^jungitur, P. 

^ aliqua . . . tarigenda^ om. C«D. 

' et JSuropam, CD, 

^ autem] om. CD. 

* S, et exorienSf CD. 

^ apud i?. montes, CD. 

''regio] om. CD. 

^est] om. A.B.C 

^Jlumo^ A.D. 

»» Thanaysy B. 

" So A.CD. ; barbarica^BJ^. 

" vocatur^ D. 

» Albania, B.E. 

" inferioris] om. CD. 

'^ Misia, HSS. Mysia and Koesia 
may be dialectical variations of the 
same name (Smith's Anc, Geogr, ii. 
389) : but to edit Jt^^ would only 
confase. A little below A. has 
Mestam, and this fonn has been 
adopted in the versions. 



kyng of Creta, rauisched Europa, Agenores doubter. But Tbevisa. 
J)is Europa is ]?e fridde deel of fis worlde wyde,* and — 
bygynnef fro fe ryuer Tanais ^ and f e water Meotides, and - 
strecchef dounward by pe norJ> occean anon to pe endes 
of Spayne at pe^ ylond Gades, and is byclipped by J?e^ 
est and also by fe^ soup wip pe grete see. In Europa 
beep many prouinces and ylondes, pe wbiche now scbal be 
descreued;^ but firste take hede pat in pe north side of 
p6 world pe water ^ Meotides and pe ryuer Tanais departep 
atwjmne^ pe more Asia and Europa. J)e ryuer Tanais 
hap pe name of Thanus^ pe firste kyng of Scythia. pat 
ryuer Tanais bygynnep from pe huUes Ripheis, and goop 
doun to® pe see of myddel erpe. IsidoruSy Itbro qtiarto 
decimo, J)e lower Scythia pat lond is ful colde,^ and by- 
gynnep from pe ryuer Tanais, and strecchep bytwene pe 
ryuer Danubius and pe ^^ norp occean anon to " Germania 
pat contray. Alania is a party of pe lower Scythia^ and 
strecchep somdel from pe wateres Meotides toward Daciam. 
Mesia ^2 pat lond is i-closed in pe north est wip pe moup 
of Danubius, and ioynep in pe soup est to Thracia,!^ and 

whom lupiter Cretensis raveschede to hym. That Europe, MS. Hasl. 
the thrydde parte of the worlde, begynnenge from the flood© ^261. 
of Thanay, descendethe by the northe occean vn to the 
costes of Speyne, compassede abowte with the see at pe yle 
callede Gades, on the este parte and in the sowthe with the 
grete see, conteynenge mony prouinces and yles, of whom 
sommo thynges schalle be towchede by ordre. 

Hyt is to be attendede that of the northe parte the 
marras of Meotides and the floode of Thanais diuiden 
the lesse Asia from Europe. Floode of Thanais was 
namede firste of Thanus, kynge of Scythia, which floode 
descendenge entrethe in to the see Mediterrony. Isidorus, 
libro quarto decimo* The inferior Scythia is colde, begyn- Scythia. 
nenge from the water of Thanus, betwene Danuby and the 
norSie occean is protendede to Germanye, which is callede 
Barbarica for the men of Barbre that hit conteynethe. 

Alania is a parte of the inferior Scythia declinenge to the Alania. 
water of Meotides vn to Denmarke.^4 Mesia is schutte of Mesia. 
the este parte of it with the dun'es of Danuby, from the 

^ tppde world, Cx. 

2 Thanai, MS., a. ; Thanay^ Cx» 

' at pe] atte, Cx. 

^ Cx. omits \>e (twice). 

^ descryuedj Cx. 

* wateris, a. 

^ a sonder, Cx. 

* into, a, 

^ful of cold, Cx, 

^^ j>€] om. o. 

1' anon, to"] vnto the, Cx. 

^^ Misia, MSS. oft)oth yendons, 
and Cx., and so below. 

" Tracia, MSS. of both versions, 
and Cx. 

" The medieval use of Dacta 
and Daci has heze misled the 



Thraciae, ab austro Macedoniae^ ab occasu Istrise, ab 
Africo Dalmati0B jungitur.' Terra frugifera maxime 
tritici,^ unde et earn veteres Cereris horreum nuncu- 
De Sclavia. Sclavia pars est ® Moesise, qxxdd * tamen duplex est, una 
major quae proprie dicitur Sclavonia, et continet Dal- 
matisB partem et Sarmatas. Feras habet gentes et 
piraticas. Alia, minor Sclavia, extenditur a Wandalis 
et Bohemis * usque ad Saxones, quae gentem habet magis 




Pannonia, a Penninis Alpibus quibus ab Italia secer- 
nitur sic vocata, duplex est, major quae in ulteriori 
Scythia est ultra Moeotides paludes, a qua Huni'^ 
primitus venationis gratia exeuntes, per longa paludum 
spatia cervorum vestigia insectantes,* ut dicit Hero- 
dotus,® tandem Pannoniam minorem invenerunt, qui 
reversi ad propria, coUecto agmine, in illam rediere, et, 
expulsis incolis, nomen patriae Hungariam indiderunt. 
Cujus tamen pars Bulgaria dicitur, quae habet ab oriente 
Moesiam^ ab euro Istriam, ab Africo ^^ Alpes, ab occidente 

^jungitur] om. CD. 
' So A.B. ; triiicea^ C. } triticoy D. 
^ €${] om. A., placing it after 
majgr; omitted entirely in B.D. 

* qu<B] CD. contract a little here. 

* Boemiis, A.E. 

'^p'ann, B., (possibly blundered 
for placidam, which is very likely 
the true reading). 

" So the MSS., which form is 

fully as good as Hannii if less com- 

^ insequenies, B. 

• ut dicit Herodotus] om. CD. 
Herodotus never names the Hims j 
and his remarks on the Scythians 
can hardly be the origin of this 

" austro, B. 



in l>e south to Macedonia, in )>e west to Histria,' and Trevisa. 

in J)e south west to Dalmatia. Mesia is a prise ^ lond — — 

of corne and of whete, J^erfore feolde ceteris^ cleped hit 

a berne. Sclauia is a partie of Mesia ; fere beef also 

two londes, eifer hatte Sclauia. pe more hatte properliche 

Sclauonia, and conteyne]) som of Dalmatia and Sarmatas, 

and haj> wjlde men and see J?eues. J)e lasso Sclauia strecchef 

from Wandalia and Bohemia anon to Saxone ; and fere ynne 

bef more myldc* peple. Pannonia haf fe name of Penninis 

Alpibus, fat beef ^ hulle,^ fat beef i-cleped Alpes, and f ilke 

hilles departef Pannonia and Italia : fere is anofer Panno- 

nia be tonde fe wateres Meotides in f e lender Scythia. 

Out of f e more Pannonia Hunni 7 went an huntynge, and 

passed long by marys and wateres, and folwed fe trace of 

hertes, ut dicit Herodotus,* and so at fe laste® fei founde 

fe lasse Pannonia, and torned home a^en, and fette to^" 

hem grete strong fe and com eft'^ in to fe lasse Pannonia, 

and put out f e ' men fat were f erynne, and cleped f e lond 

Hungaria.i2 But a partie ferof hatte Bulgaria, and haf in 

f e est side Mesia, in f e souf est Histria,i* in f e west Alpes, 

(fe hilles fat so hotef,) in fe west Gallia Belgica, fat is 

este of Tracia to the sowthe parte of Macedony ; a plen- MS. Hakl. 
tuous region, and specially of whete, wherefore olde men 2261. 
namede hit the berne of God of come. Sclauia is a „ ~r* 
parte of Mesia, of whom the nowmbre is duplicate, the more "^^^^^*^* 
and lesse. The more is callede proprely Sclauonia, con- 
teynenge a parte of Dalmatia and Sarmatas, hauenge ferse 
peple and schippemen. The litelle Sclauia is extendede 
from Wandalinges and men of Boemy vnto the Saxones, 
the peple of whom is more meke. Also Pannonye is du- Pannonia. 
plicate, the more that is in the ferfer Scythia, ouer the waters f- 34. b. 
of Meotides, from whom Hunes goenge furthe for cause 
of huntenge by ferre cuntrees folowenge hertes, as Herodotus 
scythe, at the laste founde the lesse Pannonye, whiche ro- 
turnenge home, gedrenge a multitude of peple, returnedc 
ageyne to hit, the inhabitatores of hit expulsede thei namede 
that cuntre Hungary. A parte of whom is callede Bui- Hungaria, 
garia, hauenge on the este to hit Mesia, of the weste Gallia . 

* and in |>e , . , Histria] add.3d 
from A. and Cx. 

* prisy a. ; goody Cx. 

^ This absurdity is found also in 
a. and Cx. 

^ a. and Cx. add men and after 

* heo)^y a. 

® kuUesy a. 

' Humiy MS. } Hinnify Cx. 

* as Erodotus septk, Cx, 

® atte lasfe^ Cx., and so often. 

'» toke withy Cx. 

'^ agayUy Cx. 

'2 Hungeria^ MS. ; Hongariay Cx. 

" So «. and Cx. ; Historia, MS. 



Galliam Belgicam, a septentrione Danubium seu ^ Ger- 
maniam. Habet haec terra venas aureas, et moBtes in 
quibus effoditur marmor et sal optimum.* 

De GroBda et ejus provmciis. 

Innttunt auctores quod Grsecia, cum provinciis ^ suis, 
regnorum sit domina,- militias nutrix, philosophise mater, 
magistra artium et inventrix; a quodam* Grseco ibidem 
regnante^ Graecia dicta est, quaa tamen gener alitor 
dicitur lllyricus, cujus populi dicuntur Graeci, Graii^ 
Achaei; Achivi, Argivi, Attici, lones, lonii, sive Hel- 
lenes.^ Sed quando Constantinus Magnus sedem Ro- 
mani imperii in Constantinopolim transtulit, Grsecorum 
gens Romania vocabatur quasi nova Roma, ut dicit 
Rabanus. Ideo usque hodie Grseci' non se vocant 
GrsBCOs vulgariter, sed Ramayses,® gens olim beDico- 
sissima, sed regibus subdita* Oiraldus, dUti/nctione 

' seu] ety A. 

^ Hahet , . , (^iimum] om. CD. 

^ insidis, CD. 

* qvodam] om. A.B, 

* regnante ibidem^ B. 

^ The opening sentence is much 
contracted in CD. 
' GrcBci] om. R 

• sed Ranutyses'] So E. j Ramay- 
soSf A. ; Homanos, B., which is 
perhaps right ; though more pro- 
bahly the other readings mean to 
express *Pw fuUovs. C and D. omit 
the clause and all the preceding 

^ gens . . . subdita] placed in C 
after Hellenes. 



Fraunce, and in pe nor]> fat rjner Danubins a&d Germania Tbevisa. 

fat lond. pis lond Bulgaria haj) veynes of golde * and hilles 

in fe whiche me digge}> marbel and salt goode at ])e best. 

De Gr€Bcia et eius prouindis, Capiiulum vicesimum 


AucTOURS telle]) J)at Grees with ]?e prouinces^ ferof is 
lady of kyngdoms, norice of kny^tiiode and of cbiualrie, 
moder of philosofie, fynder and mayster of art and sciens,^ 
and ba]7 \q name of con Greens ]»at reigned j^ere somtyme. 
Neuerfeles^ j)at lond is comounliehe i-cleped Illyricus,^ Jie 
men perof bej> i-cleped G^'oci, Graii, Achei, Aehivi, Argivi, 
Attici, lones, lonii, and^ Hellenes. But whan fe grete 
Gonstantyn made? Constantinopolim ])e cheef sete of ]?e 
emperour ^ of Rome, fan were f e Grees ^ i-cleped Romanij,^^ 
as it were men of newe Rome, so seij> Rabaiius. And anon 
to ])is day fe Grees clepef noutt hem self Grees, but 
Romayses,^^ and were somtyme stalworfe and orped and best 
men of armes, and neuerf eles sugett ^^ to lawes. Isidorusy^^ 

Belgica, of the northe Danuby or Almayne. That londe MS. Harl. 
hathe veynes of golde, and hilles in whom marbole is 2261. 
diggede and goode salte. 

Of CrrecCf and of the prouinees of hit Capiiulum 

vicesimum secundum, 

AucTORES remembre and reherse that Grece is lady Orecla. 
of other londes with his provinces, nutrix of cheuallery, 
the moder of philosophy, maistresse of artes, callede 
Grecia of a man named Grecus reignenge there, whiche 
is callede generally Illyricus, fe peple of whom be callede 
Greci, Graii, Achei, Achivi, Argivi, Attici, lones, lonii, 
or Hellenes. But when grete Constantyne transferrede 
the seete of the Roman ympyre to Constantinople, the 
men of Grewe were callede as newe Romanes, as Rabanus 
seythe ; where fore men of that cuntre vn to this tyme 
calle not theyme Grekes, but Ramoyses, somme tyme peple 
moste victorious but subjecte to lawes. Gir. de papa, ca- 

' So a. and Cx. ; coZcfe, MS. 

* prottincey MS. (not Cx.) 
' of science, Cx. 

* f^etheks, Cx. (and so often.) 

* Iliricus, MS. 
«and] SoCx.; fie,MS. 

^ Constantyn tnade'] added fh>m 
a, and Cx. 

« ]>e empere, «. ; thempyre, Cx. 
This is nearer the Latin. 

* Grekes, Cx., and so belov. 

»" So MS., o., and Cx. 

" the Grekes be but JRamattses, 

^^ natkeles smbget, Cx. 

"Seemingly a clerical error for 
GiraMus. Cf. Prof, DisU 1. p. 6, 
(Ed. Brewer.) Bnt the inference is 





'^eciiThda, capitulo ncnio decimo} In hac terra quondam 
Palladis et Minerv83 studia musse et militte^ castra 
junctis dextris firinatisque foederibus sese comitabantur, 
ideoque respublica tunc prosperabatur ; item multa 
Grail veteres et armis aggressi et studiis aissecuti sunt. 
Sed virtus ilia refriguit in posleris, et in orbem Latimim 
migravit, ut qui ante fontes fuerant* nunc rivuli, vel 
potius alvei arentes et exhausti. Virtutum siquidem 
successor nuUus/ scelerum omnes. Namque Sinonis 
figmenta, UHxis fallaciam, Atrei atrocitatem retinent. 
Arte non armis dimicant. Hsec itaque regio Grsecia 
juxta mare magnum sita plures in se continet® pro- 
vincias, quae sunt Thracia, Lacedsemonia, Macedonia, 
Acbaia, Arcadia, Thessalia, Helladia,^ Boeotia/ 

Thracia, quae et Epirus, terra® quondam Epirotarum, 
habet ab austro uEgeum mare, ab occasu Macedoniam, 
quam quondam inliabitabant Massagetae, Sarmatae, 
Gothi. Isidorus, libra ayv^,^ In hac terra est fons 
extinguens faces accensas et iterum extinctas reaccen- 

^ So tvritten at length (but as one 
word) in E. Jligden or his scribes 
Beem to hare avoided the form unde' 

^ milUi{s'\ om. CD. 

' fucrunt, A. 

* temuIuSi B. 

^ conihiet in se^ B. 

8 EUadia or Elladea, MSS. ; CaU 

ladia, B.; Hellas is of course in« 

• HcEc itaque . ♦ . Baotia] Slightly 
contracted in CD. (the names ex- 
cepted), which place the sentence 
before Giraldus ; A. has et Achaia 
aod et Arcadia, 

^ tota, B. (apparently). 

® The true reference is to lib. xiii, 
c. 13. 



libro primoy capitulo septimo decimo, Li J^is lond was som- Trsvisa. 

tyme J>e studie and J?e scole of Pallas and Minerua, of grettest 

art and scions of kny^thode and of chiualiie, and ]7e clergie 
and the chiualrie hilde^ so to giders J>at in fe comyn profi^t 
was all way good spede. Also ]je olde Graii auntrede ^ 
and gat many ]>inges by clergie and dedes of annes, but ]jat 
vertue keled^ and wi]> drowe ynne bam Jat com^ afterward, 
and passede from \e Grees to fe Latyns, so fat fe rafer welles 
beef 5 now but lakes,^ ofer more vereyliche dreye cbanels wi]? 
oate watir. For now fey holdef Sinonis '* feynynge, Vlixis ® 
gile, Atreuis craeluesse> and fitef Wif sleife and wif cauteles 
and nou^t wif armoure and wepoun. pis lond Grecia is 
faste by f e grete see, and conteynef many prouinces, fat 
beef Thracia,^ Lacedemonia, Macedonia, Acbaia, Arcadia, 
Tbessalia, Helladia, Beotia.^<> Thracia hatte Epirus also, for^^ 
Epirote woned f erynne somtyme, and baf in f e souf side f e 
see Egeus,^2 jj^ j,^ s^^st Macedonia. In Macedonia woned 
somtyme dyuers men fat bi^te Massagete, Sarmate, and 
Gotbi. IsidoruSy libro quinto,^ In f is lond is a welle fat 
quencbef brennynge brondes, and tendef brondes fat beef a 

pitulo septimo decimo. In whicbe londe somme tyme MS. Harl. 
were libraryes, studies, muses, and companyes of cbeuallery, 2261. 

where fore the londe stode that tyme in prosperite. But 

that vertu in theyme was refusede after and wente to 
the cuntre of men of Latyn, and thei that were somme tyme 
the nowble welles now be ^* as ryueres with owte water and 
consumede ; noo folower of vertu f er, but alle off vices. For 
thei reteyne to them the figmentes of Sinonis, the fallace 
of Vlixes, fi^htenge by arte and not by armes. That region 
of Grece, setfce nye the grete see, hathe mony prouinces in 
hit, whiche be Thracia,^ Lacedemonia, Macedonia, Achaia, 
Arcadia^ Tbessalia, Helladia, Beotia.^'^ Thracia, or Egiptus,i* 
somme lyme the londe Epiratores, hauenge on the este to 
hit the see of Ege, of the weste Macedony, where the Mas- 
sagetes inhabite somme tyme. IsidoruSy libro quinto decimo. 
There is a welle in that londe qwenchenge brennenge brondes f, 35. a, 
of fire and li^htenge theyme ageyne. The chiefe cite of 

' heUde, Cx. 

^ aventaredy Cz. 

^ So a. and Ox. ; hele\>, MS. 

^ cam, a, and Cx. 

* So o. ; is, MS. 

' so that to fore where weUeswere, 
ben now but lakes, Cx. 
' Stfnonis, MS, 
^Soa ; VlixuSyMS.', VUxeSjCx, 

• init bee^ Thracia'] Added from o. 
and Cx. TheMSS.have 7Vac«a,as 

yOL. I. 

usual ; but Thessalia U correctly 
written in MS. (not Harl. MS.) 

*• Boeda, MSS. of both versions, 

"^r] added from Cx. 

" Egedeus, MS. 

" 15, a., Cx. 

*^ ihei be, MS., but thei erased. 

'* This is of course for Epirus; 
but the sentence is otherwise cor- 



dens.^ Hujus provincisB metropolis est Constantinopo- 
lis^ in orientali parte patens inter Ponticum mare et 
Propontidejn, terrse marique pervia, caput quondam 
orientis, sicut Ropaa ocddentis ; et quondam yocabatur 
Byzantium.^ De qua loquitur sic Willielmus de Eegi- 
bus, libro quarto j* Hanc^ urbem Constantius magnus 
constituit SBquam Romae, decemens imperatorem non 
debere Romee principari, ubi principabantur apostqli 
coronati Invexit quoque iUuc innumeras Sanctorum 
reliquias, qui possent ^ contra hostium insultus ^ suffra- 
gari. Statuas etiam deorum et tripodes Delphicos ad 
ludibrium intuentium adduxit, gratum sBstimans ibi 
urbem imperialem condere ubi esset soli ubertas® et 
ccbU temperies, ju:^ta regionem Mysiam® frugum feracem. 
P^tet quoque undequmque *^ adnavigantibus ab Asia 
et Europa, undique pene mari magno cincta, ambitu 
murorum juxta situm pelagi angulosi " viginti miHia '* 
passuum muro complexa. Quapropter rilpium molibqs 

^ accendens, 3. 

^ ConstantipopoUm, £). 

^ Tkracia . . . SyzanHum] Much 
altered and transposed in CD., which 
omit all that follows till the section 
on Lacedcemon. 

^ in libro quarto Hegum, A. 

^ Quapropter kanc, 4^, 

^ insidias, B. 
® Ubertasj B. 

^ Mestam^ A. ; but Mysia is most 
probahly intended. 
" undique^ B. . 
11 angidosa, B.E. 


queynt,* pe chief cite of f is lond is Constantinopolis in po Trbtisa. 

est side, openliche i-^eie by twene J>e tweie sees Ponticus 

and Propontides, and opounliche i-seie out of water and of 
lend, and was somtyme ]>e cheef citee of ]>e Est ; ri^t as 
Borne was of J»e West, and hi^te som tyme Byzantium.^ Of 
ph citee WiUielmus, libro quarto Regum^ speke]> in pis 
manere : pe grete Constantinus bulde and made fis citee 
euene and pere to Borne ^ and demed ]?at pe Emperour 
schulde nou^t be chief ]7ere ; pe Apostles were cheef, and 
nameliche i-crowned» And he brou^t ])ider also meny 
relikes of holy seyntes, fat my^te hem helpe a^enst her 
enemyes. Ymages of false goddes and tripodes Delphicos 
fat were Apolynes ymages he brou^te to byskome^ and 
bysmer©^ to hem pat byhelde hem and say,^ So fis 
Emperour vouched sauf to bulde pe chief citee of pe 
empere in good corn contray, where J>ere is good tem- 
perure of heuene and of wedir, besides pe londe Mysia,^ fat 
haf grete plente of corn and of firuyt. pe ^ citee is i-sei^e 
and i'Schewed to alle schipmen fat seillef f ider ward out 
of what lond fat fey come of Asia and ^ Europa^ and is 
wel ny^ byciipped al aboute wif fe grete see, and is 
cornered wif ynne f e clippynge of f e walles faste by f e see 
side, and is ^® byciipped wif a wal of twenty f owsand 
paas. pere wif hupes of stones ^^ and of grauel, i-caste 

that cuntre is Constantinople, ^^ in the este part of hit, MS. Harl. 
betwene the see Pontyke and Propontides, the hede of alle ^^ei. 
the este,. as Bome is of the weste, somme iyme callede 
Byzantium;^ of whom Willielmus, libro iiij^**, de Begibus, spe- 
kethe; Constantine made that cite egaUe to Bome, seyenge 
hit was not conueniente an Emperoure to kepe residence 
where thapostles crownede kepede the principate, brynffenfi^e 
thider innLierable relikes of ^yntes wliiche m^hte Aewe 
socoure to the cite ageyne the sawtes of theire enmyes, 
thenkenge hit fre to hym to make a cite imperialle where 
was the pleasure and liberte of grownde, temperaunce of 
heuyn, nye to the region callede Mysia,^' plentuous of whete. 
Whiche is patente on euery syde to men saylenge from Asia 
and Europa^ compassede alle moste with the grete see. The 

' acquenchydy Ox. 

^ Bisancvum^ MSS. 

^ R(m&\ So o. and Ox. ; Ltm- 
doun, MS. 

* byskorne, MS., and similarly often. 

^ busmere, a. 

^he brought to be scorned and 
spyght to them that behdde hem and 
sawe, Cx, 

' Misia, MSS. (of both versions). 

« That, Cx. 

^ and of, Cx. 

" J is, MS. (not a. or Cx.) 

1^ ther with keepes and huppels of 
stones, Cx. 

'^ PropowtidesConstantinople,^^»} 
but Propontides erased. 



et ai'enarum cumulis juxta urbem profundo injectis 
tellus dilatatur ; Danubius etiam^ fluvius (qui et Hister) 
occultis sub terra canalibus influit ; urbi diebus con- 
stitutis, ablato pessulo, inductus centum plateas in- 
undat. In qua urbe Constantinus erexit duas ecclesias 
famosas, sed Justinianus^ postmodum Uteris et bellis 
egregius addidit tertiam ecclesiam in honorem Divinse 
SophisB, id est^ Domini Christi, quem "hagiam^ sophiam'' 
vocavit ; opus, ut ferunt, omnibus per orbem sedificiis 
magnificentius, ita ut verba referentium vincat. Ibi 
per Helenam allatum fuit lignum dominicse crucis. 
Ibi quieseunt apostoU Andreas, Jacobus frater Domini, 
Matthias, prophetse quoque HeKseus, Samuel, Daniel. 
Item Lucas Evangelista et martyres quamplures. Item 
confessores Johannes Chrysostomus, Basilius, Gregorius 
Nazianjzenus. Item virgines Agatha et Lucia. 
Deliace- IsidoTus, Ubro quiniodecimo, Lacedsemonia sive 


Spartania provincia est Grsecise juxta Thraciam, cujus 
incolse vocantur Lacedasmones a Laeedaemone filio 

' etiam] So A.B. ; et, E. 
^ A. adds imperator» 
* A. repeats in konorem. 

* Trevisa's MS. must have had 
Agia, to judge hy his translation. 


inta pe see besides pe citee, pe lond i-serchedi and i-made Trevisa. 

more. Also fe ryuer Danubius, fat hatte Hister also, is 

i-lete and i-ladde in to dyuerse places of J>e cite by goteres 
vnder erfe in ])is manere. Wban fe water schal torne^ 
in to fo citee men take]? out a barre, }>at fe water is 
i-stopped wif, and lettef J>e water renne, and stoppe]? whan 
bem like]?. And so Danubius fynde]> water i«now to an 
hondred stretis. In }>is citee Constantinus arered and bulde 
tweie famous chirches ; but lustinianus fe Emperour bulde 
afterward J>e f ridde chircbe in worschippe of Diuina Sophia, 
]?at is, oure Lord Crist, ]>at* Agia clepe]) Diuina Sophia, 
in 4 Englisshe, pe Wisdom of God. And men telle)? fat 
fe werk passef al pe buldynge of pe worlde, and is more 
noble l?an men konne^ telle, peder Seint Eleyne^ brou^te 
]>e holy crosse fat oure Lorde Crist deied on ; fere restef 
fe apostles Andrewe and lames, fat is i-cleped Frater 
Domini; 7 fere restef Mathias and prophetes also, Heliseus, 
Samuel, and Daniel ; and also Luke f e euangeliste, and 
martires ful many ; also confessours, lohan wif fe gilden^ 
mouth, Basilius, and Gregorius Nazianzenus ; and virgines, 
Agatha and Lucia. 

Lacedemonia, fat hat Spartania^ also, is a prouince of 
of Grecia faste byside Thracia. Men of fat prouince beef 
i-cleped Lacedemones of Lacedemon, Semelis^^ sone, and 

floode Danubius flowethe in to the cite in condettes vnder MS. Habl. 
the erthe ; in dayes ordeynede, a barre take a way, that water ^ ^^^^* 
clensethe cL weyes in that cite. Jsi whom grete Con- " 
stantine erecte ij. famose chirches ; but lustinian the Em- 
peroure, instructe in letters and in armes, addede the chirche 
in the worschippe of oure Lorde Criste, moste nowble in 
worke of alle of er chirches in the worlde. The crosse of oure 
Lorde was brou^hte f ider by Elene, where Seynte Andrewe, 
Seynte lames brofer of oure Lorde, Mathias, Eliseus, 
Samuel, and Daniel reste. Also Lucas the Euangeliste, 
and mony other martires. Also lohn Crisostom, Basilius, 
Gregory Nazanzene. Also Agatha and Lucia, virgines. 
Lacedemonia is a prouince of Grece, nye Thracia. The 
inhabitatores of whom be callede Lacedemones. Men of that 


eehedf Cx, 
2 renne, Cx. 
» K MS. (not a.) 
* cm, a. 

^ kun, a, ; can, Cx« 
« HeUnet Cx« 


Ox. adds : in JEnglisshe, oure 
lorries broder» 

« golden, Cx. (not a.y 

9 Spariania] So o. and Cx. } 
Speratonia, MS. 

'® SoCx.; SamueHsyMB*', Samdis^ 



Semeles. Dicuntxir etiam^ Spartani.* Trogus, libro 
tertio, ca/pitvlo secundo. Hi aliquaJido* circa obsidionem 
Messenes* dvitatis in Apulia per deceimiiim immorati/ 
querelis uxorum fetigabantur, timentesque® ne diutur- 
nitate prselii spem prolis amitterent, statuerunt ut 
eomm virgines cum juvenibus domi reliciis promiscue 
concamberent> arbitrantes per hoc sobolem maturiorem 
provenire si singulse mulieres plures viros experirentur. 
Ex quibus nati, ob notam^ materni pudoris, Spartani 
Yocabantur. Qui cum tricesimum annum attigissent, 
metu inopisB, cum nullum certum patrem haberent/ 
duce Phalantho filio Araci,^ insalutatis matribus^ per 
varios casus jactati tandem Italiam devenerunt^ ex- 
pulsisque veteribus incolis, sedem apud Tarentum 
De Maco. Macedonia, a Macedone^^ Deucalionis nepote sic dicta, 


quondam Emathia a rege Emathio vocabatur." Ab ortu 
habet ^geum mare, ab austro Achaiam, ab occasu 
Dalmatiam, a septentrione Moesiam.^^ 

^ Dicuntur etiam Spartaml sive 
Spartani, C J). 
^ aliguando'\ om. C.D. 
* Messetie, MSB. 
^ 0?» afinos ntoratiy B. 
' A. and B. omtgue. 

^ wUam^ A«B. \ naturam, C« 
^ haherent patrem, A«B*D. 
^Both the Latin and Engtish 
MSB. bare the form Articim, 
1« Macedo, MS. 
" dicehatur, C. 
» Misiam, MSS. 



beef i-deped Spartaxii also. Tragus^ libro tertio. pese men TaEvigA. 
somtyme byseged fe citee Messena ten ^ere to gidres, and — - 
were wery and i-greued^ of pleyntes and grucchinge of 
her wyfes, and dradde also })at longe abidynge from home 
in werro and in bataille schulde make hem childrenlese ^ 
at hom, and ordeyned terfore )?at fe^ maydenes of her 
londe schulde take ^ongelyiiges fat were i-left at home ; so j>at 
euery mayde schulde take many ^ongelynges,^ euerich after 
of er ; for fey hoped to haue fe strenger childeren, ^if 
eueriche womman assayed many men. But for fe schameiul 
doynge of the modres f e children fat were i-gete and i-brou^t 
forf in fat manere were i*cleped Spartani, and whan fey were 
fritty wynter^ olde fey dredde sore of nede and of mes- 
cheef ; for non of hem wiste who was his owne sire.^ perfore 
fey toke hem a ledere and a chifteyn ^ Phalanthus, Aracus ^ 
his sone, and toke no leue of hire modres, but wente forf 
and were i-cast hider and fider by dyuers happes,^ and 
at f e laste cam in to Italia, and dryue ^^ oute f e men f ai 
woned fere, and made f e cheef sede " at Tai-entum* 

Macedonia haf f e name of Macedo, Deucalions neuew, 
and hi^t somtyme Emathia of Emathius the kyng, and 
haf in fe est side fe see Egeus, in fe soufe Achaia,^^ in 
fe west Dalmatia, and in fe norf Mesia.^^ In fis prouince 

prouince taryenge abowte the sege of a cite callede Messene MS, Habi/. 
in Apulia^ wexede feynte thro compleyntes of theire wifes, 2261. 

dredenge to lose multiplicacion off chUder by diutuniite of 

batelle, ordeynede that the childer of theyme lefte at home 
scholde folowe the luste of the flesche to gedre, supp<)singo 
the more multiplicacion to encrease; but the women experte 
the knowlege of diuerse men, the childer of whom were 
callede Spartani. Whiche childer atteynenge the age of 
xxx*^ yere, not knowenge their faders in certitude, takenge 
to theyme a duke callede Phalax, sonne of Aracus, come 
to Ytaly, expellenge the olde inhabitatores of hit, made a 
mansion and a seete to theyme at Tarentum. Macedonia^ 
callede by that name of Macedo, neuewe to Deucalion, some 
tyme [was] callede Emathia of kynge Emathius, hauenge on 
the este to hit the see of Egee, on the sowthe Achaiii, of 
the weste Dalmatia, on the northe parte Mesia^ The hille f» 35. b. 

^ agreue€[, Cx. 

2 childeren, Cx. (typogr, error). 

* >e] om. Cx. 

* ifat were , . . 'longdynges] om. 

* yere, Cx. 
^ fader, Cx. 

' capytayne, Ox. 

^ PkaJantis-Aracius, MS. 

^fortunes, Cx. 

'» droof, Cx. 

11 cytCy Cx, (not a.), which is pro- 
bably right. 

»2 Achate, MS, 

" Misia, MSS. of both versions ; 
and so below. 



Demonte In liac provincia est* mons Olympus, qui dividit 


Tliraciam et Macedoniam.^ Petrus, capitulo tricesi/mo 
septimo. Mons quidem nubes excedens, in cujus vertice 
nee nubes nee venti nee pluvisB sentiuntur, super quern 
litteras inscript8B in pulvere* post anniun repertea sunt 
illibatae; ubi etiam pro nimia aeris raritate nee aves 
vivere queunt,* nee philosophi ibidem^ ascendentes ad 
discendum euisum stellarum absque spongiis adaquatis 
manere potuerunt,^ quas naribus suis apponentes^ aerem 
trahebant erassiorem. 

Est ibi etiam® mons Athos nubes pertingens, cujus 
umbra usque^ ad Lemnum insulam^^ extenditur," qusa 
distat illo monte IxxvL milliaribus. 

Dalmatia ab ortu habet Maeedoniam, ab occasu 
Istriam, a septentrione Moesiam, ab austro Adriaticum 
DeAchaia. Achaia, ab Achseo rege sic dicta, tota psene*^ est 
insula. Nam ab ortu habet Tyrrhenum mare, ab euro'^ 
Creticum mare, a meridie" mare Ionium, a solo^* sep- 

De monte 

De pal- 

' In,€a est, C.D. 

^ et Macedoniam] a Macedonia, 
A.B.C.I).; C. aad B. omit the title of 
the following extract from Petrus, 

' scriptiB in pidvereniy B. 

* possunt, C. (not D.) 

^ ibi, B. ; om. D, 

^ potuerant, A. 

' apponentes suis^ B. ; suis is 
omitted in B. 

' etiani ibidem, A.B.I). 

' usque'] om. B. 

^^ in X. insukim, C. ; in L, insula 

" protenditur. A, 
'2 pane'] fere, CD, 
** austro, B. 
" ab occasu, B. 

^'^ solo'] om. B. The other MSS. 
have sola. 


is J>e hil mons Oljmpus, and to deleft tweie londes, Thracia Tbbvisa. 

and Macedonia. Petrus, capitulo trieesimo septimo. pe hul 

passe]» J>e dowdes, in fe cop ^ of fat hil come}> no clowdes, 
wynd, nofer reyn;» vppon fat hulle lettres^ fat were 
i-write in poudre were i-founde wif cute wem^ at fe ^eres 
ende. Also foules ^ mowe not lyue ^ fere ; for f e aier is 
to clere. And philosofres mowe not^ dwelle fere to lerne 
f e course of sterres ^ wif oute sponges i-watred and i-holde 
at Mr nostrilles 1^ to make fikker fe ayer, fat fey drawef 
to kele ^^ wif here herte. pere is also fe hille ^^ mons 
Athos, fat recehef to fe clowdes; fe scbadewe of fat hille 
arechef to the ilond Lemnum. pat ilond is from f e ^^ hul 
fre score myle and sixtene.^'* 

Dalmatia fat lond haf in fe est side Macedonia, in f e 
west Histria, in f e norf Mesia, and in f e souf f e see 

Achaia haf f e name of Acheus f e kyng, and is wel nyh 
an ylonde i-ciosed in fe see: for he ^^ haf in f e est side f e 
see Tyrrhenus, and in f e norf f e see Creticus, in f e souf f e 

callede Olimpus is in that prouince whiche diuidethe Thracia MS. Habl. 
from Macedony. Petrus^ capitulo trieesimo septimo. That 2261. 
mownte is of suche altitude that the toppe off hit excedethe 
clowdes, where clowdes be not percey vede, neither wyndes, 
neither reynes, in whom letters wryten were founde vnde- 
filede at the end of the yere, where bryddes may not lyve 
for rarite of the aier, neif er phiiosophres my^te ascende 
to hit to knowe the courses of the sterres with owte sponges, 
whiche, puttenge theyme to theire noose, attracte more 
thicker aier to theyme. There is also an hille callede 
Athon, towchenge the clowdes, the schado of whom is . 
protendede to the yle callede Lemnus, which is from that 
hille Ixxvj. [myle]. Dalmatia hathe on the este parte to hit 
Macedony, of the weste Histria, of the northe Mesia, of the 
sowthe parte the see Adriatike. Achaia takenge the name 
of hit of a kynge callede Acheus,!^ is allemoste aUe an yle. 
For on the este parte to hit hit hathe the see Tirene, of the 
weste the see Cretike, on the sowthe the see lonius, of the 

^ departeth, Cx. 

' vpprist, Cx. 

" reinene wi/nde, Cx. 

*SoCx.; fe<fr€,MS. 

^ hurtynge or wemmej Cx. 

« Sofowks^ Cx. 

^ nouyt libbe, a, 

* nouyt, a. 

* the sterresj Cx. 

^* her nose tktrles, Cx, j nosetrilsy o. 

" coU, Cx. 

" Cx. omits J>e hUle. 

» that, Cx. 

" Ixx. myki Cx. 

»* it, Cx. 

»• Echius, Harl. MS. 



De Ar- 

tentrione Macedonise et Attics3 jungitur. Hujus metro- 
polis est Corinthus, ubi Alexander magnus^ collegit 
exercitum, quando proposuit^ expiignare orbem terra- 
rum ; quibtis et Paulus scripsit.^ 

Arcadia^ qusB et* Sicyonia, ab Arcade filio Jovis sic 
dicta, sinus est Achaias ; inter mare Ionium et -^geum 
velut ^ platani folium jacet. 

Haac gignit Asbeston® lapidem/ qui semel accensus 
nunqiiam extinguitur. Gignit etiam ^ Candidas merulas, 
cum tamen apud nos merulae sint ^ nigrse.^*^ 

Thessalia ad austrum Macedonise jungitur, patria 
quondam Achillis et Lapitharum origo, qui primum 
equos frsenis domuerunt et dorsis eorum insederunt, 
propter quod unum corpus cum equis quibus in side- 
bant " a vulgo indocto ^® putabantur. Et inde centum 
Centaiiri. equites Thessalorum dicti sunt Centauri a centum 

De lapide 

De Thes- 

^ mctgnus^ Alexander^ A.B.D. 

^ disposuit, D^r 

^ duos scripsit epistolas, CD, 

* ef] est, D. 

* velut] quasi, CD. 

' €dbe8ton, A.B. ; ctlbesten, C.D.E. 
' hpidem'} om. C (not D,) 

® etiam] et, C (not D.) 
* sint] sunt. A* 

^^ cum apud nos omnes sint nigra, 

1^ quibus insidebant] om. CD. 
indoeto] ignaro, CD. 




see lonius, and onliche in J^e norf he^ ioyneth2 to Mace- Trbvisa. 
donia and to Attica, pe cheef citee of |>at lond hatte 
Corinthus; fere kjng Alexandre ^ gadrede his cost for to ^ 
Wynne al fe world; {jeder PouH wroot his pistil ad 

Arcadia, fat hatte Sicyonia also, ha]> "pe name of Arcas,^ 
lupiter is sone, and is an angul (]7at is,^ a corner) of Achaia, 
and lie|> bytwene }fe tweie sees lonius and Egeus, and is 
i-schape as is^ a plane leef. pere ynne is Asbeston^ ]>at 
wil neuere quenche, be it ones i-tend ; fere beef also white 
wesels.^ pe *^ wesels ^ be blak among vs ; fere fey beef 

Thessalia ioynef in f e souf side to Macedonia, and was 
somtyme Achilles contray, and fere bygonne Lapithe ;^^ filke 
men chastisede^^ and temede^* hors firste wif bridels, and 
sette ^4 on hire bakkes ; f erfore f e lowed peple wende ^^ fat 
it were i^ alle on ^^ body, man and hors fat fey sitte ^^ on. 
And f erfore an hondred horsmen of Thessalia were i-cleped 
centaury, pat name is i-gadered of tweyne, of centum^ fat 
is, an kondredy and of aura, fat is, pe wynde. And so fat 
name was to hem i-schappe Centaury as it were an hundred 

northe oonly Macedony, ioynede to Attica. The chiefe MS.Habl. 
cite of whom is Corinthus, where kynge Alexander gedrede 2261. 

his hoste, intendenge to expugne alle the worlde, to whom 

Seynte Paule did wryte. Arcadia, whiche [is] of erwise 
caUede Sicyonia, was so namede of Arcas,^ son of lupiter, 
the bosom of Achaia, betwene the see lonine and the see of 
Egee, lyenge lyke to the leef of a tree. In this cuntre is 
a ston callede Asbeston,^^ whiche accendede oonys is neuer 
extincte, and of er diuerse precious stones. Thessalia, at 
the sowtiie parte of hit, is ioynede to Macedony, somme tyme 
the cuntre of Achilles, and the originaUe of men callede 
Laphites, whiche made tame firste horses with bridelles, and 
rydenge on the backes off theyme, whiche were trawede to 
be of oon body with f e horses on whom thei did ryde of 
the commune peple, where fore a c. horse men of that 

' it, Cx. 

2 So Cx. ; ioyned^ MS. 

^ Alkfsmmder, Cx. 

* Pauk, Cx. 

^ Arckas, Cz. ; Archades, MSS. 
of both versions. 

* l>at is] or, Cx. 

^ isi om. a, and Cx. 
^ Aibestony MS., ou, Cx. 
^ ousels, Cx. (twice). 

^** >ei, a.; tkottgh,Cx,,^}nch seems 
^^ Laphite, MS., Cx. 
*^ chastede, a. 
1* tamed, Cx. 
" satte, Cx. 
" supposed, Cx. 
'® had be, Cx. 
^' oon, a, i one, Cx« 
*^ sete, a. ; satte, Cx. 
1» Albestes, Harl. MS. 



et aura quam agitabant sic equitando.^ Tragus, libra 
Famassus. xxiiJ^.^ In hac ^ provincia est mons Parnassus apnd 
poetas famosus et Celebris, saxo bicipiti dependens ; in 
cujus vertice templum Delphid Apollinis sifcuatnr; et 
in anfractu planitiei mediae putens existit, nbi res- 
ponsa dari solebant/ mentesque philosophantiam inspi- 
rari. Quamobrem si hominum ant tubanim sonitus 
in medio convallis personet, correspondentibus inter se 
rupibus multiplex echo resonabit.* laidorus, libra 
tertiadecima. In hac provincia duo sunt flumina^ ex 
quorum uno bibentes oves efficiuntur nigrse, ex altero 
albse, ex utroque fonte bibentes fiunt coloris varii.® 
Fons. Banulphus. In hac quoque terra sunt loca ilia delec- 
tabilia ad spatiandum accommoda quae dicuntur apud 
philosophos et poetas '' Tempo florida, do quibus Ovidius 
et Theodosius^ scribunt.^ In hac quoque terra contigit 
illud tertium diluvium particulare ^^ tempore DeucaUonis 
ibidem principantis, qui confugientes ad eum " in rati- 
bus salvabat, propter quod fingunt poetae ipsum cum 
conjuge sua Pyrrha jactis lapidibus homines cz'easse.'^ 

' quam equitando sic agitabanty 
C. ; also !>., omitting sic, 

2 14, B.; 34, CD. The text is 
correct. See Just xxiy. 6. 

* Itac quoque, C. (not D.) 

* solentf CD. 

^ personahitf CD. 
^ ex utroque vero bibentes vario 
colore Jiuntf CD» 

^ apud . , . poeta8'\ om. CD. 

» Theodolus, A,'BJD. Perhaps He- 
rodotus (see vii. 173) is intended. 

® scribunt^ mentionem feciunt, C 

^* partictdare diluvium.^ A, 
. ^^ ad eurn] ona. CD. 

^^The two lost sentences are 
transposed in, B«^ 



wynde waggers: for fey wagged weP J>e wynde faste in Tkevisa, 
hir ridynge. Trogus^ libra mcesimo quarto,^ In ])is pro- — — 
uince is ])e Mile Parnassus ; (poetis accounte]» ]?at hil noble 
and famous ;) and hongej) with tweie copped stones. In fe 
cop 3 perof is the temple of Delphicus Apollo ; ^ and in fe 
wyndynge* of fe myddel playn is a pitte, oute of \fii pitte 
philosofres were enspired ; and dyuers answeres were i-^eue 
out of fat pitte. perfore ^if noyse of men of er of trompes 
sownef in fe* valey, fe stones answeref euerich ofer, and 
dyuers ecco sownef. Ecco is fe reboundynge of noyse. 
IsidoruSy libro tertiodecimo^ In fis prouince beef tweie 
ryueres ; scheepe fat drynkef of fat oon schuUe worf e ^ 
blak, and schepe fat drynkef of fat ofer schul worfe^ whyte ; 
and ^if fey drynken of bof e, fey schuUe worf e 7 gpekked ^ 
of dyuers colour. Also in f is prouince beef filke likynge 
places to walke ynne fat philosofres and poetes clepef 
tempe^ Jlorida^ fat is, likynge place wip fioures. Of fis 
place writef Theodolus and Ouidius. Also in fis^^ prouince 
of fat lond^^ was fe fridde particuler flood, and ful^^ in 
Deucalions tyme, prince of fat lond. J)at prince sauede 
men fat fleigh to hym in schippes and bootes ; f erfore 
poetes feynede fat he and his wif Pyrrha cast stones and 

cuntre were callede centauri. Tragus, libra seeundo. The MS. Haul. 
hille callede Pamasus is in that prouince, a nowble mownte, ^^^^' 
and of grete fame after poetes, dependenge ^* by a dowble \ 
ston, in the toppe of whom a temple is sette lyke to the 
temple of Apollo Delphicus ; and in the pleyne f er of is 
a pitte where thei Xafe to viuificate the myndes of phi- 
losophres, IsidoruSy libra 13®. There be ij. waters in that f. 36. a. 
prouince, of that oon of whom schepe drynkenge be made 
blacke, of that other white, and schepe di^nkenge of bothe 
waters be made of diuerse coloures. Also in that londe 
be places delectable, of whom Ouidius and Theodolus doe 
wryte. In that londe happede a particuler floode, in the 
tyme of Deucalion beynge prince there, whiche saluede men 
conunenge to hym in schippes, wherefore poetes feyne hym, 
with Pyrrha his wife, to haue create men of stones., Helladia 

> weC\ om. Gz. ; placed before 
fasie in a., whidi seems right 
2 14, Cx. 
' toppe, Cx. 

* Appoiyn, MS. ; Appolhfn, Cz. 
^ wendyng^ Cx. 

' wexey Cx. (thrice). 

^ splekked, a, and Cx. 

• tempore, Cx. 

»« So a. and Cx. ; Aw, MS. 

" of}pat lond\ om. Cx. 

" //?e, Cx. (not a.) 

^^ partes depengenge, Harl. MS. 



De Hel- 

Helladia,* a rege Hellene, Deucalionis et Pyrrhse filio, 
sic dicta, a quo Grsed Hellenes dicti sunt. Ipsa quoque 
est Attica terra, ab Atthide^ filia Granai* sic dicta, inter 
Macedomam et Achaiam^ jacet media, a septentrione 
jungitur Arcadiae. Ipsa est vera Graacia, cujus dnae 
sunt partes, Boeotia et Peloponnesus, quarum metropolis 
est Athense/ ubi quondam vigebat stadium litterarum ; 
natiojiumque cunctarum^ ad discendum' confluebat copia, 
quse tali mode condita fuit. Auguati/nus de Civitate, 
libra octavodeevmo. Ea tempestate qua jEgyptus per* 
cussa est plagis sub manu Moysis,^ quidam uEgyptii^ 
timentes*^ jEgyptum periturajn egressi sunt," Unde et^^ 
Cecrops egressus apud Grseciam ^^ urbem Acten condidit, 
qusB postmodum dicta est Atbense. Isto modo secim- 
dum Varronem, cum apud Acten urbem subito appa- 
ruiaset oliya, et aqua alibi repente erupisset, consuluit 

> EUana, A, ; EUanda^ G, The 
MSS. generally omit the aspirate. 
2 Aihis, MgS. 

* Grant, MSS. 

* A, et M.y B. 

'^ Aikmas, MSS. 

^ et ecclesiarum^ C, which omits 
cunctarum (not D.). 
^ a discendi, B. (vithont sense.) 

« Moysi, MSS. 
^Mgyptwrumf CD. 
*^ tunc timenieg. A, 

" fngerunt, C. <not D.) 

J^cq om.B. 

^^ apud Graciam] adveniensque 
Grsedam, CD./ which have other 
slight alterations. 



made men. Helladia fat londe ha]) ]fe name of Hellen ^ fe Trevisa, 

^J^Ey V^^ "^^s Deucaliouns sone, and Pyrrha also. Of f is 

Hellen ]>e Grees hatte Hellenes, pis lond hatte Attica 
also, of Atthis, fat was Cranaus ^ his doubter ; and lief 
bj twene Macedonia and Achaia and ioynef in f e north 
side to Arcadia, pis londe is verrey Greci% and haf tweie 
parties; Beotia^ is fat oon, and Peloponnesus ^ fat ofer. 
pe chief citee of fis lond hatte Athene r^ fere was somtyme 
a grete studie of lettrure ^ and of clergie, and men of all 
naciouns and londes opme fider forto leme. Athene fat 
citee was i*bulde in fis manor e. Augustinus de Civitate, 
lihro oetavodecimo. pat tyme fat Egipt was i-smyte wif 
God all myotics wrethe vnder Moyses hond, som seije^ 
Egipt schulde be lost, and flowe oute of Egipt in to « ofer 
londes. And so Cecrops^ fleigh^^^ out of Egipt into Grecia, 
and fere he bulde fe citee Atthen, fat was i-cleped after- 
ward Athene. In fis manere, as Varro^^ seif, an olyue 
was sodeynliche i-sele in fat citee Atthen, and a water brak 
oute sodeynliche in anofer place, panne Cecrops axede 

toko the name of hit of Hellen,^^ gQ^ ^f Deucalion and ofMS.HARL. 
Pylra, of whome Grekes be callede Elenas. That is the londe 2261. 

callede Attica, of Atthis, doubter of Grains, lyenge betwene 

Macedony and Achaia^ as in the myddes, ioynede to Arcadia 
in the northe : that is yereye Grece, of whom be ij. partes, 
Beotia^ and Peloponense, the chiefe cite of whom is Athenas, 
where study was sonune tyme multiplicate, to whiche cite 
grete multitude of peple made confluence for cause of eru- 
dicion from diuerse regiones. AugtcsHnuSy De civitate Dei^ 
libro octavodecimo. Somme Egypciannes dredenge Egipte 
to peresche in that grete tempeste, what tyme hit was gre- 
vede with mony diseases vnder the powere of Moises, wente 
furthe from hit. Wherefore Cecrops, goen ftirthe to Grece, 
made a cite, namenge hit Athen^ whiche was caUede after 
Athenas. After Yarro, hit was made in this manor, when 
at that city callede Athen an oliue apperede sodeialy, and 
the water brake vp also sodenly in an other place, Cecrops 

> EU^na, MS., a., Cx. 
® GramySy MS., a. ; Grauiua, Cx, 
' Boecia, MSS. (as usual). 
"* PdopenensiSy MS. 
^ Athenea, Ox., and so below. 
* lecture^ Cx. 

' som JBgipcians dredde lest, a, j 
somme Egypeiens dradde leste, Cx. 

* in ft)] to, Cx. 

• Sicrops, MS. ; Cicrops and 5^- 
crops below. Similarly the rest, 

^""Jledde, Cx. 

" So Cx. 5 Pharro, MS., and o. 

^^ EGanda, Harl. MS. 



Cecrops ApoUinem^ Delplucum in*^ monte Pamaaso, quid 
de hac re foret accitaxidiim.^ lUe respondit quod oKva 
deam Minervam significaret, unda vero* Neptunum. Et 
quod esset^ in civiura potestate ex cujus nomine duorum 
deorum civifcatem vellent denominare.^ Hinc cives 
omnes utriusque sexus conveniunt, sicut mos erat tunc, 
ita foeminas sicut mares publicis consultationibus inter- 
esse; mares igitur pro Neptuno, foeminse'' pro Minerva 
tulerunt sententiam. Et quia una plus inventa est 
foeminarum quam virorum^ vicit Minerva, ita ut civitas 
nomine ejus vocaretur Athense. Nam® Minerva Grsece 
dicitur Athena.^® Tunc Neptunus iratus terras Atheni- 
ensium marinis fluctibus operuit, quod non est difficile 
dsemonibus facere. Cujus ut iracundia facilius placare- 
tur, foeminse dupliciter sunt afflictse; ita ut nulla 
deinceps foeminarum publicis consultationibus interesset. 

' misit rex Cecrops ad Ap.^ D. 

* m] de, A. 

^ Sic A.K ; accidendum, B. ; agenr 
dum, CD. 

* vero added ftom CD, 
^esset Biter potestate In B. 

* Et quod , . . denomnare'] In C. 
thus : ** Tunc £icta est dissensio in 

" civitate ex cujus nomine duorum 
" deoriun civitas pottus vocaretur." 
B, agrees with 0. in the last three 
words only. 

' B. adds vero, 

' quam viroruni] cm. B. 

• Nam] cm. B, 

** Nam . . . Athena"] om. CD. 


counsaille of Appolyn^ Delphicus, fat maumet, in pe hil Tbevisa. 

mount ParnassuSy and axede what pese ]>mges schulde be to 

menyng ;^ and he answerde and seide J?at J?e olyue bytokened 
pe Goddes Minerua^ and pe water by tokened Neptunus ; 
and seide l)at it was in power and choys of pe citeceyns after 
whe|)er of pe tweie goddes pe citee schulde hote."* perfore pe 
citee,^ bo]>e men and wommen [gadred hem to gyders, as it 
was the manere that tyme ; that bothe men -and wymmen] ^ 
schulde come to comoun counsaille ; ]>anne in pat counsaii 7 
men ^af |>e dome for Neptunus and wommen for Minerua; 
and for fere was o ^ womman more 9 fan were men, Minerua 
hadde fe maistrie, and fe citee was i-cleped by here name 
Athene ;*^ for Minerua in pe speche of Grewe hatte Athena, 
pan was Neptunus wood wroof," and made fe flodes of pe 
see arise *2 and ouerflowe and hele fe londes of pe men of 
fat citee Athena, *^ as deueles mowe lijtliche doo suche 
chekkes« pan for to plese Neptunus and for to abathe his 
wref f e and his anger wommen were i-punsched with double 
payne ; fat oon was fat no womman schulde aftirward come 

takenge cownselle of Apollo Delphicus what scholde be MS. Harz^. 
doen in that matere, he ^afe an ansuere that the oliu© 2261. 

signifiede that goddesse Minerua and the water Neptunus, 

and that cause was after the name of whom of theyrae the 
cite scholde have name. Then the citesynnes of either 
kynde were gedrede to gedre as the consuetude was in that 
tyme women to be at cownselles amonge the men. The 
women ^afe sentence for Minerua^ and men for Neptunus, 
and for cause the nowmbre was moore in women then in 
men by oon person, Minerua hade the victory, in so moche 
that the cite scholde be namede aftere here Athena^ for 
Minerva in Grewe is callede Athena. Then Neptunus 
beenge wrothe, couerede the growndes of men of Atheynes 
with waters, whiche thyuge is not harde to deuelles to per* 
forme and to do. The women of whiche cite were affiicte 
in ij. maneres, that Neptunus my^hte rather take pleasure, 
soe that a woman scholde not be at cownesailes afterwarde, 

' Ininne . . . counsaU] Added fiY>iu 
* one, Cx. (not a.) 

* So MS. Trevisa seems to have 
considered this the nominative of 

* mene, a,, Cx. 

* Myneruay MS. ; but Mnerua 

* hootCf a» 

* citezeinSf «., Cx. 
^ Words in brackets added fiv)m 

Cx. They are absent from o, 

VOL. 1. If 

• «too, o., Cx, 

*• Atthene, MS., and so below. 

" wroth wodcy Cx. 

^- tarise (i. e. to arise), Cx. 

" lowles of them of Athenes, Cx. 



et ut nuUus nascentium matemum nomen contraheret.* 
Huic provinciiB Helladise subjacet Hellespontus, sinus 
maris magni,^ sic dictus ab Helle sorore Phrixi, quad 
fugiens insidias uovercales submersa est in illo mari, 
a quo casu mare et terra adjacens denominationem 
aocepit. Juxta quern locum dicit Yarro aliquos esse 
homines quorum tactus et saliva medentur contra ictus 
serpentum. Trogu8, libra secundo, Primi Athenienses 
lanificii, vini, et olei usum habuerunt ; arare, serere, 
glandibusque^ vesci docuerunt; literis, &cuiidia civili, 
disciplina primo floruerunt. , Cujus primus rex fiiit 
CecropSy post quern Cranus seu Cranaus/ cujus filius 
Atthis nomen regioni dedit. Post quem Amphictyon,* 
cujus tempore factum est diluvium in Thessalia. Deinde 
successive regnum descendit ad Ericthonium, post quem 
iEgeus,* post quem Theseus filius ejus, deinde Demo- 

1 traheretf CD. 

^ maris magni.'] CD. end ihe sec* 
lion ]iere> beginning the next sen- 
tence Tntii, BcRoUa, a bove^ &c., and 
omitting Isidore's name &s ihe 
source of the information. 

^ A.B. omit que, 

* Both words are written with a 
G in the MSS. In Trevisa they 
vary. Here and elsewhere it is im- 
possible to deal with proper names 

in any manner satis&ctorily. To 
correct the orthography in snch au- 
thors an Higden and his translators 
is to re-write them. The MSS. of 
the text, however, have been more 
freely corrected than those of the 

' AmphigiimideSy A.E. Alpkigeo^ 
nides^ B. 

® post quem u^geus] cm. B. 



to ^ comjn counseil, ]>at oj^er payne was J^at no childe schulde Tbeyisa, 

aftirward bere his moder 2 name. To ^at prouince Helladia 

lye])* Hellespontus, fat greet mouth of 4 fe grete see, and 
ha]7 ]>e name of Helle, Phrixus ^ his suster, ]>at flei^ ^ "pe 
malice and pursuet^ of here stepdame, and was adraynt^ in 
]7at mouth and see; and for )>at hap ]>e^ see and ]>e lond aboute 
hatte after Helle Hellespontus. Varro^^ sei]> })at faste bysides 
])at place bee]) men p&t helep smytynge of serpentes wij) 
touche or H wi]) spoteL y^rogus^ libra secundo* Athenienses, 
men of Athene, vsed first craft of woUe and^^ of -^yyn an^ of 
oylle, and tau^te erye ** and sowe and ete achams ; ^4 j>ei flo- 
risched first in lore of clergie and of lawe. pe firste Kyng of 
|)at lond hi^te Cecrops, after hym come Granus 'p&t heet 
Cranaus also ; ])an his sone Atthis taf his name to fe lond 
and cleped it after hymself Atheniensis. pan after Atthis 
regned Amphigionides.^^ In his tyme was pe grete flood in 
Thessalia. panne aftirwarde the kyngdom discendede to Erich- 
thonius.1^ After hym regnede Egeus, and after hym his sone 
Theseus- ; . ])at Theseus sone Demophon,^^ he halp ^^ ye Grees 

and also that theire childer scholde not take name in eny MS. Hasl 

wyse after theyme. Hellespontus, bosom of the grete see, 
is subiecte to tiie prouince of Helladia, iakenge the name 
of hit of Helle sustyr to Phrixus,^ whiche fieenge the wacches 
of here steppe moder, was drownede in that see, by whiche 
chaunce that londe and see adiecte to hit toke hit name. 
Nye to whiche place Varro seythe there be men the towche 
or spatelle of whom is medicinable ageyne serpentes and 
styngenge of theyme. Tragus, libra secundo* Men of 
Atheynes began firste the vse of wyne and oyle, techenge to 
eiere and sawe, and fioreschenge fyrste with ciuile discipline, 
the firste kynge of whona was Cecrops, after whom Grains, 
other Granaus, Atthis the son of whom lafe name to that 
region. After whom Amphigionides, in whose tyme was a 
fioode in Thessalia. After that the realme descendede 
successiuely to Ericthonius. Then reignede Egeus. After 
whom Theseus his sonne. After that the son of Demophon, 

f. 35. b. 

' in, a., Cx, 
2 tttoders, Cx. (not a.) 
^ lye]>'] Added firom Cx. (Itfetk). 
* !Four words added from a. and 
« Ffijsusj MSS. of both versions, 
^fledde^ Cx. 
^ \>e pursuyt^ a. 
8 droumedy Cx. 
» yaty a, 
»« So Cx. ; Barro, MS., a. 

" and, a* and CX 

*=* and\ om. a. 

1« to eere, Cx. 

^* acomes, Cx. 

1^ So MSS. of both versions, for 

" Euritmius, MS. ; Erietonius, «. 

I'SoCx.; i>e»to«on,MSS.ofboth 

" hdpe, Cx. 

N 2 



phon ejus filius, qui Grsecis opem tuHt contra Tro- 

DeBoeotia. IsidoTUSy lihro nonodecimo} Boeotia a bove denomi- 
nata est ; dum ^ enim Cadmua filius Agenoris Europam 
sororem suam a Jove raptam ex prsecepto patris quae- 
reret, nee reperiret;^ patris iram formidans confirmato 
animo exilium elegit,* et dum casu bovis conspeetae* 
sequeretur vestigium, locum ubi bos decubuit Bceotiam 
nominavit.^ Ubi et^ postmodum Thebas construxit : in 
qua olim bella civilia detonuerunt.® Ibique nati sunt 
Apollo et Hercules ille major Thebanus. In hac terra 
est lacus quidam furiaUs, de quo qui biberit furore 

Fons, Hbidinis inardescet.^ Sunt et alii duo fontes, quorum 
unus memoriam, alter oblivionem inducit. Petrus, ayvj^, 
Et nota quod a Thebis iEgyptiorum dicuntur Thebaei, a 
Thebis Graecoram Thebani, a Thebis Judaeorum^^ The- 

• 9, B. ; 14, A., but altered to 18. 
The true reference is to lib. xiv. c. 
4. § 10. 

2 dtrni] cum, CD. 

' nee reperiret"] om. A. 

* petit, "B. 

^ conspectaJi conspecti, CD. 

" denominaviff B.D. 

^ ibique^ B. 

B detenuerunt, B.D. 

* inardescit, D. 

** Indorum, B. 



a^enst pe Troians. Beotia, oxe-lond, haj> po name of bos^ pat Tbbtuia. 

is an oxe. Whan Cadmus, Agenores sone, at his fader ^ — — 

heste sou^t his suster Europa, y^i lupiter hadde i-rauished, 

and my^te nou^t here fjnde, he dradde his fader wrathe, 

and 2 kou]?e non oJ?er reed but flei^ 3 as an outlawe ; hit 

happed 4 )>at he folwed fe fore^ of an oxe, and fonde fe 

place ]?at ])e oxe lay inne, and cleped it Beotia, and bulde 

fere fe citee Thebe, in <» ]?at citee bella civilia detonuerunt/ 

And pQVQ was Apollo^ i-bore and Hercules,^ in Jiilke more The- 

banus also.^^ In fat lond is a lake wonderful and wood, for who 

fat drynkef f erof he ^^ schal brenne in woodnesse of leccherie. 

pere beej> also tweie welles in fat lond ; who fat drynkef 

of fat oon, he schal be forgetful ; and who fat drinketh of 

fat of er, he schal haue good mynde. Petrus. Take hede 

fat men of Thebe, fat is in Egipt, hatte Thebey ; men of 

Thebe, fat is in Grecia, hat Thebany ; and f e men of Thebe, 

fat is in ludea^ hatte Thebite,*^ 

whiche schewede helpe to Grekes ageyne the Troianes. MS. Habl. 
Boetia toke name of this worde, bos. When Cadmus, son ^^^** 
Agenoris, sekenge Europa his sustyr, by commaundemente 
of his fader, whiche was rapte by lupiter, ^^ whiche not fynd- 
enge here, dredenge also the wrathe of his fader, chosede 
to lyve in exile, whiche folowenge the stappes of an ox, 
namede that place Boetia, where the oxe did lye downe and 
dye, where he made a cite called Thebas, in whom they 
did holde somme tymes ciuile batayles, where Apollo and 
Hercules were borne. In that prouince is a water of whom 
if a man drynke he schaUe be inflamed with woodenesse of 
lecchery. There be ofer ij. welles also, of whom oon in- 
ducethe memory, that other obliuion. 

^faderSf Cx. (who often has simi- 
lar variations). 

^ he conthe, a. ; he coude, Cx. 

^fledde, Cx. 

^ kapnedy Cx. 

^foote^ Cx. 

* in] Added from Ox. 

' detenueruntf MS. (not a. or Cx.) 

® AppoUoy MS. 

^ Ercules,'MB. 

^^ Probably in before )>t^A<; should 
be cancelled ; or Trevisa may have 
misimderstood the text. 

" he] om. Cx. 

'2 The sentence is slightly com- 
pressed in Cx. 

» lubiter, HaxL MS. 


Cap. XXIII. 

De Italia. 

Italia IsidoruSy lih'o quarto decvmo? Legitur in historiis 


habet quod* Italia, a GrsBcis quondam* occupata. Magna 
GrsBcia dicebatur. Dicta ^ est etiam Hesperia, ab Hes- 
pero® Stella, qm direxit' Gnecos illuc® navigantes. 
Deinde a Satumo earn incolente dicta est Satumia; 
sed et^ ab eodem, propter metnm filii sui Jovis 
ibidem latitante, dicta est Latium, quasi a latebra 
Saturni.*^ Postmodum" ab Ausonio'* filio UKxis dicta 
est Ausonia. Tandem ab Italo Siculorum rege dicta 
est Italia> totius Europse insignior provincia, quas ab 
aquilone dauditur sinu Adriatico, ab ortu mari magno," 
ab euro Sicilia et mare Tyrrheno, ab occasu Alpium 
jugis, ex quibus^^ oriuntur tria nobilissima EuropsD 
flumina, Rhenus, Danubius, Rhodanus.^^ Iddorm, Wnro 


^Margiual stunmarytaried^liglii* 
ly from A, 

* nonoy E., wrongly. See lib. xiv* 
C. iv. § 18. 

^ Legitur . , , quod] ova., CD. 

^ quondam after JtaUa in B. 

^JEt dicta, B. 

« So B. Hespera, A.C.D.B. and 
the versions, (haTiDg qu<B belov). 

' dttcebat, CD. I 

^ ibideniy B. 
» et] etiam, A. 

'^ Deinde • . • Satumi'} Mucb ab- 
breviated in CD. 
" post k<BC, D. 

1^ AusofUo'] Anselmo, C (not D.) 
*5 magno mari, B. 
^* quibtts] quo, C 
^' et Rhodanus, B. 



Capitulum vicesimum teriium. 
Isidorus, libro quarto decimo* 

We rede]) in stories fat Grees* wonede somtyme in^ 
Italia,3 an cleped ]?e lond pe Grete Grecia ; })at lond hi^te 
Somtyme Hesperia, of Hespera, 'pe sterre pat ladde fe Grees 
wHan ]>ey seilled ]?ider, and was her loode sterre, Hesperai,^ 
fat is Venus. Afterward fat lond hitte Saturnia of 
Saturnus fat wonede fere, for ^ Satumus hid hymself ^ 
in fat lond for drede of his owne sone lupiter, and cleped 
f e lond Latiuniy fat is Saturnus huydels J After fat fat 
lond hi^te Ausonia of Ausonius,^ Ylixus sone ; but at fe 
laste fat londe hi^te Italia of Italus, rege Siculorum, kyng 
of Sicilia,^ and is f e noblest prouince of al Europ% and is 
i-closed in f e norf side vrif fe mouf and see |«it hatte 
AdriaticuS) in f e est wif f e grete see, in fe souf wif 
Sicilia, and wif fe see Tyrrhenus, and in fe west wif fe 
sides of fe hiUes fat hatte Alpes.^^ Out of f Hke hil[les] ^^ 
springef f re fe noblest ryuei'es of al Europa, fat beef i-cleped 
f e Ryne,^2 Danubius, and Eone. Isidorus^ libro tertio deeimo* 


Capitulum vicesimum tertium. 

Htt is redde in storyes that Ytaly somme tyme occupyede MS. Exbl. 
of the Grekes, was callede the grete londe off Grece. Also 2261, 
hit was callede Hespera, after a sterre callede Hesper% whiche "~"^ 
durecte the Grekes saylenge to hit. After that hit was 
namede Saturnia of Satumus inhabitenge hit, afterwarde 
callede Latium, for the drede of louis his son lyenge there 
priuely ; whiche was callede afterwarde Ausonia, of Ausonius 
son of Ylixes. Afterwarde hit was namede Ytaly of Ytalus 
kynge of Siculynes, the moste nowble prouince of alle 
Europe, whiche is schutte on the northe parte to hit with 
the see Adriatike, on the este with the grete see, of the 
sowthe with SiciUe and with the see Tyrone. From whom iij. 
nowble and famose floodes of Europe take theire originalle, 
whiche be callede Bonus, Danubius, and Eodanus. Plinius, 
libro seeundo, capitulo eentesimo sexto. In this prouince is 

* Grekes^ Cx. (as usual)* 

* in] om. MS. 

' So a, and Cx. ; Hesperian MS* 

* Helperay MS. (not a. or Cx.) 
^for] So Cx. } but jpCf MS., ct* 
^ Cx. adds there, 

* hydleSf Cx. 

^ Eusonia^ JEusonius, MS., a., Cx. 
» SctcUia, MS., Cx. 
^^ The previous sentence is much 
blundered in Cx. 
" huUes, a. ; h^Ues, Cx. 
** ryuer, Cx, 



tertio decimo. In hac Italia est fons Cithajronis,* ocu- 
lorum viilnera curans. Est et in ea Clitorius lacus, ex 
quo bibens^ vini® taedium liabebit, Plinius, libro 
secundoy capitulo centesimo seocto^ Juxta Alpes Appe- 
ninos fluvius Novanus^ est, qui circa^ solstitium sestivale 
torret et inundat, circa brumam vero ^ desiccatur. 
Faulus, libra secundo.^ Hujus ItalisB plures sunt pro- 
vincial, quae sunt^ Calabria, Apulia, Campania, Bene- 
ventana, Tuscia, Herulia, Liguria, Lombardia.*® 
Be Apulia. Apulia pars est Italias maritima ad eiu'um situata,^^ 
ab insula Sicilise marino bracbio separata, a Grsecis 
primitus sedificata, cujus metropolis est Brundusium, 
sic dicta a brunta,^^ Graece, quod est, caput cervi, eo quod 
formam capitis cervini in sui figuratione teneat;^^ inde 
versus Terram Sanctam, ut communiter navigatur. 
Habet quoque bsac terra fontes calidos et salubres. 

Campania major est regio, media inter Homanum 
territorium et Apuliam, cujus metropolis civitas est 
Capua, a capacitate sufficientise sic dicta. Post duas 
famosissimas civitates, Romam^* et Carthaginem, tertia 

De Cam- 
pania ma 
jore et 

^ OthoniSf B. ; Citheroms, E. ; 
Ciihar, C, In Isidore (xiii. 13) we 
haye Ciceron. Perhaps Citharon. in 
Attica may be intended by him as 
well as by Higden. 

* bibms] qui bibit, C; qui hiberii^ 

' vix, B. 

^ Itbro lo. c. 108, B. ; li, 2. C, 96, 
A. The text is correct. 

* Novacius, B., and the versions, 

* circa] citra, C. (not D.) 

' vero] om. CD. 

*primo, B., wrongly. See lib. ii. 
c. 15. 

^ qua sunt] scilicet, D.E. 

^^ Lumbardia, HSS., Latin and 
English; Trerisa once writes it 

" desituata, A. 

** The Messapian word was pro- 
bably fipivSov. Siee Smith's Diet, 
Gr. and Rom. Creogr. y8.Y, 

" tenet, A. 

^* B. adds sciUcet, 



In pis Italia is Cithero his welle, pat hele]> wel sore ©iten. Trbvisa. 
pere is also pe lake Clitorius ; who pat drynkep of pat lake, ^— ^ 
no wyne schal hym greue. Plinius, lihro secnndOy capitulo 
decimo,^ Faste by pe hilles pat hatte Alpes Appennini is 
pat welle Novacius, pat wellep and springep in pe hote somer 
and drye, and fordriep in colde wynter and wete. Treuisa. 
Alpes Appennini pat beep Penitus his hilles. Hanibal was 
a grete duke and hi^te Penitus also, and wente by Alpes to 
Eome ; perfore of pe tweie names Alpes and Penitus is pat oon 
name schortliche i-made Appennini,^ and so beep meny lettres 
i-left of pe tweyne. Paulus, libra secundo. In pis Italia 
beep many prouinces and londes, pat beep cleped Calabria, 
Apulia, Campania, Beneuentana, Tuscia, Emilia, Liguria, 
Lombardia. Apulia is a party of Italia, and liep estward 
vppon pe see, and is departed from pe ilond Sicilia wip an 
arme of pe see. Grees were pe firste pat bulde perynne ; 
pe chief citee perof is Brundusium, and hap pe name of 
pa[t]3 worde of Grew hrunta^ pat is, mi hertes Jiede^ for pe 
citee is i-schape as an hertes hede. Fro pennes me ^ seHlep 
to pe Holy Lend. In pis lond Apulia beep hote welles 
and holsom. pe more Campania is a lond in pe myddel 
bitwene pe demeynnes of Home and Apulia ; pe cheef cite 
perof is Capua, and hap pe name of Capacitas, pat is^ 
ahlenesse to fonge and to take. For pat citee fongep and 
takep i-now of all plente, and is acounted^ pe pridde citee 

the welle of Cithonis healenge the woundes of eien. MS. Hxia. 
Isidorus libro tertio decimo. Also there is a welle callede ^^^^* 
Novacius nye to the hilles of Alpes, whiche floethe ouer with """*" 
watere abowte the solstice of somer, and is drye in wynter, 
PaulttSy libra secunda. There be mony prouinces of this 
Ytaly, whiche be Calabria, Apulia, Campaniia, Beneuentana, 
Tuscia, Emilia, Liguria, Lombardia, Apulia is a coste of 
the see of Ytaly, sette at the sowthe of hit, departede from 
Sicille by an arme of the see, byldede and edifiede firste by 
Grekes. The chiefe cite of whom is callede Brundusium, 
takenge the name of hit of this worde brunda in Grewe, 
pat is the Mde af an Jierte^ in that hit holdethe in the 
jiguracion of hit the similitude of the hede of an herte« 
Campania is a moore region betwene the tenitory of Rome 
and Apulia. The chiefe cite of whom is callede Capua, 
namede so of the capacite of suficiaunce, callede the thrydde 

* octodecimo (sic), Cx. 

* So a. and Cx. ; Appenttmii, MS. 
In many proper names below, «., or 
Cx., or both, give the true form, 
which is edited without noticingMS. 

' Inttf a» 

* me] So a. 5 nc, MS. 5 men, Cx. 
(as usual). 
' counted^ Cx. 



nominata. In qua terra stmt Neapolis et Puteoli' urbes 
fitmosaB, ubi balnea Virgilii quondam in honorehabe- 
bantur. Sed est aUa* Campania Minor in Gallia Se- 
nonensi,^ cujus metropolis est urbs Trecas, sen Trecen- 
sia* Banulphua, Haec autem Italia a variis vieissim 
possessa est gentibus, utpote a Grsecis, a Jano,^ a Sa- 
tumo, ab Italo, ab ^Enea et ejus posteris. Post hsec a 
Gallis Senonensibus sub duce Brenno, deinde circa 
annum gratisB cccc^^^ occupata est a Gothis, Hums, 
Vandalis/ postremo a Longobardis sub anno Domini 
dixviiio, tempore Justini prindpis per Narsem chartu- 
larium invitatis/ a quorum nomine dterior^ pars Italian 
ab Alpibus pene *^ usque ^* ad urbem Romam adhuc ** 
Lombardia^^ nominatur.^^ Rcmulphus. De Longobar- 
dorum^^ ortu et progressu Faulus Bomanus diaconus, 
in primo Kbro historiarum Longobardorum/® refert in 
huno modum. 

t Puteolus, B. 

^ Sed est alia] omitted in £. 

^ Senonensi] om. A. 

^ C J), omit the whole of the para* 
graph relating to Apulia and Cala^ 
bria ; ie. ftom JpuUa pars est,,, 
Treccu, seu Trecensis. For Trecas 
Higden should rather have written 
Tricassium, See Smith, Diet Gr. 
and Bom^ Geogr., s. v, Trkasses, 

^Por a Jam, 0. (not B.) has 

^ circa annum Domini 100, C. 

^ a GoikiSf deinde a WandaliSfC^ 
Hnnis et Wandalis, D. 

' invitatts"] teritatis (fiic I), C.D< 

• exterior, B. 

^^pene"] onL CD, 

" usque'] orrL B^ 

'^ adhuc] om. B. 

13 Lumhardia, MSS. 

^Knominatur^ dicitor, C. 

^^ D. adds aiitem, 

^' C. adds dutem after Lmgobdr- 



after ]>e most famous citees Borne and Carthago. In Tbbtisa. 
fat lond beef noble citees and famous Neopolis and — - 
Futeoli.* pere beej? Virgiles bathas^ Jiat were somtyme 
in greet worschippe* But pere is ano]>er lasse Campania 
in Gallia Senonensi,' |>at is Frauns, }>e chief citee of 
]>at Campania hatte Trecas and Trecensis aLso^ ]>at is 
Troys 4 in Champayn. B»^ In J>is Italia were somtyme 
dyuers lordes euerich after ofer fat were Grees, lanus, 
Satumus, Italus, Eneas and his ospringe.^ And after- 
ward Galli Senonenses, fat beef fVensche men, ynder 
duke Brennus* pan aftirward, aboute f e ^ere of grace 
fyue hondred fre score and ei^te, in to fe^ princes tyme 
lustinus, Narsen^ Cartularius prayed Longobardy for to come 
in to Italia ; and of fe Longobardy, for to come in to® fis 
day, f e hider side of Italia from Alpes wel nygh to Borne 
hatte Lombardia.*^ How Longobardy come a place^^ Paulus '* 
Bomanus diaconus in prime libro historiae Longobardorum *^ 

^pM»|1Wl^M^— I^^^^WW H ill ■■»^H ■ ■ ■ ■ — ^^^^^^ ■ ■ ■ — P%....... ■■■■■■ y^^»^^ 

nowble cite to Borne and to Carthago. In whiche londe be MS. Habl, 
cites callede Neapolis and Puteoli, where the bathes of 2261. 
Virgflle were hade somme tyme in worschippe. There is *""^ 
also an of er Campania more litel, the chiefe cite of whom 
i» callede Cretas or the cite Cretense.^^ ]^. That cuntre of 
Ytaly hathe be possessede of diuerse peple and naciones, as 
of Grekes, of lano, [of] Saturno, of Ytalo, and of Enea. After 
that of Frenche men Senonense vnder Duke iprennus. 
Also hit was occupiede of Gothis, Hunes, and Wandalynges 
abowte the yere of our Lorde cccc. and laste occupyede 
off Longobardes, abowte the year of oure Lorde ycixviij., 
in the tyme of lustinian prynce, of the name of whom 
the forther parte of Ytaly from Alpes alle moste to the 
cite of Bome is named ^itte Lumbardy. Of the begyimenge 
of Longobardes, and of the progresse of theym, Paulus 
Diacon of Borne rehersethe in his firste boke of the story of 

» Puteolis, MSS. of both versions» 


* bajfeSf a,, C%, 

» Senocencif MS. and a. ; but cor- 
rectly below. 

* So Cx. J Tro8, MS., a. 
^ Added from a. and Cx« 

* offspn/ngcy Cx. 



» Narsen] This is not a clerical 
error, but one of many proo& of the 
sloyenliness of Trevisa, who did not 
care to discover the nominative of 
the word. Below, where the text 

has the nominative^ he has written 
it correctly* 

^for to come in to^ yet to, CaL 

1® The precedmg sentence is mueh 
blundered in Cx 

*^ d place] to that name, CiL 

^- Poidus, MS. (not o.) 

^^ Lmgobardiy MS.; abbreviated 

m a. 

^^ The fiimilarity of c and t in 
MSS. has misled the translator, who 
probably had no notion where the 
place was. 





Wynnuli,* qui et Longobardi, a longis barbis quas 
fovebant sic dicti, de aquilonali * insula Germanise Scan- 
dinavia sorte primitus sunt egressi sub ducibus Ibor® 
et Ajone* cum matre eorum Gambara prudentissima. 
Hgec autem Scandinavia dicta est insula non quod in 
mari sit,^ sed quia in planitie marginum* undis jugiter 
circumlambitur/ Inde WinnuH ® Scoringam regionem * 
sunt aggressi, ubi et Wandalos devicerunt. Mortuis ^^ 
autem Ibor et Ajone, constituerunt sibi regem " Agel- 
mundum/^ filium Ajonis, qui^^ regnavit super eos triginta 
tribus annis, cujus diebus meretrix qadsdam enixa est 
unico partu septem liberos, sicut inferius ^^ dicetur ; quo- 
rum unus, Lamissio'* nomine, postquam Agelmundus rex 
nimia securitate*® torpens a Bulgaris nocte fuerat*' 
occisus, regnum^* super Longobardos secundus tenuit. 
Post quern tertius Lethen quadraginta*® annis^® regnavit. 
Post quern quartus Hildehok,^* Post quem quintus 
Gudehok^^ tempore Odoacris ItaUci^^ regnavit, qui gen- 
tem suam** ad terram Rugorum duxit. Post quem 
sextus Claflfo.^ Post quem septimus Cato, quem^ 
Waco^'' filius germani sui occidit, filiumque Catonis^^ 

* Wi/nnuli] Winuli, A.D. ; Win- 
tili, C, which adds igitur, as doesD. 

^ aquihnarif CD. 

8 Ibo, B.E. ; Ybor, C. (not D.) 

* ArionCf E. 

* sita, D. 

^ marinis, B, 

^ circumlamhitur'] circumlabitttry 

* Winnult] om. CD. 

* regionem] provinciam, C 
" Mortuo, D. 

'^ B.CD. Addprimum» 
" Agilmundum, A., and so below. 
»3 qtiq €t, CD. 
" infra, D, 

" Lassimio, D. The text is right. 
See Paul. Hist, Long,^ lib. i. c. 1 7. 

" satie(ate, C (not D.) 

"/wcraf] est, CD.j a Vulgaris 
voce fuerat, B. 

*® regnum] qui regnum, C (not 

" quatuordecim, CD. 

2" The sense requires annos. But 
here and twice below all the MSS. 
have annis» 

«^> Hildekoc, B.C. 

22 Gudehoc, C ; Undehoc, B. 

^^Jtalict] om. CD. 

2* suani] om. C (not D.) 

2» Classo, C 

^^ quem] post quem, E. 

2' Wacho, A. 

^ Cat4mis] ejus Catonis, CD. 



seip in ])is manere : Winuli^ fskt hatte Longobardi also, and Tseyisa. 

haa&p the name of her longe berdes, went wi]? tweie dukes, 

Ibor and Aion, and here moder Gambara, J>at was fal redy 
and wys, out of Scandinauia, an ylond of^ Germania in ])e 
nor}> side, pis Scandinauia is i-cleped an ilond, not for 
he is in ]>e see, but for in ]>e pleyn of ye brinkes he is 
alwey i-wasche wij? wawes. Out )>ereof went WinuH and 
werred in Scorunga ^ and ouer com J>e Wandales ; ]>an 
deied pe Wandales, Iborn and Aion, and J>ei made hem a 
kyng Agelmundus, Aions sone, fe whiche reigned ouer 
hem ]?ritty ^ere and J>re. In his tyme an hore^ hadde 
seuene children at oon birfen, as it is ynner more clere- 
liche i-schewed. Oon of hem, fat hi^te Lauissius was pe 
secounde kyng of Longobardes, and regned after Agelmundus, 
whanne ^ Agelmundus pe kyng was to bolde on his trist,^ and 
fe Bulgaris com vppon hym in a ny^t and slowe hym stan 
deed.5 After hym Lethen regned and was [l?e Jjridde] ^ kyng 
of Longobardes ^ and was^ regnynge fourty ^ere. After hym 
Hildehoc^ regned,!^ after hym fe fifte^^ Godehoc regnede 
in Odoacres tyme, ]>at was Italicus, and ladde his men to pe 
loud of Eugorum. After hym pe sixte Clafib. After hym 
pe 8euen]>e Cato. pan ^^ Wacho slow Cato and outlawed his 
sone [for evere more ; Wacho was Cato his brof er sonne].^^ 

Longobardes, in this maner, Winuli or Longobardes takenge MS. Hasi.. 
that name of the longe berdes whom thei noryschede, went<j 2261. 

furthe from the northe partes of Allemeyne under Ibor and 

Aione the gouemoures of theyme, with prudente Gambara 
moder to theyme, from Scandinauia, 14 This Scandinauia ^^ is 
callede an yle not in that hit is in the see, but for cause 
that is compassede abowte with waters in the pleynes of the 
brynkes of hit. Winuli goenge furthe entrede a region f. 37. b. 
namede Scoringa, where the Wandalynges were devicte. 
Ibor and Alone, the dukes and gouernoures of theym dedde, 
they made Agelmundus kynge, son of Aio, xxxiij. yere 
hauenge his gouernaile and reigne ouer theyme. In the 
tyme of whom a woman hade vij. childer at oon childenge* 
After whom Lethen reignede xl^ yere, after hym Hildegog. 
After whom Gloffo, after hym Cato, After whom, Waco 

' Scormt^ga, Cx* 
' hore] comyn woman, Cx. 
^ AgelmunduSy wfianne] Added 
from a. and Cx. 

* owen truste^ Cx. 

* standyng, Cx. 
» Added from a. 

» the L,, Cx. 

" regnede^ a., Cx. 

® Hildecoct Cx. 

*** a. and Cx. om. regnede^ 

" So a., Cx. ; firstCyUS, 

" that, Cx. 

" Added from o. and Cx. 

'* Scandimauia, Harl. MS. twice. 


perpetuo exiKo damnavit. Idcirco mortuo Wachone, 
Waltharicus^ filiua ejus super Longobardos octavus re* 
gnavit vij. annis.* Post quern nonus Audoenus,* qui 
Longobardos primus* in Pannoniam adduxit. Post 
quein Albuinus Alius ejus super Longobardos regnavit 
decimus,* quem cum sua gente invitavit Narses patricius 
ad possidendani^ Italiam tempore Justini imperatoris, 
anno Domini quingentesimo sexagesimo^ octavo, post- 
quam Longobardi quadraglnta duobus annis^ in Pan- 
nonia fuissent demorati.^ Banulphus, De conqudBstu 
htgus*^ Albuini et exitu mirabili quaere infra loco suo, 
circa annum Domini quingentesimum septuagesimum." 

Cap. XXV. 

De Urbe Roma, 

Ranulphus. Auctores tradunt quod in Tuscia, quse 

pars est** Italise, situata est urbs Romana, de cujus*^ fun- 

datione et regimine multa et^* varia scripserunt auctores, 

potissime tamen fiater Martinus de conditione ejus, ma- 

gister vero Gregorius de urbis mirabilibus perstrinxit *^ 

1 Wdttaneus^ A.C.D. | * demorassenf, D. 

2 annis^ So A.B.C.D.E. j " hujus] om. A. 
^ AudenuSy B« 

* primus before adduxit in C.I)« 
^So A.B.C.D. ; deemus before 

regnavit in E. 
^ possidendum, E. 

* sexageHmo] xl., B. 
» annts] So A.B.C.D.E. 

^^ C. andl). omit this extract from 
" est parSf A. 
"ctt/u*] ciyitatis, B. 
^* et] om. A. 
perstrinxit^ perstrinxerant, C. 



And so whan Wacho was ded, his sone Waltaricus was pe Tbevisa. 

ei^te kyng of Longobardy,^ and regned seuen ^ere. After 

hym |>e njape Andoenns, ])at ladde firste pQ Longobardes 
in to Pannonia. After hym his sone Albuinns was ]>e ten]>e 
kyng of Longobardy.^ Isarses^ patricius prayed pis kyng 
Albuinus to come "wip his men and haue ^ Italia, ]>at was in 
lustinis tyme pe Emperour,^ ]>e ^ere of our Lorde fyue 
hondred J^re score and ei^te, and fat was after ]>at Longo- 
bardis hadde i-woned in Pannonia two and fourty ^ere. 
Of pis Albuinus conquest and of his wonder^ ende seche 
wipyime^ in his place, aboute J>e lere of oure Lord fyue 
hondred pre score and ten. 

De vrbe Romana^ Capitulum vicesimum quartum. 

Atctoubs tellep and writep^ pat pe citee of Eome is i- 
bulde in Tuscia, pat is a party of Italia, Of pe fundacioun 
perof and gouemynge auctoures writep® meny d3ruers 
doynges ; and specialliche Frater Martinus de conditione 
ejus ; Magister ^^ vero Gregorius of pe wondres of pe citee 

destroyede, Walcarius his son reignede on the Longobardes MS. Hasl. 
vij. yere. After whom Audoenus reignede, whiche ledde 2261. 

the Longobardes firste in to Pannony.*^ After whom Albinus 

his son reignede, whiche desirede Narses Patricius to inhabite 
Ytaly, in the tyme of lustinus themperoure, the yere of 
oure Lorde Y*^xlviij*^% after that Longobardes hade taryede 
in Pannony by xlij*^ yere. Of the conqueste of Albinus, and 
of his meruellous goenge furthe, hit schalle be expressede 
abowte the yere of grace v<^ and Ixx^. 

Of the Cite of Rome. Capitulum vicesimum quartum^ 

At7CTOBES expresse that the cite of Rome is sette in 
Tuscia^ whiche is a parte of Ytaly, of pe fundacion and 
gouernaile of whom auctores wryte tfiuerse thynges, specially 
Martinus, of the makenge of hit, but Maister G-regory 

' Longohardys, Cx. 
^ (he Longobardesy Cx. 
3 So Cx. ; Narces^ MS. 

* take, Cx. 

• in Justinus themperonrs timCf Cx, 
^ wonderful, Cx. 

"^ ioithin forth, Cx. 


ivnteji» andteUeh a, ; wry ten and 
teUen, Cx. 

^ Cx. here, contrary to Ms cus- 
toniy has loryte, 

" rfe . . . Magister'] Added from a. 

" Ytaly Pannony, MS., but Ytaly 



digna memoratu/ Mavivn/m. Circa locum Eomse plures 
leguntur regnasse. Nam secundum Estodium,^ post 
turrim confusionis constructam,^ Noe cum aliquibus 
ratem ingressus Italiam venit ; sedificataque urbe nomine* 
sui, ibi* vitsB terminum dedit.® Janus vero cum Jano 
filio Japhet nepote suo trans Tiberim Janiculum con- 
didit, ubi'' modo est ecclesia Sancti Johannis ad Janicu- 
lum.® Circa illud^ tempus Nemproth, qui et Saturnus, 
a Jove filio suo eunuchatus, ad praBdicti. Jani regnum 
veniens, urbem, ubi nimc est Capitolium, construxit. 

Illis quoque diebus rex Italus cum Siculis ad veniens ^^ 
ad Janum et Saturnum urbem juxta Albulam fluvium, 
qui posfcmodum dicfcus est Tiber is/* construxit. Her- 
cules quoque, films Itali, fecit urbem *^ Galeriam sub 
Capitolio. Post hsec rex Tiberis de oriente et rex*^ 
Evander de Arcadia venerunt et urbes fecerunt, unde 
Virgilius : 

Tunc pater Evander, Eomanse conditor arcis,** 

Quorum omnium urbes Romulus postmodum in 

* This extract from Ranulphus is 
likewise partly omitted in CD., 
^hich commence the chapter thus : 
In hoc insula (sic) inprincipio «- 
tuatur urbs Rama, de cujus fwnda." 
tione et regiminef &c., down to memo^ 
rata» For memoratti B. has ntemo- 

2 Eustodliim, C. (not D.) See 
rabric. BibL Med, et In/. LaU, s.v. 

^ constructani\ sediflcatam, C*T>. 

* nomine'\ nominis, B.C.D. 

* iht] om. B. 

" dedit'\ snscepit, CD. 

' ubi . . . Janiculum'] om. K 

^ C and D. have ubi mons est 
etiam Sancti Johannis ad Janiculum, 

^iHud] idem,B.CD. 

" adveniens'] veniens, B.C 

" qui,, , Tiberis] After construxit 
in C (not in D.) 

'* urbem] civitatem, CD. 

" rex] om. B. 

" Virg. JEn., viii. 313, where, 
however, Turn rex Evandrus is the 
common reading. 


writej> schortliche meny J>inges ])at bee]> worpj to be kept Tbevisa. 

in mjnde. Martinus, It is i- write fat many kynges regned 

aboute ]>6 place of Rome. For Eustodius sei]> ]>at after ]>at 
tour Babel was i-bulde and men bygonne to speke dyuerse 
langage and tonges,^ Noe wi|> certeyne men took a schip 
and seillede into Italia, and bulde a citee of his name and 
ended ]>ere his lyf. pan lanus, laphet his sone, ]>at was 
Noes sone, bulde laniculum by ^onde }>e ryuer Tiberis ; ]>ere 
is now a cherche of Seynt lohan, fat hatte Seint lones 
chirche ad laniculum. Aboute pat tyme Nemprot, fat hi^t 
Saturnus also, i-gilded ^ of his owne sone loue,^ come to the 
forsaide lanus kyngdom, and bulde a citee ; fere f e Capytal 
is now. Also fat tyme Italus f e kyng wif Siculis 4 
men of Sicilia come to lanus and to Saturnus, and 
bulde a citee faste by f e ryuer Albula ; fat ryuer hijte 
afterward and now hatte Tyber, and is a ryuer of 
Eome. Also Hercules, Italus his sone, bulde a citee 
Galeria by nefe fe Capitol. After fat Tiberi[n]us* fe 
kyng com out of f e est, and Euander f e k}Tig out of 
Arcadia, and bulde citees. Virgilius accordef and self : 
j)anne fe fader Euander at Borne was maker of toures. 
panne afterwarde come Romulus and closed wif ynne oon 

towchethe mony thynges worthy to be hade in remem- MS. Hael. 
braunce of the meruayles of that cyte. Marfintes, Mony 2261, 
men be redde to haue reignede in the cyte of Bome. For '*~~" 
after Estodius, after the towre of confusion made, Noe 
takenge a schippe with other men come to Ytaly, whiche 
makengc a cite there endede his lyfe in hit. lanus with lano 
the son of lapheth made a cite callede laniculus ouer the 
water of Tiber, where a chirche is nowe callede Sti. lohannis 
ad laniculum. Abowte that tyme Nemproth, of er wise callede 
Saturnus, expulsede of lupiter his son, commenge to the 
realme of lanus, made a cite where the chiefe place of the 
cite is now. In those dayes kynge Ytalus commenge with 
Siculynes to lanus and Saturnus made a cite nye the floode 
callede Albula, whiche was namede afterwarde Tiber. After 
that Hercules, the son of Italus, made a cite of Galerius 
vnder the Capitoly. After that kynge Tiberis and Euander 
commenge from Arcadia made that cite of Borne. After 
that Bomulus redacte alio the cites in to oon cau&enge the 

* So a. and Cx. ; Stculust MS. 

* TiberiSf Cx. ; Tj^beris, a. j Ti/' 
berius, MS. 

VOL. I. 

^ tonges and langages^ Cx. 
^ whiche was gelded, Cx. 
fter, Cx. 


imam civitatem muratam redegit,^ ac nobiliores de 
Italia cum uxoribus suis inhabitare fecit. Titus Livvus,^ 
Qua urbe tempore paupertatis suae nullus locus sane- 
tior nee bonis exemplis ditior ; sed postmodum diviti89 
avaritiam et luxuriam auxerunt. Martinus? Boma 
igitur condita est in monte Palatino a gemellis fratri- 
bus Kemo et Bomulo xj, kalend. Maii, Olympiade vij* 
incipiente^ quarto anno Achaz regis Juda,^ post Trojam 
captam anno cccc^iiijo, Ra/nulpkusJ' Sed verius 
secundum Solinum cccc^xxxiiijo. Martimis,^ Quae urbs 
processu temporis muris, turribus, portis, templis, palatiis, 
artificiis " mirabiliter insignita.^ Habidt turres murorum 
ccclxj., in cujus circuitu sunt milliaria viginti duo, 
praeter trans Tiberim et urbem Leoninam, cum quibus 
dicitur habere in circuitu milliaria quadraginta duo. 

^ muratam after redegit in B. 
^ Title of both extracts omitted in 

® So C. ; JudacBy B. ; Jude, D.B. 

* Hanulphus] om. CD. 

^ Beference added from A.B. 

^ ariificies, C. 

' insit/nitttr, O. ; insignitus, D. 


wal alle pilke citees ^ aboute, and made oon grete citee of Tbeviba, 

alle i-closed in oon: and brou^te gentil men and noble ont 

of Italia wip here wifes for to wone perytme. TituSy lihro 
secundo. While fat citee was pore, was no place more 
holy noJ?er richere of good ensample ; but afterward rich- 
esse gadered and eched to gidres cou^tise and leccherie.^ 
Marcus. Tweie brepren ]>at were twynnes,^ Remus and 
Romulus, bulde Rome in ]>e hul Palatinus, and was i-bulde 
in pe enleuen]>e'* kalandes of Maij : ]>o bigan ]>e seuen]>e 
Olimpiades,^ fat is fe seuenfe tyme of iustes and torne- 
mentes fat Grees made at fe foot of mont Olympus, fo*^ 
was J>e fu*ste ^ere of Achaz kyng of luda and foure 
hondred ^ere and foure and fifty after f e takyng of Troye. 
But more vereiliche, as Solinus seif, foure hondred and'^ 
foure and fritti ^ere after fe takynge of Troye. pe® 
whiche citee of ^ Rome was afterward wonderliche i-hi^t 
wif waUes, wif toures, wif ^ates, wif templis, wif paleys, 
and'wif diners and wonderful werkes ; and hadde on fe 
walles f re hondred toures ^® and ^* fre score and oon, and 
conteynef) aboute two and twenty myle, wif oute pat fat ^^ is 
by^onde Tybre and f e citee Leonina. But, as me seif , f er 
wif he*3 conteynef al aboute two and fourty myle, and 

nowble men of Ytaly to inhabite hyt with theire wyfes. Titus MS. Hasl. 
Livius. Whiche cite beenge in pouerte was noo cite moore 2261, 

holy neif er more ryche in goode exemples, but afterwarde 

rychesse enereasede lecchery and auarice. Martinus. Rome *' ^^' *" 
was made of ij. brefer, Remus and Romulus, in the mownte Of J?e 
Palatyne fe xj. kalendes of Maij, in the vij^i^e Olimpias, the ^^^^ome' 
iiijthe jQYQ of the reigne of Achaz kynge of the lewery 
begynnenge, in the iiij^ yere liiij. after the takenge of the 
cite of Troye. ^. But after Solinus cccc. and xxxiiij** yere. 
Martinus, WTiiche cite made nowble in processe with towres, 
walles, temples, ^ates, and palice, hauenge towres of the 
walles ccc.lxj. within the circuite of whom be myles xxij*», 
excepte the edifienge ouer Tiber and the cite Leonine, with 
whom hit is seyde to conteyne in circuite xlij*» myles. In 

' citetesy MS. $ tzt, Ox. 

^gcidred and encreased, and stfn 
they haue hen cotteytous and hcherws, 

' born at one bttrthon, Cx. 

* MS. adds yere (not «. or Cx.) 

^ OUmpuSf Ox., irho omits the 
remainder of the sentence. 

^ tliatfCx, (not a.) 

' a. om. and. 

' ^ Cx. prefixes Marcus ; a, has 
in mar^n Marcus or Mariinua 

• of'\ om. a. 

" MS. has some repetitions hero. 

" and] om. a. 

'^ The second \>at added from a. ; 
absent from MS. and Ox. 

" men seyn it, Ox. 

O 2 



Habuit etiam portas principales sexdecim in universo, 
videlicet citra Tiberim decern : portam Capenam/ portam 
Appiam, portam Latiaam, portam Asinariatn, portam 
Metronii, portam Lavicanam^ portam NumeBtanam^ por- 
tam Salariam,^ portam Princianam, portam Collinam.^ 
Item trans Tiberim portas tres, et in urbe Leonina 
portas tres. Oregorvas, Inter urbis* hujns mirabilia» 
arte magica sen* opere humane^ constructa, quorum 
adhuc restant vestigia miranda, sunt tot promunctoria 
turrium, tot sadificia palatiorum. ''Itanulphus, Etiam 
nunc veri sint versus illi Hildeberti Cenomannensis 
episcopi, quos ponit Willielmus Mabnesburiensis in libro 
suo de regibus. 

Versus de Par tibi Roma nihil, cum sis fere ® tota ruina ; 


Fracta docere potes, integra quanta fores. 

i>e paiatiis Gfrego^'iua. Fuerunt et ® palatia egregia in ^^ honorem 
imperatorum aUorumque iUustrium virorum constructa, 
inter quse^^ erat palatium majus in medio urbis in 

^ Capuana, B.O.D.; Capuenay 
A.E. (See versions.) Th^se gates 
are all accusatives in B. ; in other 
MSS. they are in the nominatiye. 
The reader must take the ortho- 
graphy of the Tersions taliter qttali- 
ter. In the text Lavicana stands for 
Zabicana ; and Princiajia £>r Pen- 
ciana; Metronii is more correctly 
written Metronis, See Smith's Diet. 
Gr. and Rom. Geogr., s. v. Roma, 

^portam Salariam] om. C. (not 

* Collania, C. 

* urhis] om. C. (not D.) 

^ sive, B. 

^ humano'\ om. CD. 

^ J7a». to Versus de Boma, ahhre- 
viated in C. and D. thus : ut jam 
verum sit, Par tibi, ^e, B. omits 
the two lines following Hildeberti, 
and grievously corrupts hoth the 

^pene, MSS. 

' que,'B.', ibi, C. ; etiam,Xy, 

'» ad, B. 

" de quibus, C.D. ; in qua, At 



had ia all sixtene principal ^ates ; ' ten on J?is half Tiber, Thevisa. 

fat were i-cleped port Capuena, port Apia, port Latina, port 

Asinaria, port Matronii, port Levicana,^ port Numentana, 
port Salaria, port Princiana, port Colina. Also by^onde 
Tyberis beef fre ^ates, and j?re in fe citee Leonina. Gre- 
gorius. Among fe wondres of pis citee fat ^it beef ii-sene, 
it is greet ^ wonder of so many defensable tonres and so 
many buldynge of palays, where ^ it were i-doo ^ by wyche- 
craft ofer by manis dede. So fat now beef ferified^ fe 
vers fat Hildebertus^ Episcopus Cenomannensis made, and 
Willielmus Malmesburiensis puttef hem in his book of 

Eome, no f ing is pere to f e, 

peyt f ou nygh all fallynge be ; 

On alle^ fou schewest fy bounde. 

How grete fou were,^^ when f ow were ^^ sounde. 

pere were meny paleys real*^ and noble i-bulde in Eome De palatiis 
in worschippe of emperours and of of ere noble men also. Roma;. 
Among f e whiche f e gretteste and most palys of alle >v^as 
in f e myddel of f e citee^ in tokene of oon principalte of 

that cite were xyj. principalle ^ates, x. abowte Tiber, Porta MS. Habl. 
Capuana, Porta Apia, Porta Latina, Porta Asinaria, Porta 2261. 
Metronii, Porta Lauicana, Porta Numentana, Porta Salaria, 
Porta Prinopana, Porta CoUina. Also there were iij. ^ates 
ouer Tiber and iij. in the Cite Leonine. Gregorius, Vn 
to this tyme presente remayne mony signes in hit to be 
meruayles as edifienges and palice, that the versus of Hilde» 
berte, bischop Cenomacense may be verifiede of hit whom 
William Malmesbnry puttethe in his boke of kynges seyenge 
in this wyse : O Eome, f er is noon ofer cite egalle to the 
nowe beenge in ruyne. Thou may teche nowe in confusion 
howe nowble thow was a fore. De Palatiis, In that Of fe 
cite were nowble palice made in honor of emperoures, and palices. . 
of other nowble men amonge whom oon palice was made 
in the myddes of the cite in the signe of the monarchy of 

' yates^ Cx. 

'^ So a. andCx.; JEluicana, MS. 

® a grete, Cx« 

* towres of so many buyldynges of 
palayceSf whether, Cx. 

* t-rfoo] om. Cx. 

® So MS. and a. 

^ So Cx. ; Hidebertus, MS. 

* as Iterefoloweth, Cx, 

^ So Cx. *t anaiitef MS. ; anaUe, a* 

1« So MS. and a. SeeHarl. MS. 

" ryalf Cx. 


signum monarchiaB orbis ; item ^ palatium Pacis, ubi 
Romulus posuit statuam suam auream, dicens, " Non 
*' cadet,* donee virgo pariat;" quod et* cecidit Ohristo 
nascente.* Palatium Diocletiani columnas habet ad 
jactum lapilli tarn altas^ et tam^ magnas quod a cen- 
tum viris per totum annum operantibus vix una earum 
secari possit. Item fait ibi quoddam palatium sexa- 
ginta imperatorum, cujus hodie partem residuam tota 
Roma destruere non potest 
Detemplis Apud templum Pantheon, quod fuit^ omnium deorum/ 


modo est ecclesia omnium sanctorum, et autonomastice ® 
dicitur Sanota Maria Rotunda, et habet in latitudine 
spatium ducentorum sexaginta pedum. Prope iUud 
templum est arcus triumphalis August! Caesaris mar- 
moreus, in quo gesta ipsius describuntur,^ Ibi quoque*® 
est arcus Scipionis, qui devicit Hannibalem. Item ad 
Sanctum Stephtoum in piscina" fuit templum ^^ holo- 
vitreum, totum de crystallo et auro factum, ubi erat 
astronomia insculpta cum signis coeli et stellis, quod 

® D. adds h^Bc, 

* ef] tamen, B. 

^ quod . . . tULScente'] oin* CD. 

* tarn] om. C. (not D.) 
® A. adds ecclesia, 

^ dtBmoniorum, B. 

3 scribuntftr, A.\ conscribuntUTf'B. 
^« Etjuxta id, C«D. (which latter 
has Ultid,) 
" pasonia, B. 
^- tempium] om. CD* 


all J)e world wide. Also J?e paleys of pees ; perynne Tbbvisa. 

Romulus dede * his owne ymage of golde, and seide : " It 

" schal neuere falle, or 2 a mayde bare a childe 5 " and J?at 

ymage feP whan Crist was i-bore. Diocletianus^ paleys 

ha]7 pilers as hi^ as a stones ^ cast, and so grete abonte pat 

an hondred men al a Jere worchynge schulde vimeje 

hewe oon of filke pylers. Also pere was a paleys of 

sixty emperours, and ^it stondej) a party « ferof p&t al 

Eome may nou^t destroye it. pere, as ^ Pantheon pe temple Be templis. 

of* ail mawmetrie was, is now a chirche of al halwen,* and 

for 9 cure Lady is after Crist cheef halwe^^of al mankynde, 

]>at chirche ha}» pe name of oure Lady, and hatte Sancta 

Maria Rotunda, fat is pe Roimde Chirche of oure Lady, 

and ha}> in brede pe space of two hondred feet and 

sixty. Fast by fat temple is an arche of marbel, and is 

pe arche of Augustus Cesar his victories and grete dedes» 

In fat arche beef al Augustus Cesar his dedes ^* descry ued. 

pere is also Scipions arche ; he ouercom Hanibal. At Seint 

Steuene in Piscina was f e temple Olouitreum, fat was made 

al ^2 of cristal and of golde ; fere was astronomic i-graued 

and i-peyntwif sterres and signes of heuen. Seint Sebastian ^^ 

the worlde. Also thei made a palice of peace, where in MS. Haul. 
Romulus put an ymage of golde, seyenge, this ymage schalle 2261. 
not falle tylle that a mayde haue a childe, whiche ymage "" 
felle down in the natiuite off Criste. The palice of Dioclitian 
hathe pjUers soe hie as a man may caste with a stonne, and 
soe grete that vnnethe oon off theyme may be kytte and 
putte down by a c. men laborenge dayly in hyt by a yere. 
Also f er was a palice of Ix. emperoures the residu of 
whom alle Rome can not destroye. Of pe temples. Now 
the chirche of alle Seyntes is in Rome, where the temple 
of alle goddes was before, namede Panteon, hauenge in 
latitude the space of ij^. and Ix. foote, nye to whom is an 
arche made of marbole, in whom the gestes of Augustus 
Cesar be wryten. Also fer is an arche of Scipio whiche 
ouercome Hanibal. Also there was a temple made of 
cristalle and golde, where in astronomy was graven with 
the signes of heuyn and sterres, whom Seynte Sebastian 

* dyde do, Cx. 
« tely Cx. 
^fyUe^ Cx. 

* thfocltdaniiSy MS* 
^ astoon, a. 

' a party Cx. ; another party ^ MS. 
^ as'\ Added from Cx. (not in o.) 

^ hahwen, Cx. \ hakwetif a. 

® bff cause, Cx. 

'* chyef and holyesti Cx. 

^^ ben alle his grete acteSf Cx. 

« at] om. Cx. 

*' Sebestian^ MS. (not Cx.) 



Sanctus Sebastianus destruxit.^ Item in Capitolio, quod 
erat altis muris vitro et auro coopertis, quasi speculum 
mundi sublimiter «rectum, ubi consides® et senatores 
muudum regebant, erat templum Jovis in quo statua 
Jovis aurea in throno aureo erat sedens.^ BxmuVphvs.^ 
Hie advertendum est quod in Eoma tria tantum templa 
fiierunt quae fiamines habuerunt, id est, pontifices ido- 
lorum, sic dicti quasi filamines a, Jilo quod® Ugabant 
sibi in capite, quando non poterant prse calvitate diebus 
festivis pileum deferre. Nam in templo Jovis minis- 
trabat flamen dialis, quia Jupiter vocabatur Diespiter, 
id est, diei pater. Item in templo fuit flamen Martialis, 
in templo Romuli flamen Quirinalis, nam Romulus dice- 
batur Quirinus.* 

pedomi- EomsB fuit domus qudedam consecrata pene^ tota 

DusBomae. * 

aurea lapidibus pretiosis omata, qusB dicebatur valere 
pene tertiam partem mundi, cujus cryptse^ parietum 
adhuc apparent horrend© et inaccessibiles ; in qua 
etiam' domo statuae omnium provinciarum ® poneban- 

^ astronomia ... de&truxit\ Slightly 
different in C. and D. 


^ ad. consulendumj C« 

^ The latter part of the sentence 
slightly ahbreviated in CD. 

* Kan. to Quirinus] 6m. in A.B. 

^ quenif E. The solecism is pro'* 
bably dne to the scribe. 
^ pene . . • cr^tai] Abbreviated 

in A.B»C.D. 

' etiam] Added from CD. 

^ RoniiB suhjeciarwit ai^er provin^ 
ciarumm D. ; statute 9£tst provinci^ 
arum in B. 



destroyed ]>at temple. Also* l?e Capitol was anayed* wij> Tbevisa. 

lii^e walles i-heled vrip glas and wi|> gold, as it were fe 

mirrour of al fe world aboute. pere consuls ^ and senatours 
gouernede and rulede aH Jye world, as moche as was in here 
power; and fere was lupiters^ teiiQple, and in ])e temple 
was lupiters ymage of golde,^ sittynge in a trone. J^J 
Here take hede ]>at onliche ]>re temples were somtyme in 
Kome fat hadde famines, [fat were bisshops to serve false 
goddis and mawmetrie, and heet flamines,] ^ as it were ^te- 
mities, of ^/o, fat is a prede, fat fey bonde aboute hire 
heed, whan f ei my^te nou^t in f e holy day suffre on hire 
piliouns and here cappes for hete. In lupiter his temple 
seruede flamen dialis, fat is, f e day bisshop ; for lupiter 
was i-cleped Diespiter, fat is, fe fader of f c day : also in 
Mars his temple was famen Martialis, fat is. Mars is® 
bisshop, and in Romulus temple was flamen Quirinalis, fat 
is, Quii*inus i^ bisshop ; for Romulus was i-cleped Quirinus 

In Rome was an hous i-made wel nyh al of gold and De domi- 
i-hi^t^* wif precious stones; me seide fat hous was worf ^^* 
wel iiy} fe fridde deeP* of all fe world. In fat hous 
eueriche londe and prouince hadde an ymage i-sette by 

destroyede. I^ Hyt is to be aduertisede that in Rome MS. Habl. 
were oonly thre temples whom the byschoppes of ydoles 2261. 

hade in possession callede flamines, as filamines, of threde 

whom thei bounde in theire hedes when thei my^hte not 
were a cappe in holy dayes for hete. The byschop Dialle ^^ 
ministrede in the temple of lupiter, for he was callede 
Diespiter, that is to say, fader of f e day. . The byschop 
Martialle was in the temple c^ Mars. And the byschoppe 
Quirinalle in the temple of Romulus, for Romulus was 
callede Quirinus. Of howses. In Rome was an howse 
consecrate onornede allemoste alle with golde and precious 
stones, whiche was seyde to be worthe the thrydde parte 
of the worlde, whiche place apperethe ^itte as ferefulle 
and inaccessible, in whiche place the ymages of alle pro- 

^ MS. and a. (not Ox.) add in. 
3 Cx. omits the four following 
^ the consuls, Cx. 
* of al, «. 

^ luhiters, MS., and so below. 
'^fyn golde^ Cx. 
' R] Added from a. and Cx. 

^ The words in brackets added 
from a. 

' Cx. here and above prints only 

1^ hisy added in a., which has ofren 
similar variations. 

" besette, Cx. 

^^partf Cx. 

wZ)««t, Harl. MS.; sunilarly 
Martial below. 


tur arte magica,* quarum quselibet nomen provinci» 
suae in se^ gerebat scriptum in pectore, et nolam ar- 
genteam circa coUum ; quae, si qua gens contra Bomam 
insurgeret,® statirn imago * illius vertebat dorsum ad 
imaginem Romse, et tintinnabulum illius imaginis 
insonabat. * Unde et sacerdotes Gentiles domum illam 
alternis vicibus custodientes nomen imagiois illius 
principibus nunciabant.^ Erat etiam^ in tecto domus 
illius eques quidam aeneus concordans mobiliter motui 
illius imaginis/ lanceamque contra gentem illam sic in- 
surgentem® dirigebat. Unde et Romani® facile hostes 
suos inpraemeditatos occupabant. In qua etiam domo 
tradunt ignem fuisse inextinguibilem, cujus artifex requi- 
situs quamdiu duraret, respondit, " Donee virgo pariat/' 
Unde divulgatum est quod ^^ nocte DominicaB nativitatis 
eques ille cum domo comdt, et ignis ille extinctus." Item 
Beaneus'^ Apollo confectionem ** quandam stilplmris^* 

* Slightly transposed ift CD. « sk tttsurgentem] ohL G.Dj 

» Bomay C. (not J>.) 

2 in se\ om. C. 

' insurgere proponerety CiD* 

* imago .... insonabaf\ Abbte* 
viated to sonum dabatinCJ).} A«!B« 
have only^to^'f» sonctbat, after in- 
surgeret (A. reads sonaref) Both 
versions agree vith the text 

^ The senten<ie transposed and 
ahbteviated in CJ>i 

« et, B. 

' ipsitis imaginis, A« i imaginis 
illius, B. 

^'^quod] om.E. 

^^ In qua . . . extinciusl l^'alis- 
posed and ahhreviated in C. $ B. has 
est after extinctus. 

*^ Bancus, A. It is possible that 
Higden intends ApoUonins Tya-^ 
nasns ; bnt» if so, the story seems 
not to be found in Fhilostratns* 

" confossionem, C. (not D.) 

" sulpkure, A. 



wicche craft ;^ eueriche of pilke ymages bare his owne Tbevisa. 
lordes name i-write on 2 his brest and a cokebelle? of — 
siluei' i-honged aboute his nekke; so ^at^ ^if eny londe 
arise a^en Borne, anon f e ymage of fat londe tomed his 
bak toward "pe ymage of Home, and ]>e belle aboute his 
nekke anon schulde rynge, and ^e preostes pat kepte J>at 
hous euerich by his cours wamede pe princes of pat doynge, 
pere was also an horsman of bras an^ hite on pe cop of 
pat hous, and moued^ also wip a spere in his hond, and 
torned pe poynt of his spere to ward pat londe pat so wolde 
arise ; and so pe Eomayns myjte li^tliche come vppon here 
enemyes vnwamedJ Li pat hous also was a fuyre pat no 
man my^te aquenche,^ and men askede^ of pe craitesman 
pat it made how longe it schulde dure,i^ and he answerde 
and seide : pat^^ it schulde dure for euermore for to^^ j,at 
a mayde here a childe. And in^^ pe same ny^t pat Crist 
was i-bore pat hous fil doun, and pe fuyre was aqueynt 
also pe same^'^ ny^t and tyme. Also Beaneus ApoUo pat 

uinces were putte by wycche crafte, euery ymage hauetige Mg^jj^j,, 
writen in the breste of hit the name of the prouince, and 226I. 
a belle of golde abowte the necke of hit. And if eny — 
peple made insureccion ageyne thempire of Some, the 
ymage of that prouincfe tumede the backe of hit to the 
ymage of Eome, and ronge his belief the gentile pristes 
hauenge kepenge of the ymages schewede those thynges 
to the princes of thempire. In the hier partes of whiche 
place was an horse man made of brasse corespondente to 
the ymage of that prouince, hauenge a spere directe towarde 
the peple makenge pat insurreccion. Where fore the Bomanes 
hade victory of theier enmyes, takenge theyme as sodenly. 
In whiche place men aifermede fire to haue bene inextin^ 
guible ; pe maker of hit requirede how longe hit scholde 
dure, answerede and seyde, tyl a mayde scholde be delyue- 
rede of a childe. Wherefore hit was expressede that the 
man made of brasse felle down with the howse in the 
natiuite of Criste, and that fyre was extincte. Of Craftes 

* nigromaneiey Cx, 

'•^ and on, Cx. (typ. error?) 

* cockerbelle, Cx» 

* So the MS. ; but seemingly a 
mere clerical error ; a. has ]>at 

* andf a. ; on, Cx, 

* meouede, a, j tneued, Cx. 
' on ware, Cx, 

• quenche, Cx. 

® axed, Cx. 

*• endure. Ox,, and so belov. 

" Cx. omits Pat 

^^for to] vnto, Cx. 

"a. andCx. omittn. 

" quenchyd that same, Cx. 




et nigri salis inclusit in vase seneo, quam candela con- 
secrata inceudit, et balneum ibi ^ fecit cum thermis 
perpetuo^ calentibus.® Erat quoque* in domo quadam® 
ferreum simulacrum Bellerophontis pondere quindecim 
millia^ librarum, in aere cum equo suo suspensum, 
nuUa catena superius aut stipite inferius sustentatum; 
sed lapides magnetes in arcubus^ testudinum sive 
fornicibus ® arcuatis circumquaque ponebantur, et hinc^ 
inde proportionali ^" attractione simulacrum in medio 
servabant, ita ut nullicubi " posset dissilire.*^ 
Beartificiis Est ibi theatrum in Heraclea de ipso monte mar- 
moreo ita ^® seulptum, ut cellulse mansionum et sedilia 
per gyrum/* exitus, et antra ^^ ex uno solido lapide 
sint ^^ sculpta, poniturque hoc totum ^'^ opus super sex 
cancros ex ipso etiam monte sculptos, ubi nuUus tarn 
secrete aut ^* secum aut cum alio loqui poterit ^^ quin 
in circuitu audiatur.^ Item ^^ juxta palatium Augusti 
est murus coctiKs descendens per portam Asinariam a 
summis montibus, qui immensis fornicibus aquseductum 
sustentat; per quem amnis a^^ montanis fontibus per 
spatium unius diaetsB urbi illabitur, qui sereis fistulis 
postmodum divisus^* universis palatiis Komse ^ quondam 
influebat. Fluvius namque Tiberis equis est salubris,^^ 

^ ibidem, B, 

2 in perpetuOf A. 

^ Et balneum .... cakntibus] 
Varies verbally in CD. 

* etiam, CD. 

^ ibi quoddam, C ; ibi quadam, 
D. ; domo quodam, B. 

* milium, CD. 
^fornicibus, CD. 

' sive fornicibus'] pm. CD. ; in 
fornicibus, A.E. 

" D. adds et 

10 proportionabili, B. 

^' nuUibi, B. 

12 desilire, B. The sentence ends 
thus in CD, after attractione : con- 

sistens quasi sub equilihrata mensura 
sic manebat 

1' quasi, C. (not D.) 

1^ C. and D. add et ; B. adds man" 
sionum after gyrum, 

" aura, C. 

»« sic, C 

^' iotumi om. A.B. 

'* auti om. CD. 

^* poterat, D. 

^ quin omnes qui in circuilu erant 
audirent, CD* 

" Item'] om. CD. 

22 et, E. (clerical error.) 

^^ divisis, B. 

2» Somce] om. CD. 

25 utilis, CD. 



man closede a confeccioun of brymston and of blak salt in Tbevisa, 

a vessel of bras, and sette hit on fe fire i wi]> a candel fat 

he hadde made on his manere,^ and made ]>ere a bath wi]? 
ba]>inge places fat all wey were hote. pere was also on^ 
an hous an ymage of yren, and was [namyd] ^ Bellefrontes 
ymage, and ^ weyed xv. f owsand pound wij) his hors fat 
he satte on, and hyng^ in fe ayer wif no post ne pyler 
bynefe vnder sette, nofere ^ i-holde wif chayne aboue ; but 
adamant stones fat were in f e fot ^ and in f e arches aboute 
drowe euen f e yren eueriche to his side, so fat f e yren 
ymage mytt nou^t dounward nofer vpward ne toward 
neyther side,* but hyng alwey euene amydde. 

J)ere is a place at Rome in Heraclea and hatte theatrum ; De arti- 
fat is a place to stonde ofer sitte ynne for to loke welfici»»» 
aboute. perynne is wonderliche i-graue cabans and dennes, 
dyuers oute goynges, benches, and seges all aboute, and is 
hool and sound, al oon marbel ston : [and f is work is 
i*sett uppon sixe crabbes i-hewe of hard marbilston] ; i^ 
in fat place may no man so priuely speke, nofer by ^^ hem- 
self nofer by i* anof er man, but al fat he seif be herde 
al aboute. Faste by Augustus Cesar his place ^^ is a wal 
i-made of b[r]ent i^ tile and strecchef dounward oute of f e 
hite huUes by fe ^ate, port Asinaria. pat wal is i-made 
vppon grete arches and heug ; fat wal strecchef a dayes 
iornay from Rome yn a greet condyt ; vppon fat wal fe 
wateres and f e ^* stremes of f e ^^ welles of f e mounteyns 
rennef ynto Rome ; and fan is ^^ departed in dyuers condites 
and pipes of bras, and so ran somtyme in to euery paleys 
of Rome : for f e water [of] ^^ Tyber is holsom and good for 

and Edifienges. There is a place made in Heraclea graven MS. Habl. 
so of marbole in that hille, that the mansiones of hit and 2261. 

setes of hit were graven of oon ston, where a man can not 

speke so secretely with hymselfe or with eny other, but hit 
schal be herde in alle the circuite. The water of Tiber is 

* it afyre, Cx. ; hit on fire^, a, 
^ i'halewed in his manere, a., Cx. 



►, a., 

^ Added from Cx.* 
^ whiche. Ox. 

^ heng, a. and Ox., and so Cx. (not 
a.) below. 
^ nCf Cx. 
* vawte, Cx. 
** So Cx. ; neuere aside, MS., a. 

" The words in brackets added 
from a. and Cx. 

" to, Cx. (twice). 

*2 palaysy Cx. (not o.) 

^' vodk i'made ofbrend, a. ; waJle 
made of brente, Cx. 

^* a, and Cx. omit \>e, 

1^ So a. and Cx. ; j>at, MS. 

" it is, Cx. 

" Added from Cx. (not in a.) 



De Pal- 



sed hominibus noxius ; * qtiamobrem a quatuor urbis 
partibus per artificiosos meatus Bomani veteres aquas 
reeentes venire fecerunt; quibus, dum res publica 
floruit, quicquid^ libuit eonsummare licuit Juxta 
hunc murum aqu89ducfcus ^ est illud * balneum Beanei, 
de quo supra dicitur. In albisterio, quod dicitur muta- 
torium Caesaris, ubi fiebant albas stolsB imperatorum, 
fuit ^ candelabrum factum de lapide albeste, qui semel 
accensus et sub divo positus nulla arte potuit extingui,^ 
RanuVphus. Juxta hunc modum potuit contingere quod 
de Pallante gigante legitur infra circa annum domini 
millesimum quadragesimum, quo anno repertum est 
Eomse corpus gigantere staturse tumulatum et ^ incorrup- 
tum, cujus vulneris hiatus quatuor pedes longitudinis ® 
et semis continebat Longitudo corporis altitudinem 
muri vincebat; lucerna continue ardens ad caput ejus 
reperta^ est, quse nee flatu nee humore extingui poteratj 

* e8t noafim, D. 

^ after Jloruity tbus : aquaducius 
fiebant ut libuit et licuit, G. ; quic- 
quid libuit, Ucuit, D. 

^ aquaducius] om* 0. (not D.) 

* iUud] om. D. 

* ibi fuitf B. 

* C. and D. omitted from Juxta 
hunc jfc. down to jaeet hie, 

^ ef] om. B. 

^ So B. ; pedum longitudinis, A. ; 
pedum longitudine, E. 

* inventa, A. 



hors, and for men yueP and vnholsom.^ perfore fe olde Tbetisa 

Bomaynes made fresche water come oute of foure parties 

of ]>e citee by weies craftliche i-made, and ferof men my^te 
take al fat fey wolde, [whyle]^ fe comynge ^ of Eome were 
in her floures. By fat wall is f e bath Byaneus made, of f e 
whiche baf was rafer a speche.^ In Albiet[e]rio ^ a place 
pat heet also Mutatorium Cesaris were i-made white stolis 
for emperours. Also fere was a candelstikke i*made of a 
stoon fat hatte Albeston ; whan it was ones i-tend ^ and 
i-sette per oute,^ fere couf e no man it aquenche ^ wif no 
craft fat me kouf e deuise, [^.]^° In f is manere hit mi^te 
be of-^i fe geaunt Pallas aboute fe ^ere of oure Lord a 
f owsand and foarty ; fat ^ere was i-founde in Borne a geantis 
body i-bm'ied all ^^ hool and sounde ; f e chene ^^ of his 
wounde was foure foot longe and an half ; pe lengf e of his 
body passed the hei^te of f e waUes ; at his heed was founde 
a lanterne bi-ennynge alway, fat no man couthe quenche wif 
blast nof er i4 wif water nof er ^^ wif of er craft, or*^ fere were 

wholsom for horses, but not for men, wherefore the Bomanes jjg uxrl 
made labor that fresche waters my^te comme in to the cite 226I. 

in iiij. partes of hit. In Albisterio was a candellesticke 

where the emperoures were wonte to be chaungede, where 
the white stoles of emp6roures were made also, whiche was 
made of a precious ston callede Albestes, whiche accendede 
and pntte furthe in the aiere wylle not be extincte by eny 
crafte» ^, In lyke wyse that thyuge my^hte happe that 
is redde of Pallas, f e gigante abowte the yere of our Lorde 
God mxl*^, in which yere a body w:as founde of f e stature 
of a gigante beryede at Borne and incorrupte, the wounde 
of whom conteynede in longitude iiij. foote and a halfe. The 
longitude of that body excedede the altitude of the walles 
of that cite : fyndenge also a lampe brennenge at the feete off 
hit continually, whiche cowthe not be extincte fro blawenge 

^ euel, a. 

' and vnholsome and euyl for men^ 

* Added from Gx, (not in o») 

* comins, Cx. 

* wa^ spoken iofore^ Cx. 

* AlbisteriOf ft., Cx. 

' yteynedy Cx., who adds and sette 
a fyre. 

^ without, Cx. 

^ quenche it^ Cx. ; hit quenche, a. 
^» ]^.] Beference added from a. 
and Cx. 
" 0/2 that, Cx. 
« aU] om Cx. 
^* space, Cx. 
" ne, Cx., twice; (as frequently.) 


ar, a. 




donee subtili foramine subter^ flammam^ facto aer forefc 
introductus. Hunc Pallantem Turnus dicitur occidisse, 
quando « pugnavit pro Lavinia. Hujus ^ gigantis tale 
erat epitaphium. 

Filius Evandri Pallas, quern lancea Turni 
Militis oceidit more suo, jacet hie. 

Be Btatuis 
et signis 

Fuit apud® Romam tauruB seneus in speeiem® 
Jovis transformati, qui mugienti et gesticulanti '^ simil- 
limus videbatur. Puit^ et imago Veneris eo modo® 
quo quondam nudo corpore Paridi se ostendebat, ita 
artificiose composita ut in niveo imaginis ore sanguis 
recens*^ natare videretur. Est etiam'^ ibi^^ pyramis 
Romuli, ubi speliebatur juxta ^^ ecclesiam beati Petri ; 
quam peregrini, qui semper^* frivolis'^ abundant, dieunt 
fiiisse acervum segetis beati Petri, quern cum Nero 
rapuisset in lapideum collem pristine quantitatis fe- 
runt fiiisse^^ conversum. Inter onmes pyramides mira- 

* super, B. 

^Jlammaf A. (but looks more like 

' A. adds JSneas. 

* Cujus, B. 

* in Roma, CD, 

* specie, C J). 

' tubanti, B. ; moventi, CD. 
» Item fuit, CD. 

• eo ffiodo] om. CD., which have 
qtus following. 
1« recens"] om. B. 
" etiam] om. CD. 
*• ibidem, B. 
" prope, CD. 

^*frivolis semper kabundantes,CX>. 
** suis frivolis, B. 
^^fuisse"] fore, A.E. 



i-made an hole* vnder fe Ij^t hj ne})e, |>afc fe ayer my^te Tkevisa. 

entre. Me seij) fat Tumus slow ]>is geaunt Pallas, wban 

Eneas fau^te for Lauin[i]a J>at was Eneas his wjrf. J)is2 
geauntes epitaphium,^ fat is,^ fe writynge of mynde of bym 
fat lay fere, was suche : ^ 

Pallas Euander his sone lief here : 
Hym Tnmus fe kny^t wij, his spere 
Slowe in his manere* 

De statuis et signis. pere was at Borne a bole^ of bras 
in fe schap of lupiter ouercast and schape to men fat loked 
f eron ; fat boole semed lowynge and startlinge* pere was 
also f e ymage of Venus al naked in f e same maaere as Venus 
schewed hir self to fat man Parish somtyme,^ and was so 
craftliche made fat in f e moufe and lippes, fat were as 
white as eny» snow, semede fresche blood and newe. pere 
is also at Borne a wonder copped pilour, and is Bomulus pyler. 
pere Bomulus was i-buried faste by Seynt Petres chirche, 
pat piler pilgrims and palmers, fat faste con ^^ li^e, clepef it *i 
seint Petris corn hepe,^^ and self fat whan Kero fe emperour 
hadde i-rauisched it, it i^ turned into an hil of stoon ' as grete 
as it was rafer, whiles it was corn.^* Among fe*^ pilers 

or eny other humor, tylle they made a subtile hoole ynder MS. ILlrl. 
hit with a nelde,!® where thro the aier commenge thro hyt 2261. 

causede hit to be extincte : whom a knyihte callede Tumus 

did flee, when Eneas did fi^hte for Lauin[i]a« OftheYmages 
at Bome^ There was an ymage of Venus made in Borne, in 
that similitude as sche apperede to Parides, whiche was made 
so subtily that a man my^hte see in that ymage as bloode 
decurrente. Also another off brasse transformede in to 
the similitude of lupiter. Also there is the grave of 
Bomulus, where he was beryede, nye to f e chirche of Seynte 
Petre, whom the commune peple calle the hope of come 
of Seynte Petre, whom Nero takenge aweye was restorede 
in to the state of hit a fore* Amonge the beryalles of whom 

^ vfUo the fyme that ihere was made 
a fyiil hoole, Cx. 

* So Cx. (This) ; [)e»c, MS., «. 

' ^iftaphiumy Cx. $ ephitafiusny 
-MS., a. 

* is this, Cx. (withoat sense). 
'^ suche'] this, Cx. 

«&tt2Z?, Cx. 

' So Cx. ; Pcvres, MS., o. 

« Cx. adds of Troye, 

VOL, I. 

* ony, Cx. 

w can, Cx. 

" a (not Cx.) oiaits tV. 

" com huppie, CJx. 

>* tf] hit, C&. (perhaps consideiing 
the aspirated Ibrm die stronger). 

1« as grete €ts it ilbas b^ore of 
come, Cx. 

*' aJle, a., Cx. 

« So Harl. MS. 




bilior est pyramis Julii CaBsaiis, habens in altitudine * 
ducentos quiaquaginta pedeis, in cujus smnmo fuit* 
spbsBra a&nea cineres et ossa Julii contiuens,^ De quo 
colosseo ^ quidam metricus ^ sic ait : 

Si lapis est unus, die qua fuit arte levatus: 
Si lapides plures^ die ubi contigui. 

Hanc autem pyramidem super quatuor leones® fun- 
datam peregrini mendosi'' aeumi beati Petri appellant, 
mentiunturque iUum fore® mundum a peccajtis^ qui 


sub saxo illo liberius potuerit repere,^^ Sunt etiam in 
De caballig Itoma duo magni equi marmorei quorum talis redditur 

marmoreis. o * x 

ratio. Tempore Tiberii imperatoris, duo juvenes philo- 
sophi, Praxitellus et Fibia," venerunt Romam, quos 
cum CsBsar interrogasset cur nudi incederent, dixerunt, 
" Quia omnia reliquimus^ et qida omnia nobis sunt nuda 
" et aperta ; etiam ^* quse dixeris, Caesar, vel clam feceris, 

1 laUtudinef C.(iu»tD.) 

2 est, O.D. 

" continentes, C.D. 

* colosseo] om. C.B. 

* metricus] om. CD. 
^ aneos added in CD. 
' mendosi] om» OfD, 
^ mutidum esse, CD. 

* pegnitenHanique perfedam egiase, 
added i& CD. 

w BUghtly alimd in CD, 
" Fibu$^ C (not D.) It neems 
that in this monstrons legend the 
persons Intended aire the sculptors 
Phidias and I^'axiteles. Bee Gre- 
gofovins» Guschkht^ d$r Stadt Bom. 
vol. iii. pp. 404, 405, (Bttiitgard» 

'^ etiam egq.^ Slightly altered in 



luHus Cesar his piler is most wonderM and hftj? in heij»e two Trevisa. 

hondred feete 1 and fifty; in fe coppe ferof [in]^ a rounde 

ping of bras, wher on 9 bee]> lulius Cesar his askes and his 
bones.4 Of |>at piler in an^ arche beef vers i-write,^ pat 
be}> )>us to menynge, and nameliche of pe ouermest stone: 

^if pe stone is oon, telle what craft brou^t hym yppon ; 
^if meny st[on]es,7 telle where pej ioyne^ attones.® 

pis arche and piler is i-fonnded and y-sette vppon fonre 
lyouns. Filgryms ful of lesynges clepe]> ])is orche and piler 
Seynt Fetres nedle, and Hep and sei]» p&t ])at ^^ man is clene 
of dedely^^ synne pat n^ay orepe vnder pat stoon. pere 
beej, also in Borne tweie grete horse of marbilstou : for in 
Tiberius J>e emperoures " tyme twei ^onge philosofres^ Praxi- 
tellus and Fibia, come to Rome, and ^ede all naked; and 
whan pe emperour axed hem ^ why and wher fore pey tede^^ 
so nakedj^ pel answerde and seide: ^'For we bwep m piBg . 
'^ for sake ; ^^ and for all ping is to vs naked and bare and 
'' openlicl^e i^pknowe ; ^e, sirQ emperourey and all pat pow 
" spekest in counsail and in priuete we knowep at pe ^^ beste." 
Treuiaa. pe firste poynt of pis dpynge and anawere teohep 

the beryalle of lulius Cesar dotha excedo^ cont^yneugo in MS. Hasl. 
altitude cc. and l^ foote, in the hUhte of whom is a spere ^^^^* 
of brasse conteynenge the bones of lulyus Cesar, of whom ^^T 
hit is seyde in metre, — ^If that ston be oon say in what QoUose. 
wyse and by what arte hit was elevate ; if there be mony 
stones say where they be contiguate or ioynede to gedre. 
Mony pilgremes calle that beryalle of lulius sette on iiij. 
lyones made of brasse, the nelde of Seynte Fetre. Also in 
Borne be ij. grete horses made off marbole, wbiche were 
made for this cause folowenge. In the iymo of Tiberius 
themperoure, ij. yonge philosophres, FraxiteUus and Fibia, 
come to Borne. TiUs inquiren^e of theyme why they 
wente bare, they seyde, For we haue refusede alle thynges, 
and alle thynges be to vs bare and open that thow seyes 

' foot, a,f Cx. 

2 Added firom a. and Cx. Pro- 
l>ably is is the true reading. 

' wher on] om. Ox. 

* So MS. and a. ; Ldius Cezars 
bones and asshes, Cx. 

^ in an] and, a, Cx. 

' made, a., Cx. 

^ stones f a. ; Andyfthe^ be many 
stmes, Cx» (which is better metre). 

® joynel>, a, 
* at ones, Cx. 


t^lk, Cx 
" deddy] om. Cx. 
^ |>c emperouresi om. Cx. 

I» A,»,^ Cx. 

" wente, Cx., who, however, has 
yeden just before. ' 

1^ forsaken al ihynge, Cx. 
w f e] om. Cx, 

P 2 



" nobis patent/' Qpod cum Caesar verum comperisset, 
ipsis hoc petentibus, fecit hoc ^ memoriale, duos ^scilicet 
caballos marmoreos. Est et aliud signum ante pala- 
tium domini Papse, equus seneus et sessor ejus manu 
dextra quasi populo* loquens, sinistraque quasi ^ fre- 
num regens^ habens avem cuculam inter aures equi et 
nanum quasi moribundum/ sub pedibus,^ quern peregrini 
Theodoricum vocant, vulgus Constantinum, sed clerici 
curiae Marcum seu Quintum Curtium appellant.^ Hoc 
signum antiquitus sub quatuor^ columnas aereas ante 
aram Jovis in Capitolio stabat, sed Beatus Gregorius 
equitem et equum dejecit, et colunmas in ecclesia 
Lateranensi posuit, Bomani vero^ eqidtem et equum 
ante palatium papae * posuerunt. Qui Marcum ilium ^^ 

'populiSi CD. 

^ qmsi\ om. B. 

* So A«B.; morbidum, C.D.E, 

' ^U8 a4ded in B.D. 

* The previous sentence is slightly 
altered in CD. 
^ super deeemy C.D« 
® sedHomani, B. 
^ domini papa, D. 
>• iUud, C. 



fat who* forsake]) all pjng forsakef all his clojies; and so Tkbvisa. 

it folowej» fat fey fat beef wel i-clof ed and goof aboute 

and beggef and gaderef money and com and catel of 
of er men ^ forsakef nou^t al f ing.^ pe emperour assaied 
and founde soof all fat fey seide^ and at here prayer^ 
made in mynde of hem tweie gi*eet hors ^ of marbel. pere 
is anof ere signe and tokene to fore ^ f e popes paleys ; an 
hors of bras and a man sittynge f eron and halt his ^ 
ri^t hond as f ou^ he spake ^ to f e peple ;^ and halt his ^ 
bridel in his lift hand^ and haf a cnkkow by twene his hors 
eres and a seek *^ dwerf vnder his horse *^ feet. Pilgrims 
clepef fat man Theodoricus, and fe comouns clepef hym 
Constantinus. But clerkes of fe court clepef hym Marcus 
and Quintas Curtius also, pis signe stood somtyme to fore 
lupiters au^ter ^^ in f e Capitol vppon foure ^^ pilars of bras ; 
but Seynt Gregorie f rewe doun hors and man and sette ^^ 
f e pilers in Seint lones chirche fe Lateranensis. But f e 
Bomayns toke hors and man and sette hem to fore f e popes 
paleys, pey fat clepef hym Marcus tellef fis skile and^* 

or dose priuely. Themperoure knowenge that to be trewe MS. Habl. 

at the desire of theyme made that memorialle for theyme, 2261. 

that is to say, ij. bare horses of marbole. Also there was """^ 

an other signe a fore the palice of the pope, whiche is 

an horse made of brasse, and the sitter on hit as spekenge 

to the peple by the signe of the ry^hte honde, and gouemenge 

the horse as with the lyfte honde, hauenge a brydde callede 

a cukkowe made betwene the eeres of the horse, and Nanus 

lyke to dye vnder his feete, whom pilgremes calle Theo- f. 39 b. 

doricus, the commune peple Constantyne, but clerkes of the 

cowrte calle hit Marcus or Quintus Curtius. That signe 

stode somme tyme on iiij. pyUers of brasse a fore the awter 

of lupiter in the Capitoly or chiefe place of Rome. But 

Seynte Gregory put downe the horse man and that horse, 

and putte fiie pillars in the chirche Lateranense. The 

Romanes toke the horse man and the horse, and sette hit 

before the palyce of the pope. Men callenge hyt Marcus 

* ]>at who i»at, ce. 

^ \nng before men in MS. (not a. 
^ Be&rence to V»- added in Cx. 

* cwenprayeTy Cx. 

* horsesy Cx. 
- * by/ore, Cx. 

' hoMetkf Cx. (twice.) 

* speke, a. 

9 pie, "MS. 
*• sike, «. 
11 horie^ om. Cx. 
1* awlter, Cx. 
" the four, Cx. 

" Cx. omits the seventeen words 
1^ skile arid] om. Cx. 



appellant hatio caiiBam assignaat. Ex genere Messe- 
noratn corpore qtiidam nanus Bed arte nigromanticus, 
cum jSnitamos dbi reges subjugasset^ Bomanog aggressus 
est, quibus ^ virtutem feriendi ^ ademit. Unde ^ et ipsos 
in urbe eonclusos diu obsedit*^ Nanus ^ nempe ille 
quotidie ante soils occasum^ extra castra egrediens 

artem suam in agro' excercoii® Quo* comperto Eo- 
mani strenuo militi Marco urbis dominium et '® memo- 
riale perpetuum promiserunt, si urbem liberarei At 
ille muro urbis ex ilia parte perforato, qua nanus 
solebat praestigiari," de ^^ nocte ^^ exiens'mane ** expecta- 
bat '* quod et ^^ cuculus avis ^^ denunciabat ^'^ ^® voce 
sua^ Arreptum nanum, quern armis non poterat, manu 
in urbem deportabat; et ne, si fandi copiam haberet, 

^ qui virtHtCy O. ) qui mrtutem^ D. 
^ et artem secandi arte sua penituSf 
added in C.B. 
.3 Dhde'] om* A» 

* Transposed in C J). 
^ Denique magus iSe, C.D. 

* wtum^ Off eeeaaum solis^ A. 
^inaigro] magicam^B. 

* ^e preiions sentence slightly 
altered in CD. 

« Hoc, D, 

>• «0 in, A. 

" prastagiari, B. 

^^ de, ., avis] exspectatoque . . 


" nocteque, C. $ noetey (quid ?) D 

" maneque, CD. 

'* exspeetato, A.O.D. 

•«cq om. CD. 

>' denundavii, C (not D.) 

" noctef added in CD. 




resoun, pere was a dwerf ^ of p$ kjnrede of Mesenis ; Tbeviisa. 

his craft was nigremansi.^ Whan he hadde so conquered 

kynges fat woned hym nyh,s and made hem soget to hym, 
an he wente to Rome to werre wi]> Romayns,^ and wij> 
is craft he byname fe Romays*^ power and mytt for to 
smyte, and so ® byseged hem long tyme i-elosed wifynne "pe 
citee. pis dwerf ^ede^ eche day to fore pe sonne risynge 
in to pQ feld for to doo his craft, Whanne pe Romaynes 
had aspied^ )>at manere doynge of )>at dwerf, pey speke 
to Marcus a noble kny^t, and byhiZt hym lordschippe of 
pe citee and a memoryall^ in mynde for euermore, ^if it 
were his wille to helpe hem and saue^^ pe citee, pan 
Marcus made *^ an hole J)orwe pe wal toward pe place ; 
fere i^ pe dwerf was woned to worche and vse pe sotilte 
of his craft. And Marcus rod oute at fat place forw pe 
wal, longe or it were day, for to abyde his tyme to caccne 
pe dwerf, anon as it were day. And whan it was tyme, pe 
kukkow Bong and wamede hym of pe day. pan Marcus ^ 
resede too, and for^^ i^q my^te nou^t hitte pe dwerf wif 
wepoun, he kau^te hym wif his honde, and bare hym in to 
fe citee. And for drede lest he wolde^^ ^elpe hymself wif^ 

assigne this cause* A . man caUede Nanus, erudite in the MS. Hasl. 
arte of nigromancy, whiche subduenge to hym mony kynges 2261. 
and realmes wente to the Romanes, takenge a weye from 
theyme the vertu of smytenge and kyttenge, segede theyme 
longe schutte with in the cite. This Nanus wente from his 
felowschippe erly in the mornenge afore the rysenge of the 
Sonne, and put his arte in exercise ; whiche thynge percey- 
vede, the Romanes made promise to Marcus, a nowble kny^hte, 
that he scholde haue predominy of the cite, and a per- 
petualle memory if he cowthe delyuer that cite. Marcus 
pereschenge the walle of the cite on that parte where Nanus 
vsede the arte of nigromancye goenge furthe on the ny^hte 
taryede for Nanus yntylle the morowe, whom a brydde 
callede a cuckowe schewede by here voyce ; whiche takenge 
hym brou^hte hym in to the cite, whiche Mlenge down amonge 

' dwarf, Cx. 

^ nigromancy, a. ; nygromaneiei Ox. 

^ dtoeUyd nygk him, Cx. ■ 

* the Momojfns, a., Cx. 
^ Biomayns, a,, Cx. 

* sd\ om. Cx. 
' wente, Cx. 

® espied, Cx. 

^ memory aU, M^.; memorial, Cx.; 
a agrees apparently with MS. 

^^ mfhe woMedtfende hem andsaue^ 

» So Cx. ; at, MS. 

i!* Probably we should read 
where. Cx. has large omissions 

»» Marhus, MS. 

" hycause, Cx. 

« shMe, Cx. 



arte sua se forsaa' Uberaret, statim sub pedibus equi 
sui® contrivit; uade et' tale memoriale promeruit.* 
Qui vero Quintum Curtium illud vocant hoc assiguant, 
qudd hiatus quidam in media urbe^ patuit sulphurea 
exhaiatione multos peiimens ; in quern, responso Phoebi^ 
accepto, Quintus Curtius, ut urbem ' liberaret, armatus 
se dejecit; et statim cuculus avis^ de hiatu illo^ 
exivit, et terra se eonclusit Aliud signum est '^ imago 
Colossei quam statuam SoKs aut ipsius " Eomse dicunt, 
de quo mirandum est quomodo tanta moles fundi ^^ 
potuit aut erigi, cum lougitudo ejus sit centum viginti 
sex pedum. Fuit itaque^® hsec statua aliquando** in 
insula Rhodi ^^ quindecim pedibus altior eminentioribus 
locis Bomss. Hsec statua sphsaram ^® in '^ specie mundi 
'®manu dextra, et gladium sub specie virtutis bellicse 
'®manu sinistra gerebat, in signum quod minoris vir- 

^/orsUanf B.; si forsan, A. 

* sui] om. CD, 
» eQ om. CD. 

* meruit, CD. 

^ So B. ; m iir5e,0*B. ; urbe omitted 

^ plehem, C (not D.) 
" cuculus avis'] biatus in B., filled 
up in pencil by a modem hand. 
' de hiatu itto] om. CD. 

** esq cm. B. 
" ipsius'] ipsi, B. 
»* infundi, C (notD.) 
^* itaque] SoB. ; o/igtcancfoyCD. ; 
^* aUquando] om. CD. 
" Haredii, B.; Herodii, A,CDJB. 
>0 speram, MSS. 
" sub, CD. 
^* inmanUf B.GJ). (twice.> 


his craft, and he moste ^ speke, he threw hym vndir his ^ Tbbvi&a. 

hors feet, and p& hors all to trade hym. And herefore fat 

image was i-made in mynde * of J>is dede. pey fat clepef 
fat signe an 4 ymage Quintus Curtius, tellef f is skille and 
resoun: pere was somtyme in fe myddel of Eome a greet 
chene * in fe erf e ; out of fat chene ^ come smoke ^ and 
brymston, and slow ® many man.^ panne Quintus Curtius 
took counseil of Phebus, and armed hym, and auntrede hym 
hym in to fe chene ;^ fanne anon fleigh a cukkow out of 
fati^ chene.^ pan fe erfe closed to gidres, and so fe 
chene® was i-stopped. Anofer signe is Colossus ^^ ymage, fat 
is i«>cleped also f e ymage of f e Sonne, ofer of Rome, pere 
is grete wonder how it my^te be i-iote^2 ofer arered, fe 
ymage is so grete* pe lengf ferof is sixe score foot and sixe. 
pis ymage was somtyme in fe ylond Rhodus,i^ fiftene foot 
hi^ere fan fe hi^est place of ^* Borne* pis ymage bare in his 
riit hond a spere ^^ al round i-schape as f e world, and in 
his lift hand a swerd fat tokenef ^® my^t of bataille ; in 

the feete of the horses supposede to have delyuerede hym MS. Hahl 

by his arte ; wherefore Marcus hade that memorialle. Men ^^^* 

that calle hit Quintus Curtius 17 assigne this reason, seyenge ^~" 

that there was a place open in the myddes of the cite 

pereschenge mony men as with a brethe of sulphure, an 

answere ^iffen to the peple that hit wolde not be schutte 

vn tylle that a man felle in to hit voluntarily. Then Quintus 

Curtius ^7 armenge hym felle in to hit to delyuer the cite 5 

that doen, a cul^o did flye owte from that pytte, and the 

erthe was closed anoon. An other signe is an ymage of 

Colossus,!^ whom they seye to be the ymage of the sonne 

or elles of the cite of Bome^ of whom hit is to be meruaylede 

how that so hevy a thynge my^hte be soe erecte, sythe hit 

is in longitude of c. foote and xxvi'^ ; whiche ymage was 

somme tyme in the yle of Bhodus,^^ whiche was more hie 

in altitude by xv. foote then eny place of the cite. That 

ymage hade in the ry^hte honde of hit a rownde thynge 

after the similitude of f e worlde, and a swerde in the signe 

of batelle in the lifte honde, in token that hit is lessef.40.a. 

' i(fhe myghty Cx. " K «. 

2 tfte, Cx. li CoHoseus, MSS. and Cx. 

« remembraunce, Cx. 12 yofc«, Cx. 

* and, a., Cx. 13 fferodius, MSS. and Cx. 

* chjifte or hoole, Cx, 

* hool, Cx., and so beloir. 
^ smookf Cx. 

" slewey Cx. 
^ men, a. 

" in, Cx. 

« So the MSS. andCx.for^A«rc. 

'* bytokenethy Cx. 

*^ CursiuSf Harl. MS. (twice.) 



tutis est qua^rere quam quaasita turn. Haac quidem^ 
statua 90rea^ sed impariali auro deaurata^ per tenebras 
radiabat continuo^^ et (Bquali motu cum solo circum- 
ferebatur, semper solari corpori^ feciem gereiis oppo- 
sitam, quam^ cuncti Bomani adveMentes ^ in signum 
subjectionis adorabant. Hanc • Beatus Gregoritis/ ctim 
viribus non posset, igne supposito destruxit;* ex quo 
aolummodo caput oum manu dextra spheeram tenente 
incendio superftiit, quae nunc^ ante palatium domini 
PapsB super *^ duas columnas marmoreas visuntur.^^ 
Miro^^ quoque modo ars ftisilis adhuo in aere rigido 
moUes mentitur capillos, et os loquenti^^ fiimillimum 
pisafert.** Po2., Uhro secuTido}^ Ad venustanidam 
urbis^' majestatem moliebrem formam, qua3 orbem 
dextra*'' contineret, in sens materia fieri fecerant;*^ 
qua perfecta quidam solas tibias tantas moU perfe- 
rendae insufficientes sunt ^^ causati^ quiblis faber statusB 

' qmdem] om. CD. 

3 sperm, & (not D.) 

*hanc, C.B. 

^ v'enientes flexis genihm adora^ 

hantf CJ>. 
^pastmodtan, added in CD. 
' Papa^ added in CD. 
^ combwsit, C J>* 
^ etiam nunc, D. 
w int/er, C (not D.) 
^^ vinciuatur, B. 
12 Miroque, A»O.P* 

" loquentis, C. (not D.) 

•♦ profsrt, bj>. 

'* So A. ; PKniuSy Ubr0 sec., E. ; 
i\>f{.,/i5rol^B. The trae refetence 
is to Johan. Saresb. Po^^amt lib. ii. 
c. 15. Be&rence omitted in CD. 

"or&w, C (not D.) 

" dextra orhem, B^ 

■^The previous clause slightly 
altered and transposed in C J). 

^^insufficientes caustibant, gtHbus 
faber respondit, CD. 



tokeynge ^ ]iat fin ^ is lasse maiBtrie, to wjnne and to con- Tbevisa. 
quere, fan it is to kepe and to saue J>at fat is conquered "^^ 
and i-wonne* pis ymage was of bras; but it was eo 
rialliche ouer gilt, pat it scboon^ in derknes^ and taf 
grete bemes of ^ li^t ; also it moned ^ aboute wif ]>e itotine 
in suche a manere fat alway bis face was toward f e sonne. 
Alio fe Romaynes fat come fereby worschipped fat 
ymage in wey^ of subieccioun and of fraldom. Seynt 
Gregorie destroyed fat ymage wif fuyre, for he my^te 
noui^t destroye it wif strengfe. Of fat ymage is onlicbe 
i-leffc f e hede and the ri^t bond boldynge f e spere, 
fat is f e roundenesse and f e liknesse of f e world ; for of al 
fat ymage lefte ^ namore vnbrend. But ® fat hede and fat 
bond beef now to fore fe popes palays vppon fe^ tweie 
pilers of marbll ; and wonderliche by craft of ^etynge ^^ fat 
bras is i-^ote, fat fe beer semeT> nescbei^ to a manis si^t, 
and fe mouf as fey it were spekynge. Po/tcr.,** libro 
secundo. For to hi^te f e noblete of f e ^^ citee f e Bomaynes 
made a wommans ymage in bras ; fat ymage helde in his i^ 
bond a spere f e schap ^^ of f e world wyde. And whan f e 
ymage was made^ hem semede fat f e legges were to feble 
for to here suche an ymage ; it was so grete and so huge. 

vertu to gete then to kepe thynges y-geten. That ymage MS. Harl. 
was made of brasse, but hit was ouer gilte with golde impe- 226U 
rialle, schynenge contynuaUy in derkenesse, movenge egally — ~* 
with the son in his circumference, hade the face of hit con- 
trarious alleweyes to the body of the sonne ; whom aUe 
Romanes worschippede in a signe of subieccion, whom Seynte 
Gregory destroyede with fyre ; of whiohe ymage the hede and 
ry^hte honde remaynede, whiche be sette now afore the palice 
off the pope on ij. pyllers of marbole. Policronicofi, libra 2^, 
The Romanes made an ymage of a woman, to make feire 
the maieste of the cite,. in brasse ; whiche performede, mony i 

men seyde the legges of that ymage to be insufficiente to 
here suche a burden. To whom the smythe that made hit 

> token, a.f Cx. 
2 hit, a., Ox. 
' shone, Cz. 

* of] Added from a. and Cx. 
^ meoitede, a, ; meued^ Cx« 
® tokene, a., Cx. 

' is, or rather was, miut be inserted 
before kfte, 
^ But^ om. o., Cx. 

• f>e] om. a. 
'^ milting, Cx. 

" softe, Cx. 

1« Poliei^., «. 

" this, Cx, 

^* hir, Cx. ; but perhaps bia own 

»s So «. and Cx. j scharpest, MS. 
(not understanding spere). 


respondit eas^ usque quaque sufficere'-^ donee virgo*^ 
pareret. Quod et fadjum est in Christi nativitate.^ 
Qregoriu8.^ Juxta palatium Vespasiani, ubi sus® alba 
de Pario lapide cum triginta porceUis aquam abluendis 
prsBbet, esf tabula senea peccatum prohibens, ubi 
scripta sunt potiora legis praecepta ; et scribuntur ^ ibi 
quasi aphorismi metrici, quorum ® sententiae supple- 
mentum pene subintelligitur. Versus : *^ 

Gallus ibi quanquam " per noetem tinnipet omnem, 
Sed sua vox nulli ^^ jure ^^ placere potest. 

Dulce pelora sonat^ quam dicunt nomine troscam/* 
Sed fugiente die ilia quieta manet. 

Et merulus ^^ modulans tarn pulcbris zinzitat ^^ odis, 
Nocte ruente timet, cantica nulla canit. 

Vjere calente novo componit acredula cantus, 
Matutinali tempore ruricolans. 

» mas, CD. 
^ sufficeresy'E, 
^ virgo] om. B. 

* nam tunc corruit^ added in C.t>. 
^ Gregcrius] om. B. 

* versus albam, C, (not D.) 
' iW, C. (not D.) 

^ Scribuntur etianif C. ; scribuntur 
autem, D. 

* omnia /ere verba subinteUigun' 
tur, CD. 

" Versus'] om.B. 

" So B. ; quemquam^ A.C.I>.£. 
and Trevisa. 

»2 affi, C. (not D.) 
" virOf B. 

" guodam, C. (not D.) 
" moruUs, B. 

" indtat, B. ; zinzaht is perhaps 
the true reading. See Dn Cange. 


Bot |>e craftes men, fat it made, answered and seide : pe Trevisa. 
legges schal dure alway, and bere f e ymage at fe beste, — ■ 
and neuere faille, for to! a mayde bere a childe. But fe 
legges faillede, and ye ymage fel ^ down, whan Crist was 
i-bore. Faste by V espasianus his paleys is a stone fat 
hatte Parius, [and is why^te marbil ; and hatte Parius] ^ for 
suche a stoon is i*digged in fe ilond fat hatte Pares, In 
fat^ stoou is i-corue a^ white sowe wif fritty pigges, fat 
fyndef * water to hem fat wol wasche.'^ pere is also a 
table of bras fat forbedef synne ; f erynne beef i-write f e 
chief poyntes of fe lawe ; fere beef i-write as fere were 
rules in metre. p6 menynge ferof is vnderstonde in fis 
writynge, fat folwef next : 

Euerich ny^t, fere® a cok 
Wakef som man, or it dawe; 
All his song in a flok 
May like no man by f e lawe. 

Whan somer^ is hote 

prosteP<> syngef wif mery note. 

Whan f e day gof away, 

pe brid" is stille, and leuef his lay. 

In towne, as it longes, 

pe osul twyteref mery songes. 

At ny^t for drede 

Truly no song dof he grede. 

Whan floures^^ springef on rote, 
pe ny^tyngaJe in his note 
Twyteref wel fawnyng 
Wif fuU swete song in f e dawenyng. 

^afe answere and seyde, that the ymage scholde stonde MS. Habl. 
tylle that a mayde scholde be delyuerede of a childe, whiche ^^^^* 
felle down in the natiuite of Criste. Nye to the place and """ 
palyce of Vespasian, where a whyte sowe made of ston with 
xxx^ pygges ^iffe the water to thynges to be waschen, is 
a table of brasse prohibetenge synne, where the mythty 
preceptes of the lawe bene wryten. 

3 Words in brackets added fix>m 
a. ; absent fi^m Cx,, who has other 

* pat"] Added fiom a. and Ox. 

s So a. and Cx. ; i eomere white, MB. 

« giue, Cx. 

' Cx. adds Aere. 

® where, Cx. 

' So cu ; somBf MS. 

" the throstle, Cx. 

" birde, Cx. 

^^flmre, Cx. 



Cum tardus* tritulat/ sturnus tunc pausitat ore; 
Sed^ quod* mane cammt vespere non recolunt 

Cap. XXV. 

De qmbvsda/m Moinaruyrum^ institutis. 

Iddarua, libro octavo deoimo, eapitulo de tri^ 
umphisy^ et Hugutio, eapitulo Trie? Venienti ® duci, 
regi, consul!, sive imperatori post insignem victoriam 
ad urbem Romam ^ triumplius parabatur, id est, honor 
triplex triumphanti ** exhibebatiir. Nam totus popu- 
lus cum exultatione varia exibat" obviam victori, 
Captivi quoque ^^ sequebantur currum ejus '^ ligatis 
post terga manibus, et ipse victor induebatur tunica 
Jovis in ^* curru sedens, quern trahebant quatuor equi 
albi usque *^ ad Capitolium: unde Ovidius: 

Quatuor in niveis, Caesar, abibis*** equis. 

Hanc tamen ferebat ^^' *® molestiam sic honoratus, ne *® 
sui ipsius obliyisceretur, quia cum eo ponebatur servus 

' Hmidus tmctdat, B. 
* tUnlat, 0. ; tniiilat^ B. 

» Ety CB. 

^ qua^ B. ; %, A. 

^ obaervantHs et, added in C. ; oh- 
s^fvantiis in plaee of institutiSfiy, 

" capituh de triumphis] om. B. 

' de tris, CB. The title of Ha- 
gatio's section is tres vel tiis. 

® Venienti] om. C.B. 

^ redeunti, added in C J)« 

^^ iriumphantl} am* CB. 

" exibant, C. 

« etiam, C.B. 

" tdctaris, C J). 

"««] oni, B. 

^^ et aie ditcebatwr ad^ CJ)« 

>« ahihii, C. % abihqi^ 9, The tme 
veading 1« mreu» Um, (Ovid. 1 ^m. 

^^ patiebatur^ C.B, 

" flimc . . .ferebat'] Attpmen mo- 
' lestia, B. 

^ nofR aliquit BvmUU oimdkionis 
uden9 in curru jugiter eoktphixftbat 
trtumphantem^ sic di^ens, ffodiUfgeH' 
ft», ^c,y C.B, 



J>ral maki]> his fare, 

Wip mouth fan cheterej> ' }>e stare. 

Of morwe song kynde 

pey haueth at eue no mynde. 

Capitulum vieesimum quintum, 
De guibusdam JRomanorum institutis et obseruaniiis. 

IsidoruSy Et^m., libro octavo decimOy cap, de triumphiSy et 
HugutiOy cap. Tris, Whan duke, kyng, consul, ojier empe- 
rour hadde i-doo greet viage^ and victorie, and come into 
Rome, at his comynge he schulde wif 3j,re manere wor- 
achippe be vuderfonge."^ Al ]»e peple schulde come a^enst 
hym wi]> all J)e solempne ^ merfe, comforte, and ioye fat fey 
koufe make; alle fe prisoneres schulde folwe fe^ chaar 
wif hire hondes i-bounde byhynde her bakkes ; f is victor 
hym self schulde were on lupiter his cote and sitte in ^ a 
chaar fat fyue white hora schulde drawe anon to^ fe 
Capitol, perof spekef Ouidius : 

Wif foure hors all snowe white 
pou nchalt, sire Emperour, w^nde. 

Xit among all fis worschippe, for h^ schulde not fbr^ete 
hym self, fis onnuy ^ he hadde : a ch^rle was wif hym in 


Of somme institutes and obseruaunces of the Romanes, MS. Hahl. 
Isidarusy Et^mologiarufn libro octavo deeimo, eapitulo 2261. 

Triumphusy et HugutiQ^ capitulo Tri$. Capitulum 

vteesimum quintum. 

A triplicate bonc»r was ^iffen to a kynge^ duke^ consul, 
or 'emperoure hauenge victory, in his commenge to the 
cite of Borne ; for the peple wente fiirthe to mete the 
victor with variable gladdenesse, the charyette of whom men 
putto in captiuite folowede, theire hondes bownde behynde 
the backes of theyme. Also the victor was indueda with the 
coote of lupiter, syttenge in a charyette whom ii^, white 
horses didde draw@ to fe Capitoly.^^^ A victor tbas bade in 
honor 9uffi:odo m of er grevaunce, fat b$ sebold^ not forgeta 
bym «olff , m iijo cbsryetto of whom a noniaTOto of Tile con- 

• tmtOy Cx, 

* So MS. and a. $ this one annoy ^ 

^^io be Capitofy, added in the 
margin, apparently by the original 

* ckitertih, Cx 

^ don (my grete voyam^ Cx. 

* re before >re in IdfS. (not a.) 

* teceymd, Gx» 
^ soUnmUi vk, 

« hisy Cx. 
' <m, a., Cx» 



in eodem curru, qui jugiter colaphizaret triumphan- 
tem; et hoc duplici de causa, ne scilicet triumphans 
nimis * ex tali gloria superbiret, et etiam * ut daretur 
spes cuique^ probo pervexdendi ad consimilem hono- 
rem, si probitas sua hoc promereretur. Colaphizans 
vero s8Bpius dicebat triumphanti '^Tvwii o-gawToV,"* 
id est, Tiosce teipsv/m,, quasi diceret, ** Noli superbire 
" de tanto honore/^* Et eo^ die licuit' unicuique de 
populo dicere victori® impune quicquid vellet. XJnde 

et Julio ^ triumphanti multse dicebantur contumeliae,*® 
nulla tamen ^^ ultione subsequente. Nam a quodam 
dicebatur, *' Salve, calve f et ab alio, " Ave, Kex et 
" Regina/* Ranulpkus. Vide infra de Julio Caesare. In 
vita Joha/mds Eleemoayna/n/iP Quando imperatores co- 
ronabantur, venerunt ad eos ssdificatores monumentorum, 
inquirentes ^^ de quali metallo " seu lapide Caesar vellet 
suum moniunentum" fieri, quasi diceret, ^' Corruptibilis es, 
*^ pie regnum dispone/' jffitgftt*io, copituio CTartts. Quan- 
do Eomani bellum ^^ indicere volebant, accedebat aliquis 

^ mmis d&eT gloria, B* 

^ etiam'] om. B« 

^ cuieumque, B.£. 

^ ^othissUitoSi A.; Nothiselites, B. ; 
No^isselitoSfCS),; NiehoeselUoSy'E, 

^ C,D,iikjis: Hoc autem duplici fie- 
bat de causa f ne videlicet triumphane 
sui ipsiits chlimsceretur, et ut daretur 
spes cuicumque proho simikm hono- 
rem consequeftdi. 

' licuit after populOy'B, 
® triumphanti, CD. 

^ CdBsari aliguotiens sic^ added in 

'^ multa dicehantvsr conviHa, CD. 

^^ absque vUa, CD. 

^^ 1^ • . . JElemo8i9iari{\ om. CD. 
which have, in place of it, Valerius. 
The text is ooirect. See Jac de 
Vora^. Leg, Auk c. 27. (p. 130. ed. 
Lips. Id50.) 

^* dicentes, C 

^* seu marmore jubet vestra domr 
natio monumentum fieri, CD. 

" cuiquam provincuB, CD. 


his chare^ and smote hym all wey in fe nekke ; and J>at Trbvisa. 
for tweye skiUes ; J?at oon was, for he schulde nou^t be — — 
pronde of ]>at gi*eet worschippe ; fat oJ>er skile was, for 
euerich man schulde hope to come to pat worschippe, ^if 
he made hym self worfy by his dedes. While pe cherle 
smoot ]>6 victor, he schulde ofte seie to hym in fis manere: 
Nothisselitos,^ ^at is to menynge, Knotve \yselfi as who 
8ei]|», Be nou^t to proude of J^is worschippe. And also ]>at 
day euerich man hadde leue to seie to pe victor what 
euere he wolde, and no blame schulde take.^ And so 
were meny dispitous worde^ i-seide to lulius Cesar [and he 
took ]>6rof no maner wreche. On seide to lulius Cesar V at 
suche^ alyme: ",'Salue, calue;" ])at is, "jETmY, ballardr&ad 
anoper seide : " Heile, kyng and queue." B. Loke wij ynne 
lulius Cesar« In vita lohannis EleemostfnariL Whan ]>e 
emperoures of Bome were i-crowned, come ^ to hem craftes 
men J^at made tombes, and axed^ of hem of what manere 
stoon oj^er metal ]>ey schulde make her tombes ; as who 
seip, "pow schalt deye;^ goueme myldeliche ]>y peple." 
HuguUoy capiu Clarus, When "pe Bomaynes wolde worry in 
eny lond, schulde oon goo to pe endes of j^at lond and clere- 

dicion was putte, whiche scholde bobbe besily the victor, MS. Habl. 

and that for two causes. Oon was, That fe victor scholde ^^^** 

not be ouer prowde of suche glory ; an other was, And also "~^ 

in token that euery man my^hte comme to the same honor 

if his manhode extendede labor to that merite. And the ser-^ 

uaunte bobbenge hym seyde ofte tymes, "Knowe thy selfe;" 

as if he scholde saye, "Be not prowde of this victory.'* In f, 40 b. 

whiche day hyt was lawefulle to euery man and woman 

to saye to pe victor after theire pleasure with owte eny 

peyne. Of somme men hit was salde, "Haile, baUede man;'* 

of somme, "Hayle, kynge." 1^. Beholde in this processe how 

the! seyde to lulius Cesar. In vita lohannis EleemosynariL 

When emperoures were crownede, makers of graves come 

to theyme inquirenge of what metalle he wolde his beriaUe 

to be made, as if he scholde say, "Thow arte corruptible, 

dispose the empire mekely." Sugutio, capit. Clarus, When 

the Bomanes intendede to ^iffe batelle to eny cuntre, oon 

of theyme scholde goe to the costes of theire enmyes and 

^ So MS. and a. $ Noiko solitos, Cz. 
' shoMe he take ikerfore, Gz. 
■ wordeSf Cx. 

^ The irords in brackets added 
from a. and Gz. 


* siche, Cz. 

^ shMe come, Gz. 

' €Lxe, Cx. 

8 deye"] Added from Cx. 



ad fines hostitim et dara voce causas belli exponebat. 
Et talis expositio vocabatur fclarigatio.* Et tunc hasta 
defixa in finibns hostium principium pugnse denunci- 
abat. IsidorvSy libro Twno dedmo, capitulo vicesimo 
se<yumdoJ^ Tempore consulum milites Bomani pridie 
quam pugnarent ^ rosea veste * induebantur, quod * fie- 
bat ad celandum sanguinem,® ne viso sanguine^ corda 
militum® trepidarent Inde et® rosati dicebantur. Ra- 
TmlpTma, Nota *" hie, secundum Papiam et Hugutionem, 
quod Virgilius poeta vocat gentem Komanam togatcmi, 
quia veste toga utebantur. Erat autem triplex toga^ 
videlicet, praetextata, palmata, candidata. Prsetextata 
utebantur filii nobilium usque ad tertium decimum 
setatis annum, et postmodum toga. Secunda toga ute- 
bantur victores. Tertia toga utebantur magistratus in 
re publica.*^ Hugutio, capitulo Fastvs. Dies quibus 
bene contigit Eomanis vocabantur fasti, eo quod fas 
erat" in illis exercere cau^ias et negotia.** Dies vero 
in *^ quibus male contingebat illis ^* vocabantur nefasti^ 
quasi non fasti ;*^ et illos dies maJos colebant,^* non 

^ qucR quidem expositio chrigatio 
dtcebatur, CD. 

® So A.I)., rightly ; lib. nono, B. 
cap, xxi,y S. 

' dimicaturi essent, CD. 

* lieu purpurea, added in CB. 

^ hoc autem, CD. 

^ St forsan vulnareniur, added in 
^ viso sanguinel om. B. 
^ militum}^ om. B.CD. 

» ef] om. A.B.C (notD.) 

^* Ranulphus, Nota ... publico] 


"Transposed, CD. Partly re- 
peated in B. by error of the scribe, 

J* m] om. CD. 

" iUis-] om. A.CD, 

»* quasi nm fasti] cm. CD. 

*^ et celebrabanty added in CD. 


liche declare and schewe J>e matire and cause of the werre, Tkbvisa. 

and fat declaracioun was i-cleped clarigatio.^ panne a spere 

i-pyit in jie ende of J>e londe warned fat f e Bomayns wolde 
werre. Isidorus^ libra nano decimo, cap. vicesimo secundo. 
While consuls rided Rome, f e knyites of Rome schulde were 
rede clones fe day to fore fat fey schulde fiite. pat was 
i-do for fey schulde not knowe and be abashed, whan fey 
say f e reed blood renne on hir clof es ; and suche kny^tes 
were i-cleped Eosati, as it were i-clof ed in roses. ]^. Take 
hede fat ^ Papy seith, Virgil clepef the Romayns togati ; 
fat beef men i«clof ed in govraes. pre manere gownes fey 
vsede and were i-hote, Pretextata,^ Palmata, Candidata. 
pe firste manere gowne, Pretextata, gentil men"* children 
vsede for to fey were ^ fouretene ^ere olde 5 f e secounde 
manere, Palmata, vsede victoris for here noble dedes ; f e 
f ridde manere gowne, Candidata, vsed lordes and maistres « 
of fe lawe. Hugutio^ cap. Foetus* pe dayes fat f e Ro- 
mayns wel spedde heet fasti, fat is, leful^ for it was ^ leful 
to hem f ylk ^ dayes to vse dyuers doynge and dedes, Dayes ^ 
fat f e Romaynes mysspedde were i-hote nefasti, as it were 
nouyt leefulf and [fey] byhelde'^ filke dayes and wroujt 
nou^t filke dayes,** but nou^t for lone and 12 deuocioun, but 

expresse with a clere voice the causes of batelle, and Buche MS. Harl. 
an expression was callede a clarigacion. Then the spere 2261. 

of the messengere defixede in to the erthe schewede a pre- 

nosticacion and as a begynnenge of fi^hte. Isidorus^ libra 
710710 dectTHOy capitula vicesima s€cu7ido. What tyme the 
consules were reignenge in Rome the knythtes of the Ro- 
manes [wente] *^ in clothenge of redde in the day a fore they 
scholde fi^te, that theire hertes scholde not be in fray or 
feere to beholde bloode. Wherefore the Romanes were callede 
Rosati, as 'clothede in redde. HugutiOy capitula JFastus, 
The dayes in whom the Romans hade victory and spedde 
welle were callede fasti, in so moche that hit was lawefulle 
to theyme in those daies to exercise theire causes and 
erneddes. And the dayes in whom hit happede ylle to 
theyme were callede nefasti, in whom thei worschippede 
ylle thynges, not for cause of deuocion or of luffe but 

1 clarigacixm, Cx. 
^ whaty Cx* 

' Pretaxata, MS. and Cx. 
* gentibnenSf Cx. 
^for to were ofxiiij*^ Cx. 
® maystres ruhrsy Cx. 
' Four words preceding wanting 
in MS. 

» So Cx. ; J>af, MS. 

® >af dayes, a. ; the dayesy Cx. 

^^ and iAey Jiedde, Cx. 

^1 \nlke dayes] om. Cx. 

^^ and] ne, Cx. 

'3 This or some similar word is 

Q 2 



causa devotionis et amoris sed timore ^ infortunii. 
HugvMOy capitulo Qumque? Unde et qmnquatria 
dicuntur iUi* quinque atri dies, sive festum illoriun 
dierum quos Romani sustinuerunt * obsessi a Gallis et 
ab Haunibale ; quibus diebus uiillus Bomanus audebat 
egredi urbem.^ Hugiitio, capitulo Glassia. Cum in- 
stituisset Komulus® rem publicam, divisit populum in 
duas partes, majores scilicet' et miaores, et utramque 
partem vocavit classem a quibusdam classicis, id est, 
sonis vel signis, quae® inter se distincta habebant. 
Unde et^ nobiles dicebantur prima classis, in quorum 
honorem instituit mensem Maium,^^ id est, Majorum. 
Inferiores dicebantur secunda classis^ in quorum 
honorem instituit mensem ^^ Junium, quasi Juniorum. 
Postmodum Bomani divisi sunt ^* in quatuor partes, 
in quarum prima *^ erant consules, dictatores^ qui '^ 
summos tenebant " bonores. In secunda classi erant *^ 
tribuni, et qui minores tenebant ^^ dignitates. In 
tertia classe fuerant ^'^ Kberi, in quarta servi. 

' cottsimUsy added in CD. 

* 5, C. The versions have the 
same error. 

» mi\ om. B.D. 

* sustinuerunt Homani, A.B. 

^ ausus fiat, A. ; urbem egredi, 
A.B. The sentence abbreviated and 
clauses transposed in CD. 

^ Transposed in A.CD. 

' scUieet] om. A. 

^per quern, C (not D.) 

^distincta erat (sic.) Nobiles^ 

CD. The readings of A. are blun- 
dered in the four lines following. 

^** Maium . , . mensem] om. CD. 

" dividebantur, CD. 

'^ In prima classe erant, CD. 

" qui] et qui, A'D. 

^* habebant, CD. 

^« erant] om, A.B.CD. 

^^ habebant, C 

" classe fiierant] om. B.CD. ; 
fiterant only omitted in A. 



for drede of euel happes. Hugutioy cap. quinto. pe feste Tkbvisa. 

of filke dayes is i-cleped Quinquatriay fat is, fe fyue 

bl[a]k^ dayes, for fe sorwe and fe^ bitternesse })at fe 
Romayns mysspedde ^ whan fe Frenscbe men and Hanni- 
bal-* byseged hem all aboute. For fan no Romayn dorste 
ones goo out of towne,^ HuguUoy cap. Classis. Whan 
Romulus hadde ordeyned for the comoun profi^t, he departed 
atwynne ^ J>e grete and fe mene, and cleped eifer partie 
Classis/ for certeyne noyse and signes fat fey were by 
departed, fat we[re] i-cleped classica. And so fe gentil^ 
men and noble were i-cleped first f e firste classis. Ixt wor- 
schippe of hem ^ he ordeyned a monthe and cleped hym 
Mains, fat is, f e monf e of f e grete men. pe mene ^^ men 
were i-cleped f e secounde classis, and in worschipe of hem 
he ordeyned a monf e, and cleped hym lunius, fat is, f e 
monf e of ^onge ^^ men. Afterward fe Romaynes were de- 
parted in foure parties. In f e firste partie were consuls and 
doctoures ; in fe secounde classis were tribuni and men of 
lasse dignite ; in f e f ridde were fre men ; and in f e fourf e 

for drede of infortuny. Hugntio^ capitulo quinto. Of whom MS. Habi,. 
quinquatria were namede v. blacke daies, or the feste of 2261. 
those dales in whom the Romanes, besegede of Frenche men 
and of Hanniball,'* susteynede mony thynges, in whiche dayes 
noo Roman hade audacite to go furthe of that cite. Hu- 
gutioy capitulo Classis. When Romulus hade institute the 
commune vtilite he diuidede the peple in to tweyne parties, 
into the moore nowble men and lesse nowble, callenge 
either parte of theyme classis of sowndes and sigies whol. 
thei hade distincte amonge theyme selfe. Wherefore the 
nowble men were callede Prima Classis, the firste companye. 
In the honor of whom he ordeynede the monethe of Maij, Menses 
that is, of grete men. The other inferior parte was callede Maii et 
the secunde companye, in the honor of whom he ordeynede '^^^ ^^" 
the monethe of lunius, that is to saye, of yonger men. After- stituuntur. 
warde the Romanes were diuidede in to iiij. partes. In 
the firste parte of whom were consules and men of grete 
honor. In the secunde parte were tribunes and . men of 
lesse dignite. In the thrydde parte free men ; and in 

* black f Cx.; blake^ a. 
^ J>6] om. a. and Cx. 

' mysspedde] had, Cx. 

* Hanyhal or Hanibal, MSS. and 

^ the toun, Cx. 
® a sondrCf Cx. 

' Cx. has large omissions here. 

^jantil, a. 

® MS. repeats in worschippe after 

'* So a. and Cx. ; mene, MS. 
^* yongere, a. and Cx. 



Hugutio, capitvlo Colon} Consuetum fuit apud Ro- 
manos^ ut in^ quolibet mense nundinas celebrarent^ 
quae inciperent * prima die nonarum et durarent ^ usque 
ad primum diem Iduum. Idus namqne idem est quod 
divisio, quia tunc dividebantur a nundinis ; verum^ quia 
venturi'ad nundinas ignorabant frequenter principia^ 
mensium, ideo semper prima die mensis (quse vpcabatur 
pluraliter kalendse a calo-^las,^ quod est voeare,) ascen- 
debat prseco turrim et tptiens clamabat Galo}^ (id est, 
Voco vos ad nundinas,) quot restabant dies usque ** ad 
inceptionem nundinarum ; ^^ ut, si in quarto die incipe- 
rent nundinse, quater dicebat Galo. Inde est quod 
aliquis mensis in ^^ kalendario habet tantum^* quatuor 
nonas^ aliquis mensis '* sex nonas. Quod ideo fiebat ut 
latrones insidiantes mercatoribus in silvis absconsi ^^ 
nescirent, quando forum inciperet. Hugutio, capitvlo 
Mereor, Milites*'' Romani^^ post sexagesimum setatis*^ 
annum non eogebantur militare, sed dabatur illis^® 

■ cason, B. The text is correct. 
Hugut MS. CamV. Univ, libr. has: 
Colon Grsece: Latine ligntani soon 
after which follows Higden's ex- 

^ Momanisy CD. 

' in] om. CD. ; in qualibet, A. 
Similar errors of gender occur else- 
where, and arc not always recorded. 

* incipiehant, B.C.D. (not A.) 

^ durabant, A.B.O.D. 

« ety CD. ; at, A.B, 

' venientes, B. 

^prmeipium mensis^ A«B.CD«, 
which last have other very slight 
variations, just below. 

^ cab, colas, CD. 
^* Calo, badly repeated in B.CD ; 
calo'las. A., which is worse. 
" usque] om. C 
^^fori, A.B* CD. 

*^ sex nonas habet, CD., omitting 
the rest. 
^^ tantum habet, B. 
13 mensis'] vero, B. 
^^ absconditi, C; latitantes, D. 
"quondam, added in A.B.CD. 
^^ Komani] om. A. 
»* (Btatis] om, A.B.C 
^ tunc eh, C; eis tunc, D. 


were bonde men. Tribunus is he fat fongej)* tribute, and Trevisa. 

pajef kny^tes, and a ledere^ of a l)0wsand kny^tes hatte 

tribunus. HugutiOy cap. Colon, pe Eomayns vsed somtyme 
in eueriche mon]>e to make a faire, and }>e faire bygan fe 
firste day of fe Nonis,^ and durede to fe iirste day of Idus, 
Idus is to menynge ^ delynge and departynge ; for fan f e 
feire was departed. Also for fe begynnynge of the monthe 
was ofte tyme vnknowe of ^ marchaundes and to chapmen, 
ferfore the firste day of fe monfe fat^ hatte Kalende, of 
caloy calaSf 'pat is, to clepe and crie* A cryour schulde 
stonde vppon a itoure, and as meny dayes as were from fat 
day to fe bygynnynge of the feire, he schulde crie, " Calo :" 
f erf ore it is fat som ^ monf e in f e kalendere haf but foure 
Nonas, and som haf sixe. And fat was i-doo, for fefies 
(fat were^ i-hud^in woodes for to aspye chapmen) schulde 
not knowe ^® whan f e faire schulde bygnne. JSugutio, cap. 
Mereor, Som tyme knyttes after fey were sixty wynter ^^ 
olde were no^t compelled forto do deedes of armes ; 
but me *2 ^af hem feldes of er townes of er somwhat 

the iiijt'^e parte seruauntes. Hugutio^ capitulo Calon. The MS. Habl* 

Romanes vsede to have feires in euery monethe whiche 2261. 

began in the firste day of Nones durenge vn to the firste 

day of the Idus. Idus is nou^te elles but a diuision 5 for 

then men were diuidede from the feires. And for cause 

men commenge to the feires were ignoraunte ofte tymes 

of the begynnenge of the monethe, therfore a bydelle, or 

the crier of the cite ascendede in to a towre in to the 

markethe, and seyde so mony tymes, " Calo, calo," (that is to 

seye, " y calle yow to the feires,") as were dayes vn to the 

begynnenge of hit ; as and if the feires scholde begynne in 

the liiy^^ day, he scholde saye iiij. tymes calo. Therefore 

hit is that somme monethe in the calendary Jiathe iiij. nones 

oonly ; somme monethe vj., whiche was ordeynede for this 

cause that thefes ^iffenge wacches to marchauntes lyenge 

priuely in woodes scholde not knowe when the feires scholde 

begjmne. Httgutio^ capitulo Mereor, Somme tyme knyihtes 

in Eome were not constreynede to exercise the actes of 

cheuallery after the age of Ix. yere ; but lyvelode was ^iffen 

^fangethy a. ; receyueth, Cx.» as 

2 Cx. adds, or capitaiti, 

3 Nonas, te. 

*i8as mocke to saye as^ Cx. 
> i», a., Cx.; the latter oniits of the 
monihe, just above. 

« j>et, Cx. 

^ iU'SomTnef Cx. (typ. error.) 

^ So a. and Cx.; we, MS. 

° hidde, Cx. 

^<^ i-kmowe, MS. (not Cx.) 

" yere, Cx. 

** men, Cx. 



villa vel ager vel aliquid ^ de re publica unde viverent; 
et tunc vocabatur miles emeritus,^ vel emeritae mili- 
tiae,^ quasi positus extra meritum militi».^* Ra/fmU 
phus? Inde quaBdam tabema trans Tiberim vocabatur'^ 
Emeritoria, quia ibi milites emeriti* symbola sua 
expendebant.® Hugutio,^^ capitulo Nea}^ Consuetum 
fuit apud Eomauos^^ at usque ad horam nonam cives 
de commodo rei publicae traetarent,^* nee alteri delec- 
tationi vacarent ; unde et meretrices Bromanae voca- 
bantur nonariaB, quia ante horam nonam non liciiit eis 
egredi prostibula sua, ne forte** impedirent juvenes ab 
utilitate rei publicaB. Hugutio, capitulo NepaJ^ Olim 
pueri Bomani non tradebantur patribus propriis ad 
erudiendum seu nutriendum, quia praesumebatur quod 
prae nimia aflfectione eos non verberarent ;*^ nee etiam 
tradebantur magistris omnino ignotis,*® eo quod extra- 

1 qmppiam, added in CD, 

^ dicebantur mUttes emeriH, CD. 

3 vd emeriUB militioi} om. C.D. 

* Transposed in A.B.C.D. 

^ quia nil postea ex militia mere' 
bantur, added in C J). 

^ Bandphus] om. C. (not D.) 

' dicebatury A.; videtur did, D, 

^ emeriti] om. B. 

" So A.B. ; transposed in £. ; 
slightly altered in CD. 

" Hugutio . . . Nepa] om. C. (not 

" Stea, A.B.5 Sta, D. The text 
is correct Hngutio's section be* 
gins: iVea GrcEci dicunt novem; 

soon after which follows Higden's 

>^ apud Homanos] om. A.B. 

^^ disputarent, A.B. ; iractare et 
disputare, B. (omitting ut\ which 
proceeds thns: nee licebat quenquam 
ante ilktm horam deleclationibus va* 
care ; tmde et, &c. 

'^^foreauy D. 

^ dUectione nottentfilios verberare, 
CD. (with other very slight altera- 
tions.) The readings of CD. agree 
more nearly with Hugutio's text 
(cap. Nepa), 

^* omnino extraneis ma^tris^ C J). ; 
extraneis, A.B. 



elles of ' pe comyn tresorie, wherby pei schulde leue. And Tkbvisa. 

J)aii suche a kny^t was i-cleped Emeritus (oper Emeryte) 

militief as it were a kny^t i-sett out of l>e myddel 2 
dedes of chyualrie. ]^. perfore Achanarii^ J?at is by- 
Jonde Tyber beet Emeritoria ; for ^ knyjtes spended ^ "pare 
what fey badde rafer ^ i-gadered and i-wonne. Hugutio^ cap. 
SitaJ Hit was vsage in Borne J>at pe citezeyns schulde 
doo nou^t® elles to fore none but despute of J>e comyn 
profit : ^ perfore comyn wommen of Rome were i-cleped 
Nonarie, for |?ey schulde nou^t to fore none goon oute of ^^ 
here comoun place, leste J>ey schulde lette ^onge men from 
the comyn profi^te. HugutiOy cap. Nepa» Somtyme in 
Rome fader and moder schulde nou^t norische and teche 
hire owne children ; for me supposed " J)at he 12 wolde be 
to tendre of hem ^^ and nou^t chast ^^ hem and bete hem to 
sore.^* [Neyther maystres that were al straunge and out of 
the kynne shold teche childeren of Rome, lest they wold 

to thejine, or somme goodes of thynges commune whereby MS. Harl. 
thei myihte lyffe, and then the kny^hte was callede Emeritus, 2261. 

as putte with owte the merite of cheualleiy. !1^, Wherefore 

a tauerne ouer Tiber was callede Emeritoria, where kny^htes 
put with owte merite of cheuallery spende theire goodes. 
HuguMoy capitulo Scea. Also a consuetude was amonge 
Romanes that the citesynnes scholde dispute of the commune 
profette vn tylle none ; and not attende to eny other delecta- 
cion. Wherefore the harlottes at Rome were callede nona^ 
ricB^ for hit was not lawefuUe to theyme to passe theire places, 
leste they scholde lette yonge men from the commune vtilite. 
HuguHoy capitulo Nepa. Somme tyme children in Rome 
were not taken to theire faders to lerne or to be noryschede, 
for hit was presumede that the faders wolde not chastise 
theire children for the grete luffe that they wolde schewe 
to theyme ; neither thei wyUede not their children to be 
taken to maistres that were not of theire kynrede, for a 

1 o/] So a. and Cx. ; /or, MS. 
' mmfuly a.$ nedeful, Cx, 

* Anatarij, Cx. 
*for isuehe, Cx. 
^ spende, a. 

« to fore gotten, Cx. 
' litay Cx. 

* not, Cx. 

^ profiytf a, 
**o/] to, Cx. 

^^Jbr it was supposed, Cx. 

»2 ik^, Cx. 

" of keni] om. Cx. 

" chastyse, Cx. (omittiHg hem,) 

^* to sore] om. Cx» 



neus parum curat de extraneo** Sed tradebantur pa- 
truis,^ qui non nimis propinqui nee nimis remoti erant.*^ 
Hugutio, capitulo Proles, Erant in urbe proletarii, qui 
causa gignendse prolis* semper in urbe morabantur, 
nee exire ad anna cogebantur.^ Rarmlphus. Tempore 
tamen Hannibalis cogebantur tales exire ad arma 
propter militum penuriam,^ Valerius^ libra 8ecundo7 
Ab urbe condita usque ad centesimum sexagesimum 
annum divortium nullum® inter conjuges fuerat.^ 
Primus tamen Carbilius Spurius '^ uxorem suam*' dun- 
taxat ^^ causa sterilitatis dimisit ; qui, quamvis ratione 
motus videretur, reprehensione tamen non caruit, quia 
cupiditatem liberorum fidei conjugali prsBposuii Isir- 
dorubs^^ libra sexto. Quamvis Graeci primum cum stylis 
ferreis in cera scripserunt, Bomani tamen statuerunt^^ 
ut nuUus stylo ferreo sed tantum^^ osseo scriberet. 
Poi./® libra seeundo. Siquis^' ab initio urbis*® con- 

1 quia extranet parum curant de 
extraneisy CD. 

^ CD. add et avunculis. 

«Slightly altered in CD. For 
non A. has nee* 

* gignendorum liberorum^ C.B. 

* Transposed in A,B.C.D. 

® coacti suant ad bellum exire, CD. ; 
coacti sunt exire propter penuriam 
militum, A.B. 

"^ prvmo, B, ; quarto, D. The text 
is correct SeeVaL Max*, Ub. ii. 

c. 1. § 4. 

^ nullum divortium, B. 

^fuit, A. ; virum et mrdieremfuit, 
C.D. (with other very slight al- 

'^ autem Spurius CarbUius, CD., 
more correctly. 

'^ suam'] om, AJB. 

" dumtaxaf] om. CJD, (with slight 
alterations just aiterwards) ; trans> 
posed in A.B. 

" Etymohgia, added in CD, 

" interdixerunt, CD, (with slight 
alterations just before.) 

^^ tantum\ om. CD. 

>« So A.B.; Plinius, CD. ; Vale- 
rius, E. The true re&rence is to 
Johan, Sarisb, Polycrat,, lib. il. c. 

»» Si qui, CD. 

^^ urbis totam, A. 



recche to lytel of the childeren, and bete hem to sore].^ Tbevisa. 

perfore maistres schulde teche pe children of Rome pat 

were nou^t to ny^, oper 2 to fer of hire own kin, Hugutio, 
cap. Proks. pere were som tyme men ^ in Rome pat serued 
of nou^t elles but for to gete^ children and dwelled all 
wey in pe citee, and were no^t compelled to doo dedes 
of armes. And suche men were i-cleped proletarii, J>at is 
geteris* of children. !l^7 Neuerpeles in Hannibals tyme 
pey were i-constreyned for to goo out of ^ skarsnesse of 
kny^tes. Valerie, libro secundo^ An hundred ^ere and 
sixti after pat pe citee was i-buld was no deuors i-made 
bytwene a man and his wyf. Neuerpeles Carbiiius, a 
bastard, was pe firste pat lifte^ his wif, onliche for pe 
womman was bareyne. pei he eemed i-meued of resoun, ^it 
he was nou^t al blameles : for he pntte couetise of children 
to fore pe fey ^^ of wedlock. Isidorusy libro sexto, pey pe 
Grees write first yn wex wip poynteles of yren, the Ro- 
mayns ordeyned pat no man schulde write wip poynteles 
of yren but wip poyntels of boon. PoL, libro secundo. 
Who pat wil*^ loke bookes of stories among all men pat 

straungeour ^iffe the litelle attendaunce of an other straun- MS. Harl. 
geour ; but thei were of theire kynne, as vndes to theyme, 226I. 
whiche were not ouer nye to theyme neiper ouer ferre 
from theyme. Hugutto, capitulo Proles» There were men 
in the cite of Rome whiche tajyede in the cite for multi- 
plicacion of childer, and were not coacte to goe furthe to 
batelles. ^. Neuerthelesse they were coacte in the tyme of 
Hannibal for pennury of knyjhtes. Valerius^ libro secundo. 
From the cite made unto clx. yere folowenge was movede 
noo diuorce. The firste man. induceuge hit was callede 
Carbilius,*^ a bastarde, whiche departede from his wife be 
cause that sche hade not childer, whiche hade schame and 
reprove ynowe for hit, whiche sette before the lufFe of 
childre to the luffe of matrimony, IsidoruSy libro sexto. 
Thau^he the Grekes did wryte ffirste in wexes with poyntelles, 
neuerthelesse the Romanes ordeynede that noo man scholde 
wryte with an instrument of ime, but made of boon. Poli- 
cronicon^^ libro secundo. If a man reuolve in his mynde 

f. 41 b. 

' The sentence in brackets added 
from Cx., whose orthography is 
retained. It is omitted in a. 

^ men\ om. Cx. 

^ So a. and Ox. ; geleny MS. 

^ dwelfydy Cx. 

* geters, o., Cx. 

'S^] Added £roin Ox. 

^for, a, 

® lefte, a., Ox. 

^^ filthy Cx. 

** wofe, a. 

J2 ScarbUius, HarL MS. 

*3 So written at length in Harl. 
MS., for Pdycratwon ; the same 
concision occnrs in the title of Hig- 
den's work. 


ditsB totam revolvat historiam, inveniet ^ Romanes prse 
csBteris gentibus ambitione et avaritia laborasse, sedi- 
tionibus et plagis totum orbem concussisse,^ in tantnm 
ut vix quisquam principum suorum ad exitum vitse 
natura ducente pervenerit.® PrsBterea Eomanus omnis 
aut adulatione corrumpit aut corrumpitur,* Certe si 
non verbis possunt ^ tamen fraudulentis muneribus ex- 
pugnari, et quos® munuscnla non dejiciunt bonoribus 
certe captivantnr. ''Pol., Hhro qv/into, capitvZo v/nde- 
ci/mo. Italiae urbes, dum paoem diligunt, justitiam 
colunt^ et a pequriis abstinent^ gaudio * perfruuntur ; 
cum vero prolabimtur ad fraudes et scbismata> statim 
vel fastum Romanorum* vel furorem Teutonicorum ^° 
aliudve Domini flagellum persentinnt, donee per poeni- 
tentiam conterantur. Merita namque ^' populi illius 
aut ^^ evacuant omnem principatum, aut principem 
faciunt mitiorem. 

1 inveniet alter laborasse, B. ; be- 
fore it, A.D. 

^ convixissBf B. 

' So AJ5. ; pervemt, E. ; slightly 
transposed in C. 

* Verbs transposed in CJD. 

^ possint, B. ; tamen omitted in A. 

« et quos'] ex quo, B. 

' lUm, added in CD. The true 
reference is to the Polycraticon oi 
John of SaHsbnry, lib. ir. c. 11, 

®^o (gloria) f C; ghdio, D. (for 
gaudio f) 

' statum Homanum, C. ; fasium 

Bomanum, D. 

^^ Theutonicum, C. ; Teutonicumj 

•' noMy A. 

** iUim auf] juste vel, C. 5 illius 




were si]>j>e Rome was first sette/ he schal fynde fat fe Tbevisa. 

Romayns were most couetous and proude, he schal fynde 

also pat J>e maistrie^ j>at J?ey liadde in J>e world aboute 
]>ey gete^ it by punyschynge of peple^ by false wiles 
and by gile so fer for|> pat vnnepe eny of hir princes 
leuede his lyf kyndeliche to pe^ ende, perfore eueryche 
Romayn ouercomej?^ oper is ouercome wi|> flaterynge and 
wip 7 faire wordes ; and ^if wordes faille]?, Jiftes ® schal 
hym awelde ; ^if ^iftes faillep, worschip make]? hym pri- 
soner. PoLy tibro sepHmOy capitulo undecimo* While 
J>e citees of Italia louep pees and worschippe}> ® ri^twis- 
nesse and leueth false opes, pan pey hauep i® likynge 
and welpe in here owne lend. But whan pey ^euep ^* hem 
to falshede and to stryf, anon pe pride of ^^ Romayns, oper 
pe woodnesse of Duches *^ men, oper som oper wrecche of 
God all my^ti^4 fallep vppon hem for to pey*^ amende her 
lyf 16 |)y- penaunce of ^7 contricioun. For trespas of pat 
peple puttep awey al principalte^ oper makep here prynce 
more mylde. 

alle the storye ffrom the begynnenge of Rome, he schal MS. Habl. 
fynde the Romanes and other peple to have laborede in ^^^^* 
ambicion and auarice, in so moche in that noo prince of 
pe empire lyvede vnnethe after the naturalle course of his 
life, but thei were destroyede by fiihte. Polieronicony libro 
sepHmOy capitulo septuagesimo primoM While the men of 
Italy lyye in peace, thei luffe ry^hteuousenes and absteyue 
from periury. But when they falle to fraudes and diuision 
they fele other the pride off the Romanes or cruelnesse of 
men of Allemeyne, or somme other peyne or punyschenge 
of €rod, tylle thei be contrite by penaunce. For other that 
peple avoide euery principate, odier elles thei make the 
prynce moore meke. 

^ maistry, a, 

* gatCf &♦ 

^puplcy a. 

^ his, a., CsL 

° Ihat cuercomeih, Cx. 

' m|>] om. a. (not Cx.) 

» yefis, Cx. 

^ worschepe\ffa» ; worshipped, Cx.^ 
more correctly, who has also loued, 
and leued. 

»• had, Cx. 
" yeue, Cx. 
^^ of the, Ox, 
^* ahuyyti, a. 

*^ vnto the tyme they, Cx. ' 
" her lyf] om. Cx. 
" of] and, Cx. 

"The reference giyen thus at 
length in Harl. MS. 



Cap. XXVI 

Be Oermania et ejus partibus} 

IsiDORTJS tradit quod^ Germania proprie dicta 
habet* ab orti;i ostium Danubii fluminis, ab austro 
Bhenum fluvium, a septentrione et occasu oceanum. 
Est autem * duplex Germauia ; superior,^ quse se extendit 
ad Alpes juxta ^ sinum maris mediterranei/ quod Adria- 
ticum dicitur, ubi mare sistitur in Aquileiae partibus 
per paludes ; alia® Germania, inferior, versus occiden- 
tem sistit® circa Rhenum/^ quse" communiter Aleman- 
nia sive '^ Teutonia ^^ didtur. Multi namque^* in utra- 
que Germania sunt populi et provindfe, utpote Boemia, 
Westfalia, Bavaria/^ Thuringia, Suevia, Saxonia, Fran- 
conia, Lotharingia/® Frisia, Selandia. Paulns, Ubro 
primo, capitulo qidnto}'^ Verum quia septentrionalis *® 
plaga quanto ab sestu solis fit*^ remotior, tanto pro- 
pagandis nutriendisque ^ populis salubrior ; sicut e 
contra meridiana plaga ^* quanto soli vidnior, tanto ^^ 

* Isidorus, libro 19, A.; 9°, B.C. 
(not B.) The true reference is to 
lib. xiv. c. 4. 

^ Isidoms » • . qttod] om. B.D. 

^ Germania proprie sumpta ab 
ortuy CD. (with otihier slight varia- 

* Et est, CD. 

^ scUicetf added in A.B. 
^ Juxta Alpes itsque ad sinum, 
B.CD. ; and so A., omitting usque, 
^ magni, A.B. 
® est added in B. 

* sistitur, C. (notD.) 

^® Thenum, 0. ; Eenum, B. 
" qui, CD, 
« seu, B.C 
" Teutonica, B. 

^*.namque'] om. C ; nempe, A.B« 

^^ Gavarria, C ; Savarria, "E. 
Some of the names following are 
written with slight variations in the 

" Lothoringia, MSS. 

^^ Paulus^..quinto\ om. Ct eapi- 
ttth quinto, om. A.B.D. The true 
reference is to lib. i. c. 1., which is 
copied almost verbatim as &r as 
alere sufficiat, 

13 eiiam added in 0. (not D.) 

19 est, C (not D.) 

^ et nutriendis^ C (not D.) 

2* regioy CD. (and Panlus.) 
^ enim after tanto in £. ; not in 


De Germania et eius prouinciis. Capitulum vicedmum Tbevisa. 


Isid, Eth* quarto decimo. Ysidre * seif p&t verray Ger- 
mania ha]7 in ye est side J^e moath of pe rjuer Danubius, 
in fe sonth .J>e Ryne^ hat ryuer, and in fe north and 
in fe west ]>e see of Occean. pere beep tweie londes, 
eiper hatte Grermania ; f e oner Germania ^ strecchef by sides 
Alpes to pat moup and coost of pe grete see pat hatte 
Adriatiens ; pere pe see^ is as it were lakes yn pe contrayes 
of Aquila.^ pe oper Germania is lower, toward pe west 
about the Beyne,^ and is eomounliche i-cleped Almania oper 
Teutonia. In eiper Germania beep many prouinces and 
londes, pat beep Boemia, Westfalia, Bauarria, Thuryngia, 
Sueuia, Saxonia, Franconia, Lothoringia^ Frisia, Selandia. 
Paulus^ libro prima, pe north contrey is fer from pe 
hete of pe 7 sonne, and holsom for men to wone ^ yn, and 
able to brynge forp children, perfore it is pat pere is 
more multiplicacioun and encrese of men and children 
in pe norp contray pan in pe south, pat is ful nyh pe 

Of Allemeyne or Germany and of pe provinces of hit MS. Easl. 
Capitulum vicesimum sextum. I»idorus, Etymologia- 2261. 
rum libro none* 

IsiDOEUS rehersethe that Germany, or Allemeyne properly 
seyde, hathe on the este to hit the durre of the jloode 
callede Danubius, on the sowthe the floode callede Renus, 
of the northe and the weste the occean. There be ij. Ger- 
manyes ; the superior whiche ^xtendethe yn to Alpes to the 
bosom of the- grete see that is callede the see Adriatike. 
And the inferior Germany, toiv^arde the weste, is abowte the 
floode callede JRenus, whiche is callede communely Almayne. 
There be mony peple in either Germany, and prouinces, as Aleman- 
Boemia, Westefalia, Bauarrea, Turingea, Sveuia, Saxonia, nia. 
Franconia, JJothoringi% Frisia, Selandia. PauluSy libra 
quinto* For the northerne plage, in as moch as hit is 
more remoyede frpm hete, in so moche hit is more hollesome 
for childer to be gendrede and to be nory^chede. Hyt is 
in . contrary wise of the plage meridian ; for in as moche 

* Isidorus, Cx. 

* rytiery MS. ; Ryn, Cx. 

' }pe Otter Crermania] om. MS. 

* se, a. 


Agyylia, Cx. 
* i?pe, «., Cx. 
!* hete ofpe"] om. Cx. 
" a. adds, and dweEe, 



knguoribus obnoxior. Inde fit ut tantse^ popidorum 
multitudines arctico^ sub axe oriantiir, ut non® im- 
merito omnis iUa regio a Tanai* usque ad occiduum/ 
quamvis® propriis'' singula loca vocentur* nominibus, 
generaKter tamen Germania vocatur, quia tot genninat 
populos quot vix alere sufficiat. Inde est quod totiens 
ab ea parte mundi gentes sunt egressse^ aut videlicet 
sorte emissae aut non sponte captivatsa, aut* ad csete- 
ras nationes subigendas ultro progressse, sicut patuit 
aliquando^^ de Hunis^ Gothis^ WandaJis^ SaxonibuSi 
WynnuKs," Longobardis. 
DeBoemia. Boeinia, prima orientalis Germanise '^ provincia, habet 
ab oriente ^^ Mo6siam et Alanos, a meridie Danubium 
et Pannoniam, ab occidente Bavariam et Thuringiam, 
a septentrionali circio ^^ Saxones. Fere undique circum- 
septa est montibus et silvis; abundat quoque herbis 
pascualibus et aromaticis,^* necnon^® fens et*^ bestiis^ 
inter quas est quoddam animal comibus et oorpore 
bovi valde persimile,^* quod lingua Boemica** leaz^ vo- 
catur; ^^ suis tamen comibus^ se non defendit^ sed in 
amplo folliculo quod sub mento gestat ^' aquam coIU- 

> iantai] So A.B.C.D. ; tanium, £). 

* €trtOy CD. (arctooy Faolus.) 
' nm\ om. C. (not D.) 
*Jluvio added in G.I). 

* oceanum, C» (not D.) 

* licet, C,l>. 

' <wi added in CJ), 

^ nuncupeniur, O* ; nuncupanturf 
D^^i loca vocenturf'B, 

^ quod added In A.C.D. 

^^^ guondam, CD. ; om. A.B* 

" sive added in C*I>« 

'^ Germanue orientalis^ A.B. 

» orUt, CD. 

^^ So E. septeatrume. Circio Scu- 
anes (Bic), A. ; sqitenirione circio, 

D, Perhaps septentrione et circio is 
the time reading. SeeTreyisa. 

'* Transposed in B. 

»« ac, B. 5 nee feris nee, A., ab- 

" etj om. C. 

'^ stmile boot, CD. 

'' Boemetica, B. 

^ So EJ). ; Lew, C. ; Boez, B. 
Loz, A. ^e text is peiiiaps oor- 
mpt. The modem Polish name of 
the Auroch (Biaon £«rop<eiM),'wluch 
appears to be intended, is Zubr, or 
Stfhr. See Penny Cych, s.v. Ox. 

«» dieitar, CD. 

^ cum insectatur, added in CD» 

^gerit, B. 


Sonne, and vnholsom and siklewe for men to wonye Trevisa. 

ynne. And so fey eueriche londe and contray haue his 

owne propre name^ noj^eles^ al pe contray and lond from 
the ryuer Tanais anon to pe west hatte G^rmania; for 
he gendrep and bryngeth forth mo^ men and children J^an 
J>ey* may wel susteyne. perfore hit is psA so ofte goj? 
dyuers men out of }>at side of pe world ynto oper londes, 
ofer4 by lot, oj^er a^enst hir wille, oJ>er by here good 
wille for to Wynne and^ gete o})ere londes. So dedeGothy, 
Wandaly, Saxones^ Wynuly, and Longobardi. Boemya is 
pe firste prouince of fat^ ester 7 G^rmania» and ha]? in pe 
est side Mesia ^ and Alania^ in pe sou]> pe ryuer Danubius / 
and Pannonia, in pe west Bauaria and Thuringia,^ and in' 
pe north and northwest Saxonia, and is i-closed al most 
all ^^ aboute wi]? hilles and wodes, and hsp grete ^^ plente of 
lese and of gras J>at ^^ smellej? fid swete, and of dyuerse 
wylde bestesy among pe whiche is oo^^ beste, and hatte 
boz in pe langage of Boemia, but he defPende]? nou^t hym- 
self with his homes, but he ha]» a large ryuel, as it were 
a bagge, vnder pe chynne ; ]>eryn he gadereth water and 

as hit is more nye to the son, in so moche hit is more nyous MS. Habl. 
to nature. Wherefore alle that region from Thanay unto 2261. 
pe weste, thauthe euery place be namede by theire propre 
names, generally thei be caUede Germany, for that londe 
gendrethe so mony peple that hit may vnnethe suffise to 
norysche theyme. That causede so mony peple to haue 
goen from hit, as Huhes, Gothes, Wandalynges, Saxones, 
Winuli and Longobardes. Boemia is the firste prouince of 
esturne G^rmanye, hauenge on the este parte to hit Mesia,^ 
of the weste Danuby and Pannony, of the meridien Bauarria 
and Thuringia, of the northe weste Saxones, allemoste com- 
passede abowte with hilles and woodes, beynge habundante 
in yerbes and pastures and mony wilde bestes. Amonge 
whom is a beste like to an oxe in body and in homes, while 
is callede in their langa^^e loz^ whiche defendethe hym not with 
his homes, but gedrl^e water in a grete voide place vnder 


netkeles, Cx» 

^ vnooy «. 

* iU Cx. 

* o^er] om. Cx., who has or be- 

* Wynne and\ om, Cx. 

* >c, o., Cx 
' c*fe, Ox. 

^ Misia, MSS. (as usual.) 
^ Thufynga, MS., here and be- 
low (not so always a. or Cx.) 

>® all} om. Cx. 
'' agreete, a. 

»2 So Cx. (that) ; and, MS., a. 
^^o beste^ a.; bestes, MS.; one 
I beeste, Cx. 

VOL. I. R 



De Thu- 



git,^ quam currendo multum^ calefacit, et super in- 
sequentes venatores^ et canes projicit, sicque approxi- 
mantes sibi mirabiliter depilat et exurit.* 

Thuringia habet ab ortu Boemiam, ab occidente 
Franconiam, a septentrione Westfaliam, ab austro Da- 
nubium fluvium.® 

Franconia est quasi ^ media Qermaniae provineia, habet- 
que ad ortum'' sui® Thuringiam, ad oceasum® Sue- 
viani, ad aquilonem partem Westfalise, ad austnim '^ 
Bavariam et Danubium. 

Bavaria habet ad ortum " Danubium,^^ ad occidentem 
Sueviam, ad aquilonem Franconiam, ad austrmn partem 
Danubii et Rhseticam.*^ 

Westfsdia habet ad ortum Saxones/* ad occasum 
Frisiam, ad aquilonem oceanum, ad austrum partem 
FranconisB et SuevisB. 
DeSuevia. Suevia habet ad ortum sui^^ Bavariam, ad occiden- 
tem Hhenum fluvium,^^ ab aquilone^^ partem Franconise; 
ad austrum Ehaeticam et^^ Alpes. 

Saxonia habet ab ortu Alanos/^ ab occasu^^ West- 
faliam, a septentrione*^ oceanum, ab austro Thurin- 
giam. Isidorws^ libro quarto dedmo, Saxonum gens 
ad septentrionales fines oceani constituta virtute et 

ite West- 


* recolligit, A.C.D. 

^ v^tores] Added from B.C.D. 

* So A.B. ; depilat atque urit, C. 
D ; depilat et, cm. E. 

^^uvtum] om. A.B.C.D. 
® qucBdamf D. 

* ab ortUy CJ). 
® sm] om. CD. 

® ah occasu, B.C. (not D.) 

** ab austro, CD. 

» ab ortu, CD. 

*2 Bavaria . . . jyannhinm] om. B. 

(by error of scribe.) The readings of 
A. are blundered through omissions 

^^ et Iih(jtticam\ om. CD. 
. ^* ab ortu Saxoniam, B. 
** sut] om. CD. 
^^Jluviiim] orii. B.CD, 
" ad aquilonem, CD. 
*8 Hheticam ef] om. CD. 
'» Slavos, B. 
2" occidente, D. 
2* septentrionale parte, B» 
22 Etymol, added in C (not D.) 



heteji it in his rennynge scladeng * hoot, and j)rowe]> it Trevisa. 

vppon hunteres and houndes J)at pnrsewef hym, and scalde]) 

of })e heere of hem ^ and brennef hem fiil sore. Thuryngia ^ 
ha}» in pe est side Boemia, in )7e west Franconia, in ];e 
norJ> Westfalia, and in J?e souj? J?e ryuer Danubins. Fran- 
conia is, as it were, j?e myddel prouynce of Germania, and 
ha]? in |)e est side Thuryngia,^ in pe west Sueuia, in pQ 
norJ> a party 4 of Westfalia, and in fe son]> Bauaria and 
J)e ryuer Danubius. Bauaria haf in fe est fe ryuer Da- 
nubius^ and Retica.^ Westfalia haj» in pe est side Saxonia, 
in j>e west Frisia, in fe norj) occean, in fe sou}» a party of 
Fraunce 7 and of Sueuia» Sueuia haf in fe est Bauaria, in 
]?e west }?e ryuere fat hatte pe Ryne, in pe north a party 
of Franconia, and in pe south Retica and Alpes. Saxonia 
ha}> in pe est Alania, yn pe west Westfalia, in pe north 
occean, and in pe sou}> Thuringia.® Isidorus, libro quarto 
decimo* Men of Saxonia wone]? toward pe nor]? endes 
of occean, and bee}? bo}?e lifter ^ and stronger fan oJ>er 

his chynne, whiche makenge the water hoote, in rennenge MS. Hasl* 
castethe '^ hyt on hunters and on dogges folowenge hit, 2261. 

hurtenge theyme soore with that water. Thuringia hathe on 

the este to hit Boemia, on the weste Franconi% on the 
northe Westefalia, on the sowthe Danubyus. Franconia is 
as the myddelle prouince of Germayne, hauenge on the este 
to hit Thuringia, at the weste Sweuia, at the northe parte 
of Westefalia, at the sowthe Bauarria and Danubius. 
Bauarria hathe on the. este to hit Danubius, at the weste 
Sweuia, at the northe Franconia, at the sowthe parte of 
Danuby and Rethica. Westefalia hathe on the este to hit 
Saxones, at the weste Frisia, at the northe the occean, and 
at the • sowthe parte of Franconia and of Sueuia. Sveuia 
hathe at the este of hit Bauarria, at the weste Renum, at 
the northe parte of Franconia, at the sowthe Rethica and 
Alpes. Saxonia hathe on the weste to hit Westfalia, on 
the northe the occean, on pe sowthe Thuringia. Isidorus, « 
lihro quarto decimo. The peple of Saxones whiche be 
moore nowble in vertu and agilite not oonly on londe^ but f. 42. b. 

* scM, a. \ shedding. Ox., which 
is probably alone right 

2 So Cx. J hym, MS. 

* Thwtftigcf, MS.) here and below 
(not so always a. or Cx.). 

* So Ox. ; of a party, MS. and a, 
^ Eight woids preceding wanting 


^ So a. and Cx. $ Ratica, MS. ; 
Rethica below. 

' Some words repeated In MS. 

^ Ox. omits the last clause of the 
foregoing, and muchof thefoUowing 

' ben more lighter, Cx. 

»• castetethe, Harl. MS. 

R 2 



. agilitate prsestantior quam caeteri piratse, non solum 
per terras, sed etiam per maria, suis hostibus est in- 
festa; unde et Saxones, quasi saxei et duri ac* im- 
portabiles sunt vocati;^ in quorum montanis^ omnia 
pene metallorum genera excepto stanno* sunt effossa ^ 
Qermania^ etiam fontes habet^ salsos, ex quibus sal 
albissimum eonficitur, et^ juxta ilium® montem ubi 
cuprum effoditur est mons magnus, cujus lapides redo- 
lent sicut vioke.^^ Et jiixta cenobium Sancti Michaelis 
invenitur marmor pulcherrimum.^ Beda, libro quarto, 
cap. mcesimo quinto}^ Antiqui Saxones ducem non 
habent,^® sed 'satrapas plurimos genti susa praepositos, 
qui ingruente belli articulo ^^ mittunt sequaliter sortes, 
et" quemcunque ^^ sors ostenderit *^ hunc tempore belli ^' 
ducem sequuntur,^® peractoque bello rursus aequalis po- 
testatis omnes satrapse fiunt.^^ 
DeFrisia. Fiisia,^^ Secundum PUnium, est*^ regie super Uttus^^ 
occidentalis oceani sita ; ab austro incipit a ^^ Eheno - 

' saxei duri et, CD. (-with other 
very slight variations above) ; et,AJB. 

* dicii suntf CD. 
^ montanat B. 

* stagno, MSS* 

® effossa] cm. E. ; effodiuntvr, 
CD. ; genera, cm. B. 

* Germania .... ptdckerrimum, 
om. CD. 

' habetjbntes, B. 
^ €{] om. A.B. 
^iHufn] om. A.B. 
** stent wiWffi] So A .B. ; viohs sicut, 

" The true reference Is to lib. v. 
c. 10« D. has no reference. 

*2 non habent regem, A.B.C (and 

" hdb, B. 


1^ cuicumque, B. 

" evenerit, B, 

^^ omnes, added in CD., and in 
Bede's text 

1® sequentur, A. 

^ sunt omnes satrapee, B. 

^PUnius prefixed in A3.; Pli- 
nius, libro 6<*, C No reference in D., 
which has Frigia, 

^ secundum PUnium est'\ om. B« 

^ svb litus, B. 

^^ a] om. A. 



skymours ^ of fe see, and pursewe]? her enemyes ful hard Tbisyisa. 

bo]?e by water and by lond, and hatte Saxones of saxum,^ 

y&t is, a stoon, for y&y bee]> hard as stones and vnesy to 
fare wi]?. In Jje hulles of Saxonia is wel ny^ all manere 
metal i-digged, outakyn^ tyn. In Germania beej? salt welles, 
of fe wMche wellis is salt i-made as white '^ as any^ 
snowe. Fast by J>e^ hille J>at coper is i-digged ynne is 
a greet hille of stones ; of ^at hille [the stones] 7 smellej? 
sWete as violet. Also faste by fe mynystre® of Seint 
Michel is marbil i-founde ]>e fairest fat may be. Beda^ 
libra [^uinto^, capitulo vicesimo quinto, pe olde Saxones 
haue no kyng, but meny kny^tes of here owne rulej? hem;^ 
but in tyme of bataifle fei caste]? lott whiche of here 
kny^tes schal be ledere and cheveteyn, and folwef him fat 
is so i-chose by lott *^ as cheef lorde and maister durynge 
fe bataille ; but whan ]>e bataile ^^ is i-doo^ fan schal he be 
as he was rafer,^^ he and ofere kny^tes al i-liche^^ greet 
of power and of my^t Plinitts, libro quinto, Erisia is a 
lond vppon fe clyue^* of fe west occean^ and bygynnef 

also on the see, is moche contrarious to theire enmyes. MS. Harl. 
Wherefore thei be callede Saxones, as importable and harde 2261. 
as a stOB,. In the hilies or mownteynes of whom allemoste 
alle kyndes of metalles be founde, tynne excepte. Also 
Germayne hathe salte welles, of whom white salte is made. 
Also riye to the hille where copur is geten is a grete 
hille, the stones of whom smelle lyke violettes. Also feire 
marbole is founde in the hille nye to the Abbay of 
Seynte Michael. Beda, libro quarto, capitulo vicesimo 
quinto. The olde Saxones vsede not a kynge but other 
men in worschippe ; which perceyvenge batelle to be 
inducede made a gouemoure to theyme after as the chaunce 
scholde ffalle, whom thei folowede in tyme of batelle. 
The batelle doen, alle the nowble men weBe of egalle 
honor. Plinius, libro quinto, Frisia is a region sette on 
the brynke of the weste ocean, takenge begynnenge of 

' scommers or iheuys, Cx. 
2 saxon, MS. (not «. or Cx.) 

* cmtake, a. ; fouvden, reserued 
tyriy Ox. 

* whiyty a, 

* ony, Cx. (and so often.) 

* ihaty Cx. 

* Added from Cx., who varies 
the sentence a little. 

^ monasterye, Cx. 

om. Ox. 

'* whiche of, , , lott] Added ih>ni 
a. and Cx. 

" Four words omitted in MS. 

^^ before ; Ihat is to wete, he, Sfc,^ 

1^ aUe lyche, Cx., who omits 

1* coste, Cx. 





fluvio,^ et mari Danico terminatur, cujus viri circular 
liter tondimtur^ et quanto nobiliores sxmt, tatito Celsius 
tonsorantur. Gens quidem fortis,^ prooeri corporis, animi 
ferocis, lanceis utens pro sagittis; libertatem summe 
zelat ; * ideo uullum qui eis domihetur in militem erigi 
sinuni Judieibus tamen^ subsunt, quos annuatim de 
seipsis eligunt; pudicitiam^ zelant; liberos suos^ dili- 
genter custodiunt ; '' quos^ non ante vicesimum quar- 
tum annum nubere permittunt ; unde et ^ contingit 
robustam sobolem procreari. Lignis carent, proinde*^ 
glebas et cespites ad ignem ponunt.'^ 

Selandia, terra modica et maritima, instar insula 
marinis brachiis circumdata, ad ortum habet Hollan- 
diam^ ad septentrionem Frisiam, ad occasum oceanum, 
ad austrum Flandriain. Cincta est aggeribus in cir- 

^Jluvio] om. A.B.C.D. 
' fartis] om. A. 

^ zelantf CD., which is perhaps 
* tamenjudicibuSf A. 
^ prudentiam, 0* (not D.) 
^ ei suos^ A. 

^ custoditoSf A«B.C.D. 

^quos^ pm. A.6.C.P. 

* ef] om, A.C.D, 

** iccircOy C J). ; et proindey A. 

" incendunt, A.B.C.D. 


itt pQ sou}» side from }>e Byne, and ende]? at pe see of Den- Tkevisa. 

mark.i Men of Frisia bee]? i-schore^ aboute, and euir^ 

pe more gentil man and noble ]>e hi^er he is i-schore. 
pe men bej) faire of body and cruel and bolde of herte, 
and vsed* spores in stede* of arwes, and loue]> fredom 
most of any ping, perfore J?ey sufiTreji no man be a knytt 
J?at wil be her lorde. Neuerpeles J?ey heep gouerned and 
ruled by domesmen and iuges, and euerich ^ere pej^ 
chese]> of hem self her owixe iuges, pey louep wel chastite, 
and kepej) besiliche here children, and suffi*eth hem nouZt 
to wyfe^ wi]? ynneS foure and twenty ^ere.^ perfore 
pej hauej' stalwor fe i<> children and strongej pey hauef 
none wodes,ii perfore pey make]? hem fuyre of torues.12 
Selandia is a litel lond vppon pe see, [whiche retmoth 
thurgh the londe and cause]) xvij. ilondes, and about 
eueryche a shippe saylle,]^^ and hap in pe est side Ho- 
landia^ in pe north Frisia, in pe west occean, in^^ p^ ^Qy^p 
Flandria, and is by clipped aboute as an ilond wip armes of 

the sowthe parte from the floode callede Ehenus, and is MS. Habl. 
endede with the see of Danes. The men of that londe 2261. 

be rowndede in the maner of a cercle, as moche as men 

be of moore nobilite, in so moche thei be rowndede more 
hye. That peple is stronge and of semely stature, bolde 
in herte, vsenge speres for arowes, luffenge moche liberte. 
Wherefore thei wylle not suffre a knyjhte to haue pre- 
dominy in theyme. They be obediente to iugges, whom 
thei make yerely ; luffenge clennesse and chastite ; kepenge 
theire childer with grete diligence, not suffi-enge theyme to 
be maryede tylle they atteyne to xxiiij*» yere in age. 
Wherefore thei gette my^hty childer. Whiche wontenge 
woode brenne turfes maae of the erthe* Selandia is a 
litelle londe, and in the costes of the see, compassede 
abowte as an yle with armes of the see, hauenge at the 
este to hit Holande, at the northe Frisia^ at the weste 
the occean, at the sowthe Flandres; hauenge grete hopes 

* Denmarch, a. 

^ ben high shauen, Cx. 
' euere^ a. 

* vae, Cx.y vhieh is better. 

^ So a, and Cx. ; dede^ MS. 

' marief Ox. 

* wil» ynne] til they be, Cx. 
°yere old. Ox. 

^<* stronge and stehoorih chUderen, 

'^ no tvoodes, a. 

^* turues, Cx. 

^^ The words in brackets added 
from Cx. After see MS. and a have 
by-cUpped aboute as an ihnd wtl» 
armes o/H see, wbicJi occurs bek>w. 

^* and in, a. 



cuitu contra impetum maris^ cujus gleba frugum ferax, 
sed arborum^ rara; non enim potent ibi arbor ^ 
radicem profundare propter soli salsuginem. Qens 
ejus^ magnae, est * staturse^ fortis corpore, pia mente.® 
De Scribo- Paulus^ libro primo. In circionali oceiduo Gennanise 

nils [vel 

^?^*^^h sunt populi dicti Scribonii/ qui etiam sestatis tempore 

nisj, et de ^ -^ ^ *^ 

^^u ^^^il)^^ ^^^ carent, crudis animaliuni camibus ves- 

soporous» , • i*i* 11*1 «I i«i* 

cuntur, de quorum hirtis pellibus indumenta abi co- 
aptaat. ' Apud quos drca solstitium sestivale radii 
solares aliquibus^ noctibus continue apparent; et rursum 
drca solstitium brumale, quamvis lux diei adsit, sol 
tamen non videtur. Item^ Pavlua, libro primoy^^ 
capitulo quarto. Juxta eosdem Scribonios" in ipso 
oceani Httore antrum sub eminenti rape conspicitur^ 
ubi septem viri jam diu soporati quiescunt ita illaesis 
corporibus et vestibus/^ ut etiam apud indoctos barba- 
ros magnae venerationi habeantur. Hi quoque,*® quan- 
tum ad habitum spectat, Bomani putantur;^^ e quibus 
unum dum aliquis ^^ cupiditate stimulatus vellet exuere, 

^ arborum] So B. ; arbore, A.E. 
2 arbor thtdem, B. ; arbor ibi, A. 
^ et added in B. 

* est"] om. B. 

^ Selandia . . . mente] The whole 
paragraph omitted in CD. 

• PUnius, C J). 

' Stricobinif (or perhaps Scrito- 
btnif) CD. Paiilns DiaconnB (lib. i. 
c. 51, ed. 1603) has Scritobini, 
which may be correct. 

** aliquibus^ om* B. 
• Iteni] om. CD. 
'• quinto, B. wrongly. The text 
is correct. 
" Siricobinos, C.D. 
*^ vestimentisy CD. (and Paulus.) 
** denique, CD. (and Fanlus.) 
^* ease cer»i(}itur,CD.(andPaulus.) 
'^ quidam, CD, (and Paulus.) 



fe see and floodes.^ J)ere is good com londe and scai'sete Tabvisa. 

of trees, for J^e rootes mowe not take depnesse and^ fatnesse 

for saltnesse of }>e er}ie. pe men bee]> grete of body and 
mylde of herte. Paulus, libro prima. In ]>e norfwest^ 
side of Germania is a peple ]>at hi^te Scribonias, Jiat bath 
snow al pe somer tyme, and ete]? rawe flescb, and bee]> i- 
cloj>ed in goot bukkes^skynnes. In hire contray, whan pe 
ny^t is schort, me may all ny^t see^ pe sonne hemes; and 
eft * in the wynter, when pe day is schort, J>ey may see pe 
li^t of pe Sonne, J^ey 7 me seep no^t pe sonne.^ Item Paulusy 
libro primoy cap, quarto,^ Fast byside fat peple Scribonius, 
Vndir pe clif of occean, is a den vndir an bite stoon ; J>er- 
ynne slepe]> seuen men and haue]? longe i-slepe, and bee]) 
hool and somid -in body and clojiinge, and al vrip oute wem.^^ 
So J>at vntau^t men and straunge haue]) hem '* in gret wor- 
schippe.^2 pQ.y ijee]? i-holde Romaynes, as pel seme]? by hire 
clo]>inge.i3 pere was a, man som tyme ])at for couetise wolde 
stripe on of hem, and haue his closing. But anone his 

in hit in a circuite for cause of the see; in whiche londe MS. Hael. 
be fewe trees, for a tree may not take fer roote for 2261. 
saltenes of the erthe. The peple of hit is of grete stature, 
stronge off body, meke in mynde. PaultM^ libro primo. 
Also in the sowthe weste of Germayne be peple callede 
Scribonij, whiche haue plente of snawe in the tyme of 
somer, and eite rawe fiesche of bestes, hauenge clothes of 
the ru^he skynnes of bestes ; where the beames of the 
Sonne be seen contynually, somme ny^htes abowte the 
solstice of somer ; and also abowte the solstice of wynter, 
thau^he li^hte appere in the day, the son is not scene. 
Itenh libra primoy capitulo quarto, A denne is seen nye 
to men of that cuntre vnder an hie hille, where vij. men 
slepenge haue lyen longe, the clothes and bodies of theym 
incorrupte, whiche be supposede to be Bomanes, as after 
their habite ; whom a man movede thro auaryce willenge to 

^ Cx. thus : and is enuironed with 
water and Mghe hankes to holde out 
the rysynge of ike see andjloodes, 

« ne, Cx, 

' westy Cz. 

^ IrnkkCy a., Cx. (fiuk.) 

^ see ode the nyght, Cx. 

* after f Cx. 

' b^] om. a. 

' Cx. thuB : though men see the 

light of the son7i€f yet the sonne is 
not seen, 

* Cx., omitting the reference, 
thus : Item fast, ^'c, 

*^ wemme, a., Cx. 

" Forwhieh cause the comyn peple 
have hem, Cx. 

1^ worship and reuerencey Cx. 

^^ Tliei/ ar supposed Romains bg 
lier chtking, Cx. 


mox ejus bracMa aruerunt. Fortassis ad hunc pro- 
ventum eos Deus servat^ illsesos,^ ut barbarse gentes 
per eos aliquando ^ convertantur. 

Cap. XXV. 

De Franda sive GaUia,^ 

Tradunt^ historiae quod Gallia, quss et Francia, a^ 
candore populi sit dicta/ Gala enim Graece lac dici- 
tur Latine ; idcirco eos Gallos,® id est, candidos, 
Sibylla ® vocat, dicens : 

tunc lactea colla 
Auro humectentur.*^ 

HugutiOy capUido Gala. Nam secundum diversitatem 
coeli, colore» facierum, quantitates corporum," qualitates 
animorum existunt. Inde Roma graves, Graecia leves, 
Africa versipelles, Gallia ingeniosos generat. Ranuln 
fhus. Hie autem est notandum, sicut tangit Augus- 
tinus De Civitate, libro secundo, capitulo quinto, quod 
Galli uno modo dicti fuerant sacerdotes in templo 

J servaventDominuSf CD.; Domi" 
nus servaverit, B. 

2 iUiesos] om. CD. ; iUe^ A. (cleri- 
cal error.) 

^ qtiandoque, CD. 

* De GaUia seu Franda^ A.B. 

^ Tradunt . . . sepiimo decimo (next 
page)] om-CD. 

8 a] om. B. 

' denomiTiataf A.B. 

^ et idieo Gallos eos^ A.B. 

® sub illUi B. 

10 The reference i$ to Virg. ^n. 
viii. 660, where however innectun- 
tur is the true reading. The Sibyl 
is not speaking, but the words are 
part of a description of Vulcan's 

" et added in B. 



armes driede aud wax al drye.^ Hit may be J?at Grod Tbevisa. 

kepej>^ hem so hool and sounde, for mysbyleued men in 

tyme to comynge schulde }>orw^ hem h& conuerted and i- 
torued to good byleue. 

De Gallia sive Francia, 

Capitulum vicesimum septimum, 

i^. Hit is i- write in stories fat Gallia, fat^ is Prancia^ haf 
J?at name Grallia of wbitenes of |)e^ peple* Gala is Grew,^ 
la^ in Latyn^ mylk^ in Englissh. perfore Sibylla clepe]> 
hemGalloSy ]?at is, white, and seij) "pan^ jje mylky nekkes 
"bee)> i-wasche wij) gold," HttgutiOy cap. Gala, By J>e dyuex'- 
site of heuene is dyuersite of coloures of face, of quantite 
and gretnes of body, of maneres and of witt ; perfore in 
Rome beej? heuy men, yn Grees ly^t, in Affrica gileful, in 
Gallia witty men and wys. ]^, Here take hede, as Augus- 
tinus touchej>, De Civitate Dei, libro [secundo, cap.] ® quinto, 
pat Gaily in oon manere speche were pe preostes, pat were 

vnclothe anoon bis armes wexede drye. Perauenture GodMS.HABL. 
preseruethe theyme incorrupte for that entente, that men ^^^^* 
of Barbre may bo conuertede to the feithe by theyme. 

Of Fraunce. Capitulum vicesimum septimum, 

^. Storyes expresse that Gallia or Praunce bathe denomi- 
nacion of the whitenesse of peple ; for thys worde "galla" in 
Grewe is seyde "mylke" in Latyne, wherefore SibiUe callethe 
Frenche me,® white, seyenge, ** Then the white neckes schaLle 
** be humectate or made weiete with golde." HuguUo^ capi- 
tuh Gala* Por the eoloures of faces, quantites of bodies, 
qualites of sawles, haue theire existence in man after the 
diuer site of heuyn. perefore Rome gendrethe hevy men, 
Grece Ijrthte men, and Praunce wy tty men. ]^. Hit is also 
to be aduertisede after the seyenge of Seynte Austin, De 
Civitate Dei, libro tertio, capitulo quinto, that men cajlede 
Galli in oon maner were prestos in the temple of a godesse 

^fonoitk his arme waxed <d dretfe, 

2 list to kepe^ Cx. 

^ Jxzf] Added from «.; whielh CX' 

^ )>6] om. a. and Cx. 

' a worde in Gtewe, and is lac, 

^ and mylk^ Cx. 
» that, Gx. 

^Tke words in brackets added 
from Cx. This is the true reference, 
and the text agrees ; the HarL MS. 
is irrong. 

' tm] So Harl. MS. 


Cybelis, non a Gallia provincia, sed a Gallo fluvio 
PhrygisD sic dicti; a quo potantes fiebant insani, et 
omnes castrabantur in memoriam pueri Attis^ quern 
amavit Dea Cybele. Hie nempe Attis, propter fraudem 
quam Dea3 fecerat, versus est in insaniam, in qua 


castravit se, secundum Ovidium de Fastis.^ Sed 
de Gallis qui sunt Franci, sic^ dicit Eutropius, libro 
secundo : Galloruin animi feroces erant et corpora plus- 
quam humana ; sed expeiimento deprehensum/ quod 
sicut Gallorum virtus primo impetu major est quam 
virorum^ ita sequens virtus minor est quam foeminarum. 
Alpina namque corpora humenti ccelo educata quiddam 
simile suis habent nivibus qusd pugnse calore in sudore 
resoluta quasi radio solari laxantur.^ GircMus, List 
prvma, cap. septimo dedmo. Gallia* igitur'' cum 
j^artibus suis^ a septentrione habet Germaniam, ab 
ortu Ehenum, ab Euro Alpes, ab occasu oceanum 
Britannicum,® ad austrum ^^ fretum mediterraneum, quod 
prseterfluit" provinciam Narbonensem.^^ Gallia quon- 

._ . ' -■■-... 

* Athis, MSS. I ' O.I), begin the chapter here. 

^ Hie autem . * . Fastis'] om. A.B. 

^SoB. ; sicut, "E. 

* De Gallis sic dicit Eutropius in 
historia R&mana ; experimento cfepre- 
hensum est, A.6. 

^* Alpina , . . laxantur] om. A.B. 

' Gallia, qwB et Francia, CD. 

* suis partihus, B. 

^ seu GaUicum, added in A.B,C.D. 

^* ah austro, B. 

^^ praterluit, B, 

" Abbreviated in CD. 


in ]?e temple of J>at goddes ]?at hi^te Cybele,* and hadde Tbeyiba. 

the name 2 nou^t of J?at lond Gallia but of p&t^ ryuer 

Gallus |>at is in Phrygia.^ Alle fat drank of ]>at ryuer 
schulde worfe wood, and were alle i-gilded in mynde**» of 
])at cbjld Attis,^ ]7at ]>ilke* goddes Cybele loued wi]> all ber 
my^t. pe^ childe worfe® wood, and gilded hymself, for 
fraude and gile fat be badde i-doo to J>at goddes Cybele, 
[so sayth]» Ovidius de Fastis. But ofi<> Galli fat beef 
Franci, and Frenscbe men, Eutropius, libro secundo, seif, 
Galli bee]? wel hasty, and here body passe]> fe comune sta- 
ture of oJ>er men. But it is i-founde by assay pat as " Galli 
bep wel hasty pan strong in fe firste rees,l2 soo afterward 
fey beep ^^ in fi^tynge more feble pan wommen. For as pey 
beep liche Alpes in gretnes of body, so pey beep liche ^^ to 
the snowe pat Hep vppon Alpes i^ pat brekep out on sweet, 
and meltep wip hete of fy^tynge as snow doop wip* hete of 
pe Sonne. Girald., Dist, [e.], cap. septimo decimo. panne Gallia 
wip his parties al hole hap in pe north sideGermania, in pe est 
pe Ryne, in pe soupest^^ Alpes, in pe west pe see of ^^ occean 
pat hatte bope Britannicus and Gallicus, pat is, Englisshe , 
and EVensche,^® for it departep bope Engelond and Fraunee, 
in pe soup pe see of myddel erpe pat waschep aboute by pe 

callede Cybele,^ not namede of Gallia, that is Fraunee, but MS. Habl. 
of a floode callede Gallus in Frigia, of whiche water men ^261. 
di'ykenge were made madde, and were geldede, in to the 
memory^ of a childe callede Attis,^ whom that godesse 
callede Cybele * luffedde. Whiche childe, after Guide De 
Fastis, for the fraude that he hade doen to the godesse was 
tumede to maddenesse, in whiche maddenesse he did gelde 
hym selfe. Griraldus, Dist prima^ cap, septimo decimo» 
Therefore Fraunee with his partes hathe on the northe to 
hyt Germayne, on the este the floode callede Ehenus, on 
the weste the occean of Britayne, at the sowthe the grete 
see whiche flowethe to the cuntre of Narbonense. Somme 

I Ciheles or Sibeles,USS, and Cx. 
^ haue that name, Cz. 
» the, Cx. 

* Frigitty MSS. and Cx. 

* their mynde, Cx. 

« Athis, MSS. and Cx. 

7 That,Cx. 

® waxe, Cx. 

9 Added ftom Cx. 

»« \>e] Added in a. | MS., a. 

" a. and Cx. add J>«. 

** rese or brout, Cx. 

'^ they ben after Jyghtyng, in Cx. 

" be somwhat like, Cx, (and a.) 

^^ the Alpes, Cx., and so belov. 

'^ So a. and Cx. ; south est, MS. 

" of] om. Cx. 

^® So Cx. ; Frensehe m Englisshe, 




dam apiid JuKum Csesarem fuerat^ tripartita, modo 
vero propter ^ varies rerum eventus a Rheno fluvio 
usque' Sequai^am,* Gallia Belgica sive^ Francia 
proprie dicitur. Inde^ usque ad' Ligerim fluvium 
dicitur Gallia Lugdunensis, quae nunc superius vocatur ^ 
Burgundia, inferius yero ^ Neustria dicitur.'® A Ligere 
vero usque ad Garonnam fluvium Gallia Aquitanica 
dicitur, quge ab orientali sibi Rhodano usque ad occi- 
dentalem oceanum porrigitur ; cujus pars superior a 
celsitudlne montium, qua prseminet, Celtica dicitur." A 
Garonna autem '^ fluvio '« usque ad fretum mediterra. 
neum seu Pyrenseos montes Gallia Narbonensis dicitur, 
quae etiam '* nimc '^ partim Gothia partim Vasconia 
dicitur. Et^^. sic Gallia universa '^ cingitur tribus no- 
bilibus fluminibus,'^ Rheno ad septentrionem, Rhodano 
ad orientem, oceano Britannico ad occasum. Gallia ita- 
que lapides*^ habet nobiles; potissime solum Parisi- 
orum^^ abundat^^ gypso, quod album plastrum vocant. 

^fuit, B.C.D. 
2 ob, A^B.CD. 
» (uf added in B.C.I). 
^ So B. ; usque ad^ A. ; Secanam, E. 
* seuy CD. 
° vero added in CD. 
"* ad\ om. A.CD. 
^ vocatnr] onu A.B, 
^ vero] om. A. 

^^ Slightly abbreviated and tmns- 
posed in CD. 
» Slightly varied in CJ). 
'< auieml om. A.B.; vero^ CD. 
^^Jtumo] om CD. 

" etio)»] om. A3. 

*^ etiam nunc] om. C All after 
dicitur omitted in D. 

^^ Et sic . .. quondam in Grecia] 
Thus abridged in CD. : In omni 
prorsus GaUia sexdeeim suntprovin" 
cicBy quarum cmnitm estfeUeior Agui" 

" universcditer, B* 

*^ aquis, A.B. 

'® lapidieinasy A.B. 

^ PariseuSyB, ; Pariseorumf A.E. 
^^ abundans nobili, 6. ; abundat 
nobUiy A. 


prouynce of Narbon. In lulius Cesar his tyme Gallia was Tbevisa, 

departed on pre ; but for dyuers happes fat byfel afterward 

in J?at lond pe contray and lond fat strecchej) from ]>e Ryne 
to Seyne, from f e oon ryuer to fat of er, batte now Gallia 
Belgica, fat is verray Fraunce ; and fat contray fat^ 
strecchef from fens to fe ryuer of Leyre, hatte Gallia 
Lugdumensis. pe ouer partie f erof hatte Burgundia, and f e 
nefere hatte Neustria ; and f e contray fat strecchef fram 
fe ryuer of Leyre to fe water fat hatte ^ Garonna hatte 
Gallia Aqaitanica, fat is Gyan, and strecchef out of f e 
est from f e ryuer of Bone anon to fe West occean, J)e 
ouer party f erof hatte Celicaj^ fat is, heuenliche and hi^e, 
for hi^e mountaignes fat beef f erynne* From f e ryuer of 
Garonna to f e see of myddel erf e and to fe mountaignes 
fat beef montes Pyrenei, greet hilles of Spayne, is i-cleped 
Gallia Narbonensis, and now som ferof hatte Gothia, and 
som Vasconia, fat is Gasquyne. And so Gallia al hool is 
i-closed aboute wif fre noble wateres, wif fe Reyne^ in fe 
norf side, wif fe Rone in fe est, and wif fe Bruttische»* 
occean in fo west side. In Gallia bef many good quarers 
and noble for to digge stoon;^ and bysides Parys is greet 
' plente of a manere stoon fat hatte gypsus, and is i-cleped 
white plaistre also ; whan fat stoon is i-tempred wif water 

tyme Fraunce was partede in thre, after lulius Cesar ; MS. Hakl. 
but nowe hit is callede Gallia Belgica, or Fraunce pro- ^^' 
prely from that fioode callede Renus, vn to Seguana. And 
from thens to a floode caUede Ligeris hit is calledde Fraunce f« 43 b. 
Lugdunense. And from that water Ligeris vn to the floode 
callede Garona hit is callede Aquitany or Gyon, which is 
protendede vn to the esturne floode callede Rodanus, and to the 
weste occean, the superior parte of whom is callede Celtica, 
of the altitude of hilles in hit. And hit is callede nowe 
also Fraunce Narbonense^ from that floode caUede Garona vn 
to the grete see, whiche is nowe in parte Gothia in parte 
Gascuyn. And so alle Fraunce is cincte with thre nowble 
waters ; with the water caUede Rhenus at the northe, with 
the flood calledde Rodanus at the este, and at the weste 
with the occean of Briteyne. This Fraunce is habundante 
in white stones whiche is callede white playster, whiche 
brente in the fjrre and temprede with water makethe 

^}>at] Added from Gx. 
^]HithaUe'i of, a.,Cx. 
* Selica, a. 

* JRyne, a. 

* So also Cx. (BruttpsL) 

* digge y» stones, a., Cx. 


quod quidem igne exustum et aqua temperatum verti- 
tur in csementum, unde fiunt parietes, testudines, et 
pavimenta indissolubilia. Ibi^ floret civitas Parisius, 
nutrix morum, pincema literaruiUy ita^ refulgens in 
Europa sicut Athense quondam in Grsacia.® Gens 
etiam^ Francorum, sicut plerseque gentes Europea, a 
Trojanis originem duxit ; Ant^nor namque post captam 
Trojam cum suis proftigus per Maeotides paludes per- 
que^ fluvium® Tanaim' Pannoniam tenuit, in qua 
urbem Sicambram fimdavit, a qua et ipse et sui pos- 
ter!^ Sicambri dieti sunt. Post cujus mortem con- 
stituti sunt^ duces super eos Trogotus et Franco^ a 
quo Franci vocati ;'® sive, ut Turpinus inter gesta ^^ 
Caroli,^^ scribit/^ postquam Carolus subjugata Hispania 
Parisium remeasset^ volens honorare Beatum Jacobum 
et Sanctum Dionysium manumisit^^ omnes servos per 
GaUiam cujuscunque fuissent '^ dominii/® qui annuatim 
quatuor nummos ad fabricam ecclesise ^^ Beati Dionysii 
ofFerrent ; et sic franci^ id est liberi, Beati Dionysii 

' et ihi, B. 
^ tto] om. A.B. 
*See preyious page. 
^ eHam] om« CD. ; igiiur, A3. 
^ per qucBy'B, 
^Jiumen, A. 
» Thamy, MSS. 

^ ipse et 8utpo8ter%\ om.C.I).; ^us 
sequaceSf A.B. 
" Post . . . suntll om. CD. 

1^ sunt added in A.B,D. 

^^ de gestis, A:B,CJ>* 

*^ KardUy MSS., and similarly be< 

" dkit, CD. 

^* Slightly tianeposed in C. 

" essentf A.B. 

" SUghtly altered in CD. 

" ecclesuB] Added from A.B.D. 


and torned to playstre.^ panne me make]? J?8rof ymages, Trbvisa. 

walles and chambres, pamentes and djuerse manere of 3 

workes, J>at dm*ef longe i-now. pare is fe faire floure ]?e 
citee of Parys, norice * of fewes, botiller of lettres, schy- 
nynge in Europa as Athene 4 somtyme In Grecia, Girdfd. 
DisL prima, pe Fi'ensclie men, \ht batte Franci also, and 
many ofer men J>e strongest of Europa come of * Troians ; 
ffor aftir Jjat Troye was i-takc, Antenor wi]) Ms men fliZ^ 
awey by j>e ^ watres pat hatte paludes Meotides, and by ])e 
ryuer Tanais, and wonede in Fannonia^ and bulde pere 
a citee, and cleped it Sicambria. Of fat citee he and 
alle hise wei'e aftirward i-cleped Sicatnbri. After Antenore 
his deep pey ordeyned liem tweie lederes, Trogotus and 
Franco, and of pilke Finance pel were after i-cleped Franci. 
Turpinus, de gestis Karoli, seip pat whanne* kyng Charles 
had i-made Spayne soget, and was i-come home to Parys 
a^en, he made alle pe bonde men of Gallia fre ^ 
in worschippe of Seint lame ^^ and of Seynt Denys ; but 
'pQj schulde euery ^ere offre foure pans** to pe chirche 
work of Seynt Denys, And so pey were i-cleped Franci 

cemente as indissoluble. The cite callede Parisius ilory- MS. VLxrl, 
schethe there the nutrix of vertu, the pantry of letters, 2261. 

whiche schynethe now in Europe as Atheynes iloryschede 

somme tyme in Grece. Gir» JDist prima. The peple of 
Fraunce, as mony other peple, toke theire 1>egynnenge of the 
Troianes. For Antenor, after the takenge of Troye, fleenge 
with his feloweschippe by the fioode of TJianay, come to 
Pannony, in whom he made a cite called Sicambria, ^^ where- 
fore he and his folowers were callede Sicambri.^^ After 
the dethe of whom ij. dukes and gouernoures were ordeynede 
to governe they me. Which were Trogotus and Francus, off 
whom Frenche men toke theire name. But as Turpinus 
seyethe of the gestes of Charls, after that kynge Charls 
subduenge to hym Spayne hade commen to Parise, wyllenge to 
worschippe Seynte lames and Seynte Dionise, he Zafe manu- 
mission to all his seruauntes thro Fraunce of what so euer 
lordeschippe that thei were, whiche scholde offre yerely 
iiij. d. to the chirche of Seynte Dionise ; and so Frenche 

' into piaster, a., Cx. * 

2o/] om. Cx, 

^ which is norifce, Cx. 

* AtlteneSf Cx. 

^ a. and Cx, add l>e. 

^Jled, Cx. 

' >e] om. Cx, 

VOL. I. 

So a. $ tehaty MS. (first hand) ; 
altered to whan» 

» So a. and Cx. ; fre before of 
Gallia in MS. 

'« lamest Cx. 

" panes, a,; pens, Cx. 

'- Cicamhria and Cicambri, Harl. 



ubique vocabantur.^ Ex tunc inolevit quod Gallia 
Francia vocaretur.^ Dicunt alii^ quod Valentimanus 
imperator lingua Attica vocavit Francos, quasi ferancos, 
a feritate animi.^ Nam usque ad tempora ejusdem* 
Valentiniani ^ Sicambri longaevis temporibus tributarii 
fuerant Romanorum. ^ Illud autem tributum, .ut® 
contra Alanos ^ Romanis infestos *^ bellum susciperent, 
decennio remissum est. Quo " decurso, Alanisque '^ de- 
tritis,*^ solitum exacti tributum solvere renuerunt. 
Quamobrem Valentinianus, ingenti coacto exercitu, Si- 
cambros appetiit** et devicit. Quo infortunio Sicambri'* 
etferati terras Romanorum Romanisque subjectorum 
crudeliter invaseruntJ® Hinc eatenus Sicambri, a Franco 

' JEt sic Franci Dionysii et liberi 
ubique vocantur, CD. 
^ A.6.0. add ctb ilia libertate, 
' autem quidam, CD. 

* SUgMy transposed in C. } a fe- 
ritate animi lingua Attica voeant 
eo9 Francos, A.B.D. 

* ^usdeml om, CD. 

* Irr^eraioris] added in CD. 
^ fuerunt BomaniSf CD. 

* uf] om. C ; auty A, 

^ Slavos, B. 

** infestos cum, C (not D.) 

^^ Quo decennio, A.B.CD. 

** Slavisque, B. 

*^ contritiSf A.B.CD. 

"/>eftVf, B. 

^^ Sicambri'] om. A.B.CD. 

^^ s}tbjectas invadere inceperunt, 
B. ; suhjeetas invadere eeperunt, 


Beat! i Dionysii, fat is Seint Denys his fre men. And so Tbevisa. 
it come ^ aboute ^at Gallia was i-cleped Francia, by cause — *— 
of ]>at fredom. Oper men telle]> fat Valentinianus ^ fe 
emperour cleped hem Francos as it were Ferancos, j?at 
is steorno and wither, in fe langage of Attica, fat is 
Grecia. For Sicambri, fat beef Frensche men, were tri- 
butarii to Rome longe tyme to fore Yalentinianus is tyme 
also. But whan Alani, men of Alania» were enemyes to 
Rome, Sicambri hadde hire tribute for^eue for ten ^ere 
for to werre a^enst Alani, men 4 of Alania ; and whan f e 
ten ^ere were i-doo and Alani ouercome, f e Romaynes asked 
her tribute ; and Sicambri werned it and wolde none 
paye. perfore Yalentinianus pe empei'our werred vppon 
hem wif a grete oost, and hadde f e victorie ; fan for fat 
myshap Sicambry were wood wroof,^ and werred^ in fe 
londes of Rome [and also on the londes that were subgett 
to Rome] 7 also, perfore Sicambri were afterward i-cleped 
Franci, as it were feranci, fat is wither and sterne,^ and of 
fat duke Franco fey were i-cleped Franci, as it were Franco 
his men. Also of hir fredom fat kyng Charles ^af hem 
fey beef i-cleped Franci, fat is fre men so^ for to mene, 
Treuisa, But how er fey come to fat name, !BVanci beef 
Frensche men, and hatte bof e Sicambri and Gallj|«. And so 

men were callede the fre men of Seynte Dionise. And so MS. Harl. 
that londe was namede Fraunce for cause of that liberte. 2261. 
Other men say that Valentinianus themperoure callede 
theyme Francos, as ferancos. For Sicambri ^^ were tributaries 
to thempjre of Eome yn to the tyme of Valentinian, wMche 
tribute was remittede to theyme by x. yere that they 
scholde make batelle ageyn men of Almayne, wMche were 
contrarious to thempire of Rome that tyme y-paste ;. and 
the men of Allemayne deuicte, they refusede to pay theire 
tribute to Rome. Wherefore Valentinianus, gedrenge a 
grete hoste, entrede theire costes and hade yictory of theyme ; 
wherefore thei wente afterwarde and destroyede moche of 
the cuntre of Romanes ; and therefore thei were callede 
Frenche men of Francus theire gouernoure or elles of 

^ SaticHy Cx, 

* cam, Cx. 
' So Cx. — ^MS. and a. have his 

tyme aho, after Vol. i but this seems 
a inere clerical error. See below. 

* ayenst the men, Cx. 

* iore wrothy Cx. ( below. 

js 2 

• warred, Cx. 

7 Words in brackets added ftom 
" ioi\>er and steeme, a, 
» so] om. Cx. 
" Cicamhri, Harl. MS., and so 

276 POLYcnnoNicoN banulphi higden 

l)e succes. duce sive a feritate animorum * dicti Franci,^ Fera- 
gum Fran- mundum filium Marcomiri regem sibi ^ creaverunt, et 
corum. terram a Sicambria usque ad Rhenum fluvinm proten- 
sam * subegerunt.^ Willwlmus^ de Regibus, lihro p^^i/moJ 
Defuncto® autem Feramundo filium ejus Clodionem sive 
Clodium crinitum sibi praefecerunt, a quo reges Fran- 
corum criniti postmodum vocabantur. Post Clodium 
Meroveum nepotem ejus erexerunt, a quo succedentes 
reges usque ad Pipinum Meroviugi vocabantur. Eodem 
modo ^ filii regum Anglise a patribus patronymica sump- 
serunt; ut filius Edgari Edgaring,'^ filius Edmund i 
Edmundyng vocetur.'^ Communiter autem Adelingi 
vocantur qui de regio sanguine descendunt. Oiraldtis, 
DistinctioTie prima. Itaque ^^ post Meroveum regnavit 
Childericus filius ejus, qui genuit Clodoveum, quern 
Sanctus Remigius baptizavit. Qui Gotlios Arianos suasu 
Romanorum ab Aquitania expulit. Quo mortuo Cbilde- 
bertus '® filius ejus cum tribus fratribus suis, Theodorico,^* 

* animorum] om. A.B.D. | post eum reges Francorum usque ad 
' a feritate dicti sunt Franci, C. , Pepinvm Merovingi sunt vocati, A.B. , 
' Regem sibi before Feramundum : which agree m the rest with E., as 

in A*B.D. ' far as descendunt, 

•prote»«»».]oin.B.D. j , ,< ^dded in A.B. 

* Transposed in C « . . 

« WiUdmm, at lenrh, here and j " £d9<>ri»9es,^i Edganngus,B. 

below E. ' ^^ Edmundingis^ A.\ Edmundyngus 

'CD. om.titleofqnotation. \ vocentur, A.'Q. 

8 Defuncto . . . expulit] Quo de- \ ^^ Itaque . . . expulit] Itaque post 

functo Clodoveum jfilium ejus substi- \ Meroveum CiedonemJUium ejus erexe- 

tuerunt. Post kctc Itkenum trans- \ runt, sub quo Menumjluvium trans- 

euntes a Rheno usque Lygerim cunc- 
tarn terram a Romanis abstulemnt 
Post hac prcedicante beato Remigio 
Clodoveus ChristianusJactttSf Gotkos 
Arianos de Aqiiiiania jussu Romano- 
mm ibi existentes depulit, D. ; and 

euntes totam terram inter Rhenum et 
JAgerim a Romanis absttderunt Post- 
modum Cledoveus rex eorunty prcedi- 
cante beato Remigio, Christianus ef- 
fectus, Gotkos Arianos jussu Roma^ 
norum ab Aquitania expulit, B. And 

so C, but having hoc for hac twice, j so A., but having Clodionem, and 
and ab for de, and omitting est. \ Clodoveus. 

Quo defuncto Meroveum nepotem \ ** Agildebertus, O. 
ejus in regem sibi erexerunt, a quo " Theoderteo, E, 



it is alle oon peple, Sicambri, Galli, and ^ IVanci, aud Frensche Tkkvisa. 

men. 1^.2 Franci .made hem a Isyng fat lii^te^ Fera- 

muDdus, Marcomiris^ sone, and made allc fe lond sogett, 
ffrom ^ Sicambrla anon to pe Ryne. Willielmus de Regibus^ 
libro primo. Whan Feramundus was dede, Jjey made his 
sone kyng, J^at hadde fre names, aud heet Clodion, Clodius, 
and Crinitus ; and of hym kynges of Fraunce were aftir- 
ward i-cleped Ciiniti.^ After Clodius ]>ey made his 
sone kynge, fat hadde fre names/ and hiite Meroueus ; ; 
and after hym kynges of Fraunce wei'e i-cleped Mei'ouyngi 
anoon to I*ypinus his tyme. In fe same manere kynges 
sones of Engelond hadde names i-schape by hir fader names 
and so ^ Edganis his sone hiZte Edgaryngus,^ and Edmun- 
dus his sone heet Edmundyngus. Comounliche he )>at 
come)? of ^^ kynges blood is i-cleped Adelyngns. Girald,, 
Dist prima. After Mei'oueus regned his sone Childericus ; 
hym folwede ^^ Remigius. pis Childericus at fe prayerc ^^ of 
l>e Romayns put fat peple Gothi An*iani out of GyanJ-'^ 
Whan he was dede his sone Childebei'tus helde fe kyng- 
dom wif his fre breferen Theodoricus, Clodomirus,!'* and CIo- 

cruelleness, makenge -kynge amonge theyme Feramundus 
the son of Marcomirus, makenge subiecte to theym the MS. Haul. 
cuntre from Sicambria vn to that floode callede Eenus. 2^6 1. 
Willielmus de PonU^cihuSy libro prima, Whiche Fera- 
mundus dedde thei made Clodoueus his son kynge. And 
after Clodoueus, Merouius his nevewe was electe in to the 
kynge, after whom alle kynges of Fraunce vn to Pipinu^j were 
callede Merouingi. In lyke wyse the sonnes of kynges of 
Englonde toke their names after theire faders. As the son 
of Edgare was callede Edgarynge, the son of Edmunde, 
Edmundenge. Gir.^ Dist, prima. Also after Merouius, 
Childericus his son reignede, whiche gate Clodoueus whom 
Kemigius baptisede* This Clodoueus at the instaunce and 
preier of the Romanes expelled from the cuntre of Gyon 
the Gothes infecte with the heresy of Arrianus. Whiche 
dedde, Childericus his sou occupyede the realme with his thre 
brether, Theodoricus, Clodomirus, and Clotaiius ; in whiche 

' a. om. and» j ■ had names after the names of 

' 9.] Added from a. and Cx. j theyrfad£r, as, Cx. 

^ heet^ cc 

* Marcomirus hiSf a, ; Marconurus, 

^ffram, a. 

* Criniti] So a. and Cx. ; Cirini 
Sirini, MS. 

' Cx. omits this clause, which 
eeems repeated by a clerical error, j 

' So ff . and Cx. ; Edgaryndus, MS. 

" cristnedy Cx. 

" atte prayere, Cx, 

»* Guyan, Cx. 

1* Added from a. and Cx* 



Clodomiro,^ et Clothario,^ eo scilicet * tempore quo Gre- 
gorius Magnus^ floruit, regnum teuuit Post quem 
Clotharius frater ejus, qui beatam Radegundam despon- 
aavit. Et post eum Childericus filius ejus reguavit cum 
tribus fratribus suis, Cariberfco, Guudano,^ Sigeberto.^ 
Post Childericum Clotbarius filius ejus regnavit, qui 
genuit Dagobertum et Batildem sororem ejus. Sub 
iato Dagoberto fuit Pipinus major domusregiaB' tempo- 
ribus Heraclii imperatoris. Post Dagobertum filius 
ejus Clodoveus regnavit,® cujus tempore corpus jSancti ® 
Benedicti de provincia Beueventana usque in Frandam 
delatum est.^^ Post Clodoveum regnavit filius ejus Clo- 
tharius, post quem firater ejus Theodoricus, sub quo 
Ebroinus" major domus regime beatum*^ Leodegarium 
afflixit.** Post quem Clodoveus, Post quem frater ejus 
Childebertus. Post quem filius suus Dagobertus,^* Post 
quem regale genus defedt.^^ Nam' post eum regnavit 
Daniel clericus, quem ^® Franci mutato nomine vocave- 

I ■ mniOM 

\ Clodemtro, A. j Glodoiniro, CD. 

' ClotariOf A», and similarly be- 
low ; Glotario, I)., but Clotarius 

* eo scilicet] om. CD. ; scilicet 
cm. A.B. 

* Mttgnusl Oxn. C; magnusPapa 
Gregorius, A.B. j Papa Gregoritis, 

* GundianOf B.CD. 

* et Sioeherto, CD. 
^ regincB, B. 

® regnavit] om. B. 
3 beatt, CD 

^^ traiislatum estfA, ; deBenevenia 
translatum est, CD. 

' ' EliromuSf B. 

^^ heatum] om. B. 

'^ Varied slightly in CD. 

^^ Post . . . Dagohertus] cui Cbil- 
debertas £rater ejus junior successit^ 
cui filius suus (ejus, A.) Dagober« 
tus junior» A.B. 

" The foregoing clauses slightly 
varied in CD. 

'® frater quem, CD. ; frater €Juft\ 
quem^ A,B, 



tariuB. pis was in }>& popes tjme fe Grefce G-regory.* Afte J>is Taevisa. 
CMldebertus ^ regned his broper Clotarius : he wedded Seynt — - 
Badagund. And after hym regned his sone, Ghildericus» 
wij> his |)re bref eren Carbertus, Gundianus, and Sigesbertus. 
After ChUdericus reigned his sone Clotarius : he bygat 
Dagobertus and his suster Batildys.^ Vnder pis Dagobertus 
Pypinus was J>e grettest man of pe kynges hous ; and ]?at 
was in Heraclius fe emperoures tyme.^ After Dagobertus 
regned his sone Clodoueus. In his tyme seynt Benet his body 
was translated and i-bore out of fe prouince Beneuentana in 
to Fraunce. After Clodoueus regned his sone Clotarius ; 
after ^ hym his brojer Theodoricus. In his tyme Ebroynus,^ 
Jiat was pe grettest of fe kynges hous, pursuede Seint Leode- 
garius and dede hym moche woo and tene^ and martired hym 
at fe laste.^ After Theodoricus regned Clodouius ; and 
after hym his ^onge® broiler Childebertus ; [after him his 
^onger^ sone Dagobertus ;ji^ and after hym pe kynges lynage 
faillede. For after hym reigned his broJ>er Daniel, fat was 
a clerk. But Franci chaunged Daniel his name, and 

tyme Grete Gregory floryschede. Afther whom Clotarius MS. Habl. 
his brother reignede, whiche toke to his wyfe Seynte Bade- 2261.^ 
gunde. After whom Childericus his son reignede, with 
Garibertus, Gundianus, and Sigelbertus, his brether. After 
Childericus Clotarius his son reignede, which gate Dagoberte 
and Batildis his sustyr. Vnder this Dagoberte, Pipinus 
was as the gouernoure of the kynges house, in the tymes 
of Heraclius themperoure. After Dagoberte, Clodoueus 
his son reignede, in the tyme of whom the body of Seynte 
Benedicte was translate from the province Beneuentan rn 
to Fraunce. After Clodoueus, Clotarius his son reignede* 
After him his brother Theodoricus, vnder whom Ebronius 
was the gouernoure of the kynges howse, whiche punyschede 
Seynte Leodegary. After whom Clodoueus, and after hym 
Childebertus his yongeste brother reignede, whom Dagoberte 
his yongeste son succedede, and after hym the stokke of 
kynges failede^ For after hym Daniel a clerke reignede, 
whiche was his brother ; whom Frenche men callede Childe* 

* time of the grete pope Gregory^ 

"^ So a. ; Ckilbertus, MS. 
3 So Cx. ; BatOdus, MS., «. 

* in the iyme ofEraclius thempe- 
rour, Cx. 

* ami after f Cx. 

^ Ebronius f a. f Cx. 

^ atte hstef Cx. 

® yunger, ce,, Cx, 

^ yongt Cx. 

1« Words in brackets added froni 
a. and Cx. 



runt Childericum.* Post quern Theodoricus propinquus 
ejus. Post quern ^ Hildericus frater ejus,^ qui ob in- 
ertiam nimiam^ depositus et clericus factus in monas- 
lerio private vixit.* Sicque'' defecit linea prosapise 
Ferramundi ^ per viros, sed mansit per Batildem ^ soro- 
rem Dagoberti isto ^ modo.** Batildis nupsit Ansberto, 
de quo" genuit Arnaldum, cujus filius Arnulphus duxit 
filiam Pipini ducis ac ^^ majoris in domo regia ^^ Dago- 
berti fratris '* ejusdem Batildis. Sed isto ^* Arnulpho 
Metensi postmodum '^ episcopo facto, "^ Ansegisilus filius 
ejus genuit Pipinum, qui vetulus seu brevis dictus est. 
WilUelmus de Begibus, libro primo}^ Qui Pipinus 
genuit Carolum Tutidem ^" seu Martellum nominatum,-^ 
eo quod tyrannos per Franciam emergentes contuderifc/^ 
Sarracenos quoque Galliam infestantes egregie depulerit. 

* Childericum vocaverunt, A.D. ; 
EthUdericum vocaverunt^ B. 

^ cui successity A.B. ; illique sw 
cesnit ChildertcuSf D. 
' /rater ejus"] om. A. 

* nimiam inertiam, A.B> 

* Abbreyiated in O.I). 

* Sic ergo, CD. 

' Fdramundiy A. 

* So B. ; BatUdam, E. (clerical 
error ?) 

* hoc, CD. 

*• isto modo"] ipsa rero, B. 
*' qua. A., more correctly. 
»* et, C (not D.) 

" regis, CD. ; om. B. 

^* fratrisque, A.CD. 

" Isto quoque, A.B» 

^^ postmodum Metensi, A.B. 

" effecto, A. ; abbreyiated slightly 
in CD. 

" Reference omitted in CD. 

1» So MSS., but TudiUs seems to 
be the correct title, and so Malmes- 
bury, Gest, Reg, AngL, lib. i. § 68 
(vol. i. p. 98, ed. Hardy). See Du- 
cange, s* v. 

^ notninatum , . ^Iste"] om. C,and 
so D., except the word nominatum, 

2» conquievit, B. 



cleped hymi Childericus. After hym reigned oon of his Tebvisa. 

tyn fat heet Theodoricus ; and after hym his brother Hil- 

dericus. He was i-putte doun for grete nysete and i-made 
a clerk, and leued as a monk in an abbay ; and fnmie 
faillede pe lynage in men of Feramundus blood. But ^it it 
laste ^ and durede in a womman ]>at was Batildis, Dagober- 
tus his snster. In J)is manere Batildis^ Avas i- wedded to 
Ansebertus, and hadde by hym a sone ]>at heet Arnold, 
pan J)is Arnoldes sone heet Arnulphe.^ pat Arnulphe^ wed- 
ded duke Pypinis doubter. Pypinus was grettebt of king^ 
Dagobertus his hous. Kyng Dagobertus was Batildis brofer. 
pis Arnulph^ was afterward i-made bisshop, Metensis epi- 
scopus.^ pan his sone Ansegesilus gat Pipinus, pat hadde 
tweie oper names, Vetulus and Bremys,^ fVillielmus^ de Rc' 
gibus, libra primo, pis Pypinus gat Charles pat heet Tutidis,**^ 
[and Martellus also, and had pat name Tutidis] i<> of ^m[« jc^cr^, 
pat is bete and bounseA^ For he beet ^^ out of Fraunce alle pe 
tyrauntes and Sarazynes^^ pat weiTede perynne, and de- 
stourbed ^* pe loud and pe *^ peple. pis Charles folwed pe 

ricus. After whom Theodoricus nye of his kynrede ; after MS. Habl. 
whom Hildericus his brother succedede, whiche deposede ^^^^* 
for his slawthe, and made a clerke, lyvede priuately in a 
monastery. Soe the linealle descense of the prosapy or 
kynrede of Feramundus faylede by men, but hyt remaynede ^* '*^- ^* 
in Batildis, sustyr to Dagoberte. The seyde Batildis was 
maryede to Ansebertus, whiche gate of here a childe callede 
Arnaldus, whose childe callede Arnulpus was maryede to 
the do^hter of Pipinus, duke of the howse of kynge Dago- 
berte, brother to the seide Batildis. Whiche Arnulphus 
afterwai'de beenge byschop Metense, Ansegesilus his son 
gate Pipinus, whiche was callede olde Pipinus, or schorte. 
Willielmus de Regibus, libro prima» Whiche Pipinus gate 
Charles, or other wise namede Martellus, in so moche that 
he depressede tirauntes in Fraunce, and Saracenes makenge 
insurrecciones ageyne the londe of Fraunce. This man 

om. a. 
' lasted, Cz. 
' Batildus, MS. (not Cx.) 
^ Arnulphus, Cx. (thrice.) 
^ ike grettest of ike kyng, Cx. 
* episcopus'] om. Cx. 
7 Breuis, a. and Cx. 
« WiMmus, Cx., here and else- 

• So tt. and Cx, ; Tutidus, MS. 
(not so below.) 

'^ Words in brackets added from 
a. and Cx. 

>i beten and bounsed^ Cx. 

** he beef] abenf, a. 

" Sarzines, a, 

" destroubkd, Cx. 

** N] om. Cx, 



Hie nempe pateruse sententidB sequax reges Francis 
tenuit in clientela sua^ ipse comifcis nomine contentatus.^ 
Giraldus, Distinetione prima. Iste® Carolus genuit 
Pipinum secundum et Garolomannum pestea monachum. 
Hie itaque ^ Rpinus ^ ex Batilde prsedieta regium genus 
ducens^ post depositionem Hilderici^ regis voto totius 
militidB auctoritateque Stephani ® Papse successoris Za- 
charise ' rex Francorum effectus/ genuit Carolum Mag- 
num, qui post obitum patris sui,^ anno Domini " 
DC(y>,JjX^,lXP, in regem erigitun Deinde " advocatus Petri 
et patricius in imperatorem est erectus ; a quo tempore 
imperium Constantinopolitanum defecit a Romanis et 
transiit ad Francos,^^ eo *^ quod Grseci nuUam opem 
ferrent iRomanis contra ssevitiam Longobardorum. Hie 
Carolus Lodowicum ^* imperatorem, qui Carolum tertium 
Calvum nuncupatum progenuit, qui Lodowicum secun- 
dum, qui Carolum quartum et Simplicem dictum pro- 

* contentusy A.B» 
- Qui, CD* 

* tl9fif]cr,A.B.C.D. 

^ Pipinus secundus^ A.B.O.I). 

* ChUderici, CD. 

® toHus militia auctoritate atque, 

"^ auctoritateque Zacharim Papce, 


^ est qui added in A.B.; est qui et 
added in CD. 

® sut] om. A.B.CD. 

'* Domini] om. CD. 

" deinde*, . Canquestoris] Abbre- 
viated in B., as foUovs : " Qnem 
^ postmodam Homani oh ejus egre* 

<' gios actus advocatmn beati Petri 
** elegerunt) deinde patriciom, impe^ 
*^ ratorem deinde Augnstum ; a qno 
'' tempore imperinul Conetaatinopo- 
" lis defecit aKomanis et transiit ad 
" Francos^ eo quod nttllam opem 
*' ecclesise Bomanss ferrent contra 
" ssevitiam Longobardorum tnnc 
** Komanos infestantinm." And so 
A. very nearly. 

»2 Deinde . . , . Francos'] Abbre- 
viated and transposed in CD. 

" eo quod .... reportaret (next 
page)] om. CD. 

^* Lodowycumy £., here and some- 
times below 



sentens of his forme fadres,^ and helde pe kjnges of Fraunce Tbbvisa. 

in his retenue. And he hym self was i-cleped an erle, and 

hildo hym a payed ^ in^ ]>at name* Giraldus* pis Charles 
gatte fe secounde Pypinus^ and Charles fe Crete })at was 
aftirwarde a monk., pis secounde Pipinus was of pe kynges 
kynde: for he com of Batildis, fat we speke of rafere.^ 
And ]>erfore he was i-^made kyng of Fraunce by assent of 
alle ]>e chyualrie and by auctorite of pope Steuene ]>at was 
next pope ® after Zacharie. J)is Pipinus gat Charles ye Crete ; 
]>is Charles was i-made kyng after his fader 7 deep, pe ^ere 
of oure Lorde seuene hundred pre score and nyne. For his 
noble dedes pe Romayns chees ® hym afterwardes for to be 
Seynt Petres aduokett,^ aftirward patricius, and pan pe em- 
perour and Augustus. And from pat t3rme pe empere of 
Constantinopolis *^ tornede from the Romaynes to pe Frensche 
men ; for pey wolde not**' helpe pe chirche of Borne a^en 
pe Longebardes pat werred a^enst pe Romayns. J)is 
Charles gat Lewes, *^ pat was aftirward emperoure. pis 
Lewis gat pe Balled Charles, pat was emperour also, pe 
Balled Charles gat Lewes ; Lewes gat Chdrles pe Sym- 

folowenge the steppes of his fader, kepede the kynges of MS. Hael. 
Fraunce in his seruyce, contente with the name of a duke. 2261. 

Gir.y Dist. prima. This Charls gate Pipinus the secunde, 

and Karolomannus afterwarde a monke. This Pipinus the 
secunde, commenge of the stokke of the seide Batildis, after 
the deposicion of kynge Hildericus was made kynge of 
Fraunce thro the desire of alle the cheuallery, and by the 
auctorite of Pope Steven the successor off Zacharye. Whiche 
gate Crete Charles. Whiche was erecte to the kyngedome 
of Fraunce after the dethe of his fader in pe yere of our 
Lorde Godde poc. lx. and ix., whom the Romanes electe to 
be the aduocate of Seynte Petre for the nowble actes that 
he did ; after that thei made hym emperoure- and Augustus. 
From whiche tyme the empire of Constantinople wente from 
pe Romanes and wente to Frenche men, in that thei 
helpede not the chirche of Rome ageyne Longobardes, 
kepenge werre ageyne the Romanes. This Charles gate 
Lodowicus. This Lodowicus gate Symple Charles, whiche 


^ paid and contenty Cx. 

' «??J», o., Cx. 

* FupinuSf Cx. (but not uai- 

* bifore, Cx. 

^ pope neyt (for next\ Cx» 

''faders, Cx. (and «o often.) 

"^ choscy Cx. 

® adiwcute^ Cx. 

^^ Constantinople, CX» 

" nouyt, a. (not, Cx. uniformly.) 

" Lowi/s, Cx. (and so below.) 



genuit, qui Lodowicum tertium, qui Lotharium primuni, 
qui Lodowicum quartum, hujus prosapia? regem ulti- 
mum. Quo mortuo Franci sfcatuerunt super se Hugo- 
nena O^pefc, ducem Bui*guadise, qui genuit Robei-tum, 
qui Henricum, qui Philippum primum, qui Lodowicum 
quintum^ qui regnavit tempore Henrici primi regi^ 
AngKsB filii Conquestoris. WiUielmus de Megibus, libra 
primo. Sicque successores Caroli Magni imperaverunt ^ 
in Italia et Alemannia usque ^ ad annum Domini non- 
gentesimum duodecimum, quando Conradus rex* Teu- 
tonicorum imperium sibi arripuit. Rannlphus. Diu 
postmodum, ut fert fama, regina qusedam Francoruni, 
ad quam regnum FrancisB descenderat,* videns quem- 
dam macellarium elegantem^ sumpsit sum in virum ; ob 
cujus facti detestationem, Franci apud se legem ^ sanx- 
erunt^ ut nulla naulier deinceps'^ regnum Francia 
reportaret.® Oiraldus, Distioictione prima.^ Galliam 

* Sicque .... iniperaveruntj Ex 

hujus Karoli genere regnaverunt 

successores in Praucia usq^ae ad 

Hngonem cognomento Capet, de 

quo cs&teri desceuderunt quemad- 

modum inferius in sue loco dice- 

tur ; ex cujus progenie regnare- 

runt, See., A.B. and the versions. 

This is more like Malinesbury's 

text. See lib. i. § 68 (vol. i. pp. 
100, 101, ed. Hardy). The same 

may be said of the readings of A.B. 
in the notes to p. 276 ; compare 
Maliinesbury, p. 96. 

* usque] om. A. 
' rex] om. B. 

* hereditarie descenderaty A.B. 

* legem] om. A.B. 

• statueruntf A.B. 

' deinceps] Added from A.B. 

• See previous page. 

• Distinctione prima] om. CD. ; 
the latter has Girardus. 


pie. Charles fe Simple gat Levres;i Lewes gat Lotlia^ Trevisa. 

rius ; Lotharius gat Lewes, J?e laste kyng of fis lynage. 

Whan ))is Lewes was dede, Franci took Huwe^ duke of 
Bargoyne, aiid made hym here kyng. pis Hewe gat Kobert ; 
Bobert gat Henry ; ^ Henry gat Phelip ; Philip gat Lewes. 
Lewes regnede in Henry Cierkes ^ tyme, pe Conquerours sone. 
pe Grete Charles his* ospringe regnede in Fraunce anon 
to Hughe is tyme, J)at hi^t Capet by his surname. Of hym 
come oJ>er kynges of Fraunce, as it is wifynne in his 
place openliche declared ; kynges of his ofspiynge regned 
in Italia and in Almania anone to fe ^ere of oure Lord 
uyne hondi'ed and twelue, whan Conradus,^ kyng of Duches 7 
men, toke pe empere to hymself. R. Longe aftirward, as 
comynS fame telle]?, a woman j>B,i was queue of Fraunce 
by eritage wedded a bocher for his fairenesse ; ferfore in 
ye repreef ^ of jiat dede Frensche men ordeyned among 
hemself J?at no womman schulde affcirwarde be eyre of ]>e 
reigue^^ of Fraunce. Giraldtts. pe Bomayns were som- 

gate Lodowicus. That Lodowicns gate Lotharius, whiche MS. HAst. 
gate Lodowicus the laste kynge of that kynrede. After the 2261. 

dethe of whom the Bomanes ordeynede Hugo duke off 

Burguyne to theire gouernoure, whiche gate Bobert. That 
Bobert gate Henry, whiche gate Philippe, pat Philippe gate 
Lodowicus, whiche reignede in the tyme of Heniy Clerke, 
son of the Conquerour. Kynges reignede in Fraunce of the 
stocke of Grete Chai*les vn til that Hewe Capet reignede 
in Fraimce, from whom other descendenge reignede j;here, as 
hit schalle be seyde in his propre place, of jthe stocke of 
whom somme reignede in Ytaly, somme in Allemayne, vn 
to the yere of oure lorde ix<^. and xiL, when kynge Con- 
radus toke to hym thempyre of Almayne. R. Longe after- 
warde, after the commune fame, a qwene of Fraunce io 
whom the reahne descendede by ti*ewe inheritaunce, whiche 
seenge m bochor, a semely man of stature, toke hym to 
here howsebonde 5 for the^ detestacion of that dede, the 
Frenche men made a statute that noo woman after here 
scholde reioyce the realme of Fraunce. Giraldus. Nowble 

1 Cx. omit» both clauses relatiug | ^ So a. and Cx. ; Contradus, MS. 

to Charles the Simple. j ' Dtiehe, Cx. 

^-Hugh.Cx, I « Me coOTv», Cx. 

^ Harry, Cx, t ^/r» 

* clerk his, a. \ Reproof, Cx. 

* his] So a, ; 0/, MS. i '" royame, Cx. 



dudum tenuerunt fortes coloni, qm ^ Eomanos saepius ^ 
protriverunt. Tandem Gallia, sub Julio ^ Csesare sub- 
acta/ per quadringentos circiter annos usque ad ultima 
Valentiniani temporal per Eomanos occupata est.^ 
Deinde'' Wandali et Huni, post quos® Suevi et Bur- 
gundi, post quos Grothi et Sicambri, post quos ^ Nor- 
wagenses et Dani sedes sibi in ea fecerunt.^^ Sunt 
itaque in Qallia sive Francia^hse provincise, Braban- 
tia,*® Flandria, Picardia, Normannia, Britannia^ Minor, 
Pictavia, Aquitania,^^ Andegavia, Vasconia, Burgundia, 
Alvernia,'* Salina, Provincia, Campania Minor.*^ 

' qui totitis vrbis («tc) victores^ A. ; 
qui totius orbis Ittctatorea, CD. 

* multiplici bellopene, A. CD. 
^ Gato Julio, CD. 

* subacta esty et sic occupata per 
Romanos, A.D. 

* A,CD, add : " quando externse 
^' ex diversis orbls terrae partibus 
" gentes earn invaseruat." 

* Sentence otherwise very slightly 
altered in CD. 

' Deinde] Primo namque, CD. 
^ dein, C ; deinde^ D. 

* post modum, A. ; postremoy CD. 
*• sibi smnpserunty A. 

" itaque in ea, CD, 
'* Brabania, E. 

^^ Acquitania, E. : it and other 
MSS. below have often Aquitannia, 
which is interesting^ as showing the 
passage to the modem Cruienne. 

" Alicervia, C 

'* The proper names slightly trans- 
posed in A.CD. The account of 
Brabant Is placed at the end of this 
chapter in A. and the Harl. version, 
but incongruously and inconsistently 
with the heading of the following 
chapter. The object in placing it 
hele was to get a word beginning 
with F. as the initial letter of the 
following chapter. See the Intro- 



tyme victours of alle f e worlde ; but stalworJ>e men and Tbbvisa. 

wight,* fat wonede in Fraunce, ouercome hem in many 

batailles ; but at ])e ^ laste in Gaius lulius Cesar his tyme 
Gallia^ fat is Fraunce, was i-made soget, and bo occupied 
by Romaynes aboute a foure hondred ^ere anon to ]>e laste 
tyme of Valentinianus pe emperour, whan dyuers men of 
straunge londes weiTed in Gallia. For first Wandali and 
Huni, ])anne Sweui and Burgundi, Jjat beef of Sweuia, a 
lond of Ahnania>^ fat is^ Ahnayne. panne Gothi and Si- 
eambri, fan Norfways^ and Danes made hem^ cheef citees 
in Gallia, In Gallia, fat is Fraunce, beef many prouinces 
and londes fat beef Braban, Flaundres, Pycardie, Nor- 
raandye, fe lasse Britayne, Peyto, Gyan, Angeoye, Gas- 
quyn,7 Bnrgoyne,^ Salina, Prouincia, Campania fe lasse, 
fat is ^ Champayn, And Aluarn also is in Fraunce. Flan- 

men occupyede late Fraunce, whiche allemoste contriuede MS. Harl. 
the Romanes and victores of this worlde with mony batelles. 2261. 
At the laste Fraunce was subacte to lulius Cesar, and 
occupyede by Romanes by cccc. yere, vn to the laste tymes 
of Valentinian themperoure, when straunge peple of diuerae 
partes of the worlde entrede in to hit. Firste Wandalinges 
and Hunes, after that men of Sveuia and of Burguyne, 
after whom Gothi and Slcambri, after theyme men of Nor- 
guegia and Danes, and toke theire places in hit. In whiche 
Fraunce be these prouinces, Braban, Flandres, Pikardy, 
Normandy, Breteyne the lesse, Gyon, Pictauia, Gascuyn, 
Burguyn, Aluerne, Salina, Prouince the lesse, Campanye. 
Brabancia is sette at the sowthe este off Flandres, a copious 
londe, and habundant in marchaundise» and specially in 
colourenge woUe in diuerse coloures, whiche they receyve 
from Englonde, and sende the clothes in to diuerse pro- 
uinces, Thau^he Englonde haue the beste wolle, neuer- 
thelesse hit hathe not suche waters to make colores with as 
is in Flandres or in Brabayn. At London is a welle, and q> 
determinate place in the ryuer that is abowte Lincolne, thro 
helpe of whom nowble scarlet is made. 

^ wiytf a. 

^ Ox., as usual, omits i>e, 

^ So a., Cx. ; Alemanii, MS. 

* is] Added from Cx. 

* So a., Cx. ; Norwaye, MS. 

^ hem self, C:i;:., who omits chee/, 

^ Gascoign, Cx. 

' JSurgun, «. 

* is] Added frop a. 



Be Bra- 

De Flan- 

Cap. XXVIII.^ 
De Provinciis Francice. 

Brabantia ad Eurum Flandrise situatur, terra mer- 
cibus copiosa^ potissime lanis ordiendis instar Flandrise 
indulge t, quo fit ut lanas quas de Anglia recipit in 
pannos multicolores convertit, multisqne provinciis re- 
fundit. Quamvis enim Anglia lanas optimas producat, 
aquas tamen tincturse tam accommodas sicut Flandria, 
vel Brabantia, non habet. Est tamen apud Londonium 
fons quidam, et apud Lincolniam determinatus locus in 
rivulo per transversum urbis decurrente, quonim ope 
optimum scarletum efficitur.^ 

Flandria provincia Gallise Belgicae juxta litus oceani 
constituta, a septentrione habet Frisiam, ab ortu Ger- 
maniam, a meridie Picardiam, ab occasu oceanum et 
borealem partem Anglise; et licet Flandria situ sit 
parva, multis tamen commoditatibus est referta,^ ut- 
pote pascuis, armentis, mercimoniis, amnibus,* portubus 
marinis et urbibus inclita.^ Gens ejus elegans, fortis, 
facunda,^ locuples/ ad domesticos pacifica, ad extraneos 
fida,®.opere lanifico prseclara, quo toti pene Europse 
subministrat. Terra quidem plana, sed^ silvis rara; 
quarum vicem supplant glebse de lods ejus palustribus 
effosssB, viliores^^ quidem quam ligna quoad '^ cinerera 
et '* graviores ad odorem. 

* Cap. 28 does not appear in C, 
but the following chapter is num- 
bered 29. Instead of cap. 28, the 
following occurs': ** De Gallia dicit 
" Entropius experimento deprehen- 
** sum esse, quod eicut eorum virtus 
*< primo impctu majorem quam vl- 
'* romm, ita sequens minor est quam 
*' foeminarum. Burgundia dicta/' 
&c. Here follows the piece about 
Burgundy at tlic ead of cap. 28, 
slightly altered, and after that the 
piece about a well in Brittany, &e. 
(see p. 292), also slightly altered. 
So also D., except that the chapters 
«re not numbered. 

^ The description of Brabant, 
which Higden evidently intended to 
write, is given in A. only, and in 
the versions. 

' refecta, B, 

* amntbus] om. A. 

* incUtis, B. 

* So B. ; fecunda, A.E., aud the 

^'hcuplex, A.E. 

« fida] Added from A B. 

^ef\ sed€t,'B. 

*" viliorem, E. (clerical error.) 

>« ad, B. 

»2 sed, B. 



dria, fat is Flaundres, a prouince of G-allia Belgica,* and Trevjsa. 

is vppon fo brynke^ of pe see of occean, and ha]? in pe • 

north side Frisia, in pe est Germania, in ]>e soiiJ>e Pycardie, 
in fe west occean, in^ fe nor]? a party of Engeloud. And 
|>ey^ Flaundres be a litel lond, it is f ul plentevous of meny 
profitable l^inges, and** of richesse of pasture, of bestes, 
of marchaundise, of ryueres, of hauenes of ])e see, and of 
good townes. pe men of Flaundres beej? faire, strocge, and 
riche ; and bringe)? forth meny children, and bee]? pesjble '*» 
to hir neighebores, trewe^ to straungeres, noble craftevS^ 
men, and greet makeres of cloj? ]?at ]?8y sendej? ^ aboute wel 
ny^ aP Europa. pe lond is pleyne and skarse of wode ; 
]?erforo in stede of wode ]?ey brenne]? torfes, ]?at smellej? 
wors ]?an wode, and make]? fouler askes.^^ Braban is by 
south est Flaundres, and is plentevous of marchaundise 
and of" makynge of clooth. For of wolle,^^ j,at fey hauef 
. out of Engelond ]?ey ^^ make]? cloo]? of dyuers coloui*es and 
sende]? in to o])ere^-* prouinces and londes, as Flaundres 
doo]?. For ]?ey Engelonde haue woUe at ]?e beste, he ^^ ha]? 
nou^t so grete pleute of good water for dyuers coloures 
and hewes as Flaundres ha]? and Braban. Neuer]?eles at 
Londoun is oon -welle ]?at helpe]? i^ wel to make good scarlet^ 
and so is at Lyncolne in ^7 certeyne place in ]?e brook ]?at 

Of Flandres. Capitulum vicesimum octavum, 

Flandkia is a prouince of Fraiince callede Francia Bel- MS. Habl. 
gica, sette nye to the side of th^ occean, hauenge on the 2261. 
northe to hit Friselonde, on the este Almayne, on the sowthe 
Pikardy, and on the weste parte to hit the occean and the 
northe parte of Englonde. And thau^he Flandres be ly telle iu 
quantite, neuerj?elesse hit is replete with mony commodites, as 
with pastures, bestes, marchandise, waters, hauenes or portes 
of the see, and nowble in cites. The peple of hi(; be semely 
in stature, myjhty, plentuous, and ryche, kepenge peace to 
men of theire cuntre, feitheful to straungeors, and excel- ^» 46. 
lente iu worchynge and laborenge in woUe that seruethe 
allemoste alle Europe. That londe is playne, hauenge fewe 
woodes, whiche gete turfes of the marras grownde to fuUe- 
fille the stede of woode, whiche be more vile then woode 

' So a. ; Belliea, MS. 

2 coste, Cx. 

' a. and Cx* add and. 

" assheSf Cx. (as usual,) 
^' of] om. Cx. 
*2 the wulle, Cx. 

* and] om, Cx. i " )>ey] added jft'ora Cx. (^Aw/) 
^pesihdy a, I ** So a. and Cx. • dyuers, MS. 

* and trewcy o., Cx. | ** t^ Cx. ; |>ej, a. 

' crafty men^ Cx, } ** So a. and Cx, ; c/ep6j>, MS. 

* tohiche is sante, Cx. I " in] one, Cx, 
» in al, a. and Cx. 

VOL. I. T 



De Picar- 

De Nor- 

De Bri- 

Picardia Galliae provincia, ab oppido Pontico quod 
nunc Phiten dicitur^ sic vocata,* ut vult Herodotus,^ 
nobilia habet castra ; scilicet Ambianum, BelgiSj sive Bel- 
vacum, Attrabatum, Tornacum.* Jacet* inter Flandriam 
ab aquilone et Normanniam ad^ austirum, habens ad 
occasum fretum Gallicum et australem Anglise partem. 
Est autem duplex Picardia, superior quse Galliae magis 
est ^" propinqua, alia inferior quae Flandrige est contigua 
et Brabantise finibus, cujus gens astuta est et^ gvos- 
sioris linguae quam alidB partes Francise. 

Normannia, quae et Neustria a Noricis, id est Nor- 
vagenis,^ proprie est dicta, qui navigantes a'^ Dacia et 
Norvegia" litus ^^ Gallici oceani obtinuerunt et partem 
illam Normanniam vocaverunt. Cujus metropolis est 
Rothomagus, super ostium Sequanse fluminis ubi cadit . 
in oceanum situs; habet ad austrum sui Britanniam 
minorem^ ad occasum oceanum GalKcum, ad circium 
australem partem Angliae. 

Britannia minor denominata est a Britonibus bis 

1 nunc , . . dicitur^ Space left in 

* vocatf B. 

^ UrodotuSj MSS. Some other 
author is doxibtless intended, and so 
helow. I 

* Attrebant, Tornant, A.B. ' 
^ ah aquilone before inter in B. t 

^ ad] om. B. 

' est magis, B. 

* et] om, B. 

' Norwagenis, B. 

•• a] So B. J ety A,E, 

" Norguegia, A. 

»2 litora, B. 



passe]> by J)e toun. Py cardie is a prouince of Gallia, and Tketisa. 

haf fat name of ]?e toun J^at hatte Ponticus, and hat now 

Phiten ; so seip Herodotus. Pycardie liaj» many noble 
eastelles and townes, J?at beejj Ambyans,^ Belgis, ofer 
Beluacus, Attrebat,^ Tornat ; and lie]> bytwene Flaundres 
in "pQ north side and Normandye in "pe sou]) side, and ha]> 
in }?e west side the see and pe south side ^ of Engelond. 
J)ere bee]> tweie Picai'dies, fe ouer 4 is nere Fraunce ; and 
pe neper ^ iojnep ^ to pe endes of Flaundres and of Braban. 
pe men ]?ere of bee]? boistous men of dedes, and gretter 7 
speche ha]> ^ ])an ofer men of Fraunce. Normandie, |)at hatte ^ 
Neustria also, haf ^^ fe name of Norwayes fat seilled ^^ out 
of Norway and of Denmark, and gatt a contrey vppon be 
clyues of occean yn Gallia and cleped it Normandie. pe 
cheef citee ferof is Rowan vppon pe mouth of pe ryuere 
of Seyne ; ^^ fere Seyne tomef into pe see of occean. 
Normandye haf in pe sou)? [the lasse Brytayn, in the weste 
the Frensshe occean, and in the north west the south syde 
of Englonde],^^ pe lasse Bretaigne haf pe name of Britoons ^^ 

as vn to esches, and more tedious to the odoure. Picardy MS. Harl. 
is a prouince of Fraunce, hauenge nowble eastelles and hie, 2261. 
lyenge betwene Flandres at pe northe and Normandy at t^e '"'^ 
sowttie, hauenge on the weste to hit the see of Fraunce 
and the sowthe parte of Englonde. There be tweyne Picar- 
dyes ; the hier that is more nye to Fraunce, and the lawer 
that is contiguate to Flandres and to the costes of Braban. 
The peple of this Picardy is more wyle and of more grosse 
langage then other partes of Fraunce. Noimannia or 
Neustria, callede Normandy, toke the name of hit of men 
of Norway, whiche, saylenge from Denmarke, opteynede and ' 
inhabite that grownde, callenge hit Normandy, the chiefe 
oite of whom is callede Rothomagus, nye to the floode 
callede Sequana, where hit fallethe in to the occean, hauenge 
on the sowthe to hit the lesse Breteyne, at the weste the 
occean of Fraunce, at the sowthe weste to hit the northe 
parte of Englonde. The lesse Briteyne toke the name of 

' as Ajni^ens, Cx. 

* AUrebai] om. Cx., who adds and 
many other after Toumay. 

3 Eleven words wanting in MS. 

* ihat one^ Cx. 

■ and eythetf Cx. 

* inne\>, a. 
' grettre, a. 

* haue gretter speche^ Cx,; spech€\>, 

^keetf Cx. (who usually substi- 
tutes is named,) 

^" and hathy Cx. (typ. error.) 

" sail, Cx. 

'^"^ ryuer Seyne, «. 

^^ The words in brackets added 
from Cx. ; partly also from a. 

" So o. ; Britons, Cx. ; Brutus, 


T 2 


earn ^ occupantibus ; primo, per Brennium fratrem Bfelini 
regk ; secundo, tempore Vortigemi regis Britonum, per 
Britones a Saxonibus infestatos, sicut in historia Bri- 
tonum continetur. Haec provincia habet ad orientem 
Andegaviam, ad aquilonem Normanniam, ad austrum 
Aquitaniam,^ ad occasum oceanum Aquitanicum. Gi- 
raldus in Topographm. In hac Britannia est fons, 
cnjus aquis in cornu bubali haustis si petram fonti 
proximam perfudems tempore quantumlibet serene, plu- 
vias statim non evades.^ In Francorum etiam regno 
est fons juxta castrum Pascense masculomm usibus 
valde congruens, sed foeminis neqnaquam; cujus aquse 
nuUo igne nulla* arte possunt calefieri.® 

De Picta- Pictavia Gallise Narbonensis est provincia, quam Picti, 
Angli, Scoti navigio impetentes ^ inhabitaverunt, et no- 
men urbi Pictavis ^ et regioni Pictavi?e indiderunt, sicut 


* earn bis, B. 

^-ad,,. Aquitaniam] om. B. 

■ evadet, A.B.,m en*or. The para- 
graph appears thus in CD.: InBri" 
tannia minori est fons, cujus aquis 
in cornu bubali (bibali, D.) haustis, 
si petram ei proximam forte profu' 
derts tempore quantumlibet sereno in 
coniinenti, pluvias non evades. 

* nuilavCf B. 

* Sentence slightly varied in CD. 

* impertientes, A. 

'So B. ; Pictavi, AM, Both 

Piciavium and Pictavce occur as the 
nominative. See Lloyd's Diet Hist 
and Hofmann's Lexic, Unto, 


fat twyes occupied i fat lond. Fyrst by Brennus^ j,at Trbvisa. 
was kyng Bellynus his broJ)er,3 and efte soues by Britons — ^ 
J>at were pursued and greued by J)e Saxons in Fortigerns^ 
tyme kyng of Britons, as it is i- write and coiiteyned in ]7e 
storie of Britouns. pis prouince ha]> in J)e est side Ande- 
gauioj ]>at is Angeoye,'^ in pe north Normandye, in fe souf 
Guyan, in |?e west occean Aquitanicus, fat is fe see fat is 
by Gyan is side.^ Giraldus in TopographiaJ In fis 
Britayne is a welle ; ^if f e water of fat welle is i-take in 
bugle s horn and i-helto ^ vppon a stoon fat is ^^ next to f e 
welle, by^^ fe wedir^^ neuer so faire anon it schal rayne. 
Also in fe Frensche men lond^^ is a welle faste by fe 
castel Pascence, f e water of fat welle is swif e good ^-^ for 
men and noujt for wommen. No man can hete Avater^^ of 
fat welle nofer wif fuyre iie wif craft fat any man can 
deiiyse.i^ Pictsauia, J^at is Peytowe, is a prouince of Gallia 
Narbonensis, Englischmen, Scottes, and Pyctes^^ seilled 
and wonede fere and cleped fe contray Pictauia, and fe 
chief citee Pictauus, fat is Peiters, so seif Herodotus. ^^ 

Briteynes occupienge hit twyes. Pirste by Brennius, brother MS. Harl. 
to kynge Belin. In the secunde tyme of Vortigernus, as ^^^^' 
hit is conteynede more plenerly in the story of Briteynes. 
That prouince hathe on the este to hit Gascuyn, at the 
northe Normandy, at the sowthe Gyon, at the weste the 
occean of Gyon. There is a welle in that Briteyne, the water 
of whom ydrawen up in the home of a bugle or of an ox, 
and caste on the nexte ston to hit, thau^he the weder be 
neuer soe feire, hit schalle reync anoon. Also in the realme 
of Fraunce is a welle nye to the castelle Pascence, con- 
gruente to the vse of men, but not of women. The water 
of whiche welle can not be made hoote with eny fire. Pic- 
tauea is a province of Fraunce Narbonense, whom Pictes, 
Scottes, and Englischemen did inhabite, callenge the name 
off the cite Picta, and the name of the prouince Pictauea, 

* So ft, and Cx.; occ«piVJ», MS. 
- Birremas^ MS.; Brenius^ Cx. 
3 Belilnus broder,Cx, 

* Vortegerns, a. ; Vortigers, Cx. 

* Andegoy, Cx. 

* by the side of Guyana Cx. 

' toppicis, (sic) Cx. Reference 
omitted in MB. 

* in a buglesf Cx, 
^ pouredt Cx. 

" So MS., but probably by a cle- 
rical error for be^ ivhich a. and Cx. 

^*- be J>e weUef a. 

*^ And in Fraunce, Cx. 

^^ihe water therofis right good, Cx. 

»* that wateri Cx, 

** So ft» and Cx. ; can do deuysCi 

" So Cx.; Puteisy MS.; Putees, ft. 

^^ j>at is"] om, Cs., '^J&ro(/o^u«)MSS.andCx.,asusnaIi 


dicit Herodotus. Hsec itaque provincia per longum 
oceani projecta habet ab orienteTiironiam^ quam flumen 
Ligeris prseterfluit, ab austro Hispanias,^ ab aquilone 
Britaimiain minorem et sinum Aquitanicum, ab oc- 
casu oceanum, Gens ejus a Gallis^ quibus saepe immixta 
est, et etiam a climate, cui subjacet, mores attraxit ;^ ut 
jpm sit robusta corpore, venusta facie, animo audax, 
ingenip. callida; quia/ secundum Isidorum, Etymolo- 
giarum libro nono, secundum diversitatem coeli fades 
hominum, colores corporum, qualitates animorum exis- 

De Aqui- Aquitania ab aquis obliquis Ligeris fluminis dicta 
est, quod plurima ex parte terminus ejus est; cujus 
nomine plures particulares provinciae comprehenduntur 
secundum Plinium. A septentrione et oriente habet 
Galliam Lugdunensem, ab euro et austro contingit 
provinciam Narbonensem. 

BeAnde- Andegavia provincia Galliae media est quodammodo 


inter Aquitaniain et Britanniam minorem. 

* Thuronianif A. 
^ Hispaniamf B* 

' contraxitf A.B* 
* eo quod, B. 


pis prouince strecche]) longe wey vppon J?e occean, and ha)> Tkevisa. 

in fe est side Turoni% J^erby passe]? ye ryuer of Leyre, in 

J>e sou]? side Spayne, in fe norj) |?e lasse Bretaigne and 

fe see of Gyan, in J^e west fe see of occeau. pe* men 

of ]?at lond drawef after ye maneres of ^ Prensche men, 

bycause ]>at ]?ey bee]? i-meddled^ wip hem, and also by 

cause of ]?e contray J>at fey wone]? ynne ;^ so |?at J?ey 

beej> now stronge of body, faire of face, bold of herte, 

and fel of witte. For Ysidre, Eth., libro nono, seij> }?at 

dyuersite of contrayes vnder heuene is dyuersite of face in 

man in strengfe, in colour, and in witt.*^ 

De Aquitania, 

Capittdum vicesimum octavum, 

Aquitania, ])at is Gyan, and baj) ])e name Aquitania of 
aquiSf ]?at b6a wateres ; for ])e water of fe ryuere of Leire 
goo]> aboute a greet deel of J>at lond. Many particuler 
prouinces^ is comprehendid vndir ])e name of ]?at lond, 
Plinius sei]) ]?at he ha]> in ]>e north and in ]>e est Gallia 
Lugdunensis, in ]?e sou]> and est he strecche|> to ])e pro- 
uince of Narbon. Andegauia, pat is Angeoy, a prouince 
of Gallia, and is as it were in ]>e myddel bytwene Gyan 

as Herodotus seythe. This prouince, proiecte by the longi- MS. Haul. 
tude of the occean, hathe on the este to hit Turonea, whom 2261. 
the floode callede Ligeris flowethe abowte, in the sowthe — " 
parte of hit Spayne, on the northe the lesse Briteyne, on 
the weste to hit the occean. The peple of hit kepe the 
maneres and consuetudes of Frenche men, to whom_ thei 
were immixte, and after the cimtre to whom thei be sub- 
iecte. For after Isidorus, Ethi., libro none, that the faces 
and coloures of men bene chaungede after the diuersite of 
heuyn. Aquitanny is namede of the oblylce waters of that 
floode callede Ligeris, in whiche name mony other particuler 
prouinces be comprehendede, after Plinius, hauenge on the 
northe and of the este to hit Fraunce Lugdunense, towch- 
enge on the sowthe the prouince Narbonense* Audegauia 
is a province of Fraunce Lugdunense, as a meane betwene 

* So ct* and Cx» ; }>o^, MS, * and of the countrey that is so 

' ben of the conditions of Cx. 

i-melled, a. j bi/ cause they medle, q^^ 


neyghe to them, Cx. 
* The last sentence is omitted in 

many a perticider prouince, Cx* 


DeVas- Vasconia esi provincia sub Aquitania olim contenta. 


habens ab oriente^ Pyrenseos montes, ad occasum* 
oceanum occidentalem, ad eurum planitiem^ pi'ovincise 
Tholosan^. In alio latere propinquat genti Picta^'o- 
rum, cujus terra satis est nemorosa et raoutuosa/ 
vinearum * ferax ; quam Garonna fluvius a Tholosana ^ 
parte separat, et jtixta Burdegalam/ quae terrsB illius 
metropolis est, oceanum intrat, Cujus® terr?e viri 
dicuntur Vascones, quasi Wacones,^ quos Pompeius 
Magnus, edomita Hispania deposuit de monte Pyrenseo 
et in^^ unum oppidum congregavit, sicut tradit Hero- 
dotus^^ bistoriograpbus. Viri quoque loci illius modd 
Bausclenses ^^ vocantur, corpore quidem agiles, animo 
audaces, pilis et arcubalistis utentes, ad latrocinia et 
depredationes proni, viUbus et fissis vestibus induti. 
DeBur- Burgundia pars est Gallise Senonensis usque ad 
Alpes ^^ Pyrenseos pene extensa, et dicta est ?«, burgis 
eo quod Austrogothi ^* Italiam vastaturi ibi fecerunt 

* ortu, B. 

^ ad occasum'} om. B. 
^planutam, B. 

* moniuosa et nemorosa, B. 
^ et vineantm, A. 

" Thohzana, li) 
' Burdegcdia, B. 

* Hujus, A.B. 

^ quasi Wacones^ om. B. 

*• I»] om. B. 

*i ErodotuSf MSS., a.s usnal. Some 
other author is, of course, intended. 

" Basclenses, A. ; BlascIenseSf B* 

" Alpes Alpenninos (sic) Pireneos, 

** Austro] om. B, 


and litel Bretaigne. Vasconia, fat is Gasguyne,^ and was Tkevisa, 

somtymc conteyned vndir Gyaii, and lia]> in fe est side fc 

hiiles Pyrenei, in fe west the west occean, in ]>e sou}) est 
fe pleyn of fe prouince of TIiolous, and in fe^ ofer side 
hit neighe]> to Peytow. In fat lend beef mony woodes, 
hiiles, and vynes ; ^ and f e lyuer Garonna departef by tweuc 
fat lond and fe Jjrouince of Tholous, and entref into fe 
see of occean faste by Burdeux ; fat is f e chief citee ^ 
of fat loud, pe men of fat lond beef i-cleped Vascones, 
as it were Wacones. pe Grete Pompeius^ put hem doun 
of mount Pyreneus, and gadered hem alle in to oon^ 
towne, whanne Spayne was ouercome, so seif Herodotus, 
fe writer of stories/ pe men of ])at loud hatte now 
VasclensiSjS and beef swift and hardy, and rsef balles 
and alblastres^ and gladliche wolef robbe ^^ and reue " ; 
and so fey beef strohge feues. pey beef clofed in slitte ^^ 
clofis and foule. Burgundia is a party of Gallia Seno- 
nensis ^^ and strecchef anon to AljDes Pyrenei, and Jiaf fat 
name Burgundia of borw i** townes fat Austrogothi bulde *^ 
f er inne, whan fey keste *^ for to destroye Italia, pis lond 

the lesse Briteyne and Aquitanye. Vasconia is a province MS, Habl, 
sbmme tyme conteynede vnder Aquitanny, hauenge on the 2261. 
este to hit the hiiles Pii^ene, at the weste the occean 5 
whiche londe hathe woodes ynowe, and fulle off hiiles, 
plentuous of vynes ; whom the floode callede Garona de- 
partethe hit in parte from Tholosan, entrenge in to the 
occean nye to Burdewes, the chiefe cite of that prouince» 
Men of that cuntre be callede Vascones, whom Grete Pom- 
peius makenge tame gedi'ede theyme in to oon lytelle 
cuntre, as Herodotus, the wryter of storyes, rehersethe. 
But nowe the peple of that cuntre be callede Basclenses, 
swifte of body, bolde in herte, vsenge dartes and crosse 
bawes or staffe slynges, prompte to thefte and robbenge, in- 
duede with fowle clothenge. Burguyn is a pai'te of Fraunce 
Cenonense to Alpes Pirene extente allemoste, callede soe 
of townes and cites whom Astrogothes, wyllenge to waste 

* Gascoi/n, Cx. j ' arbleetres, Gx» 
3 that, Cx. I ** do robbe, Cx. 
" wynes, a. i " reeve, o. 

* whiche is chyefcifte, Cx. j ^- slight, Cx. 

* Povipeus, MS., o,, and Cx. j ** Senosensis, MB., a., and Cx. 

* o, a. I ** borugh, Cx. 
' histories, Cx., as usual. *^ bylded, Cx. 

* Basclensisj o,; Basclenses, Cx. | " purposed, Cx, 



burgos, id est oppida. Haec terra versus Alpes est 
frigida, ubi incote ex frequenti inundatione aquarum 
nivalium efficiuntur* sub mento turgidi et «trumosi.^ 

Car XXIX. 

De Hispania. 

TroguSy libra ultimo, et Isidorua, libro quinto dedmo, 
Refert I^ogus^ quod trigona sit Hispania universa/ 
quam a septentrione Pyrenjjei montes^ conjuBgunt® 
Qallise Narbonensi ; * ex omni reliqua parte circumfu- 
sione oceani et Tyrrheni pelagi pene insula efficitur. 
Duplex tamen est Hispania ; citerior quidem ^ incipiens 
a Pjrrenseis saltibus per Cantabros apud Oarthaginem 
Spartariam* terminatur. Ulterior vero Hispania^ con- 
tinet partem occidentalem usque ad fretum Gaditanum, 
ubi Herculis columnsB montem Atlanticum prospectant.*® 

* officiuntur^ B. 

Narbonensi] otn, CD. ; Gallics 

^ The preceding paragraph is Narbonensi, om. B. 
slightly abbreviated and varied in ^ quidetn] om. C.B. 


^ Tragus trigonas quod, E. 

^ Hispania trigona est universa, 

^ continguHtj B* 

^ Spartariam] om. CD.; SpaiU' 
riam, MSS.^ and similarly below. 

^ Hispania] om. D., which in 
other respects agrees with the tesit. 

^^ Transposed in C 


is ful colde toward Alpes Pyreuei ; men J>at wone)> toward Thevisa. 
]?at side of Burgoyne^ haue]) bocches vnder fe chyn i-swolle . """"^ 
and i-bolled/^ as pey he^ were double chynned, fat is 
bycause of greet colde of wateres of snow, fat meltef 
among bem al day. 

De HispaniaA 

Capitulum vicesimum nonum. 

Tragus, libro ultimo, et Isidorus^ libra quinta decimo, 

Trogus sei]) pat Trigonia^ is Spayne al hool, and fe 
hilles Pireney ioynef Spayne in ^ ^e norp side to Gallia 
Narbonensis, and is i-closed in fe dper sides al aboute 
wij» |>e see of occean and wi]) "pe se Tyrrhenus. And so 
Spayne is wel ny^ al an ylond, for he ^ is byclipped wif ]>e 
see wel ny^ al aboute. But® fere beef tweye* Spaynes; 
f e hyder bygynnef from f e pleynes and valeys of Pireneies, 
and streccbef by Cantabria, and endef at Carthago Spartaria. 
pe fonder Spayne conteynef f e west partye anoou to fe 
see Gaditanus; fere Hercules his pileres stondef '^ by sides 

Ytaly, made there. That londe towarde Alpes is colde, MS. Harl. 
where the inhabitatores haue swellenges vnder the chynne 2261. 
for the gi^ete habundaunce of waters of snawe beenge there. 

Of Speyne. Trogus, libra uttimo^ et Isidorus, libra quinta 
decimo, Capitulum vicesimum nonum, 

Trogus rehersethe that Speyne is iij. cornei'de, or hau- 
enge iij. corners, whom the hilles Pirene conioynethe of 
the northe parte to Fraunce Narbonense, made on euery 
other parte as an yle thro the compassenge of the 
occean and of the see Tirene. Neuerthelesse there be ij. £ 47. 
Speynes. The nyer Speyne to theis costes begynnethe 
from the hilles Pirene, and is endede at Carthago Spartaria. 
The forther Spayne conteynethe the weste parte to the 
see Gaditan, where the pillers of Hercules haue prospecte 

' Burgmiy a. | ^ So «. and Cx, j Tngania, MS. 

- yswoUen and bagged, Cx. | e if^ go «. and Cx.j and, MS. 

as though they, Cx. | 7 ^ q^ 

* The Latin proper names in the j en** 
three following chapters are more ^oote^ a. 

or less corrupt ; tliey have heen 
mostly corrected -without noticing 
the readings of the MSS. Cx 

^ two, Cx. 

' " where as Hercules sette his pylers, 



Haec itaque^ Hispania terra est plana castellis, equis, 
melle,^ et metallis copiosa. Quondam vocabatur^ Hes- 
peria ab Hespera* stella vespertina, Gi'secos illiic^ diri- 
gente. Demum dicta® Hiberia ab Hibero flumine. 
Tandem dicta esfc Hispania ab Hispalo flumine. His- 
pania octo^ habet provincias, scilicet, Tarraconensem, 
Carthaglnensem, Lusitaniam, Galliciani, Boeticam, 
Tingitanam, Aaturiam^ Arragoniam.® Isiclorus, libro 
qui'tito deciraOf ca^ntiilo secundo? Ista Carthago His- 
panica dicta est Spartaria ad differentiam alterius 
magnee Carthaginis quae est in Africa, quam Scipio 
consul Bomanus delevit. Sed ista Carthago Spartaria 
coudita fuit ab Afris sub duce Hanibale,'® et cite post 
capta a Bomanis; sed denuo totaliter subversa a 
Gothis, qui Hispaniam diu possederunt, potissime sub 
temporibus Honorii imperatoris. Hos tandem Sarraceni 
erumpentes ab Africa post tempora Heraclii impera- 
toris devicerunt. Sed et illi Sarraceni postmodum a 

^ itaque] om» CO, 

* rneUe] om. C»D. 
' dicebatur, C»D. 

* ab Hespera] om C. (not B.) 
Tlie text should be ab Jlespero, but 
the error is probably due to Iligden 

* ilfuc naciganteSf CO. 

*' dicta'] om, C.D. ; B. adds est, 
' So 13. ; sex^ A.D. 

" This sentence is slightly trans- 
posed in CD. The names are some* 
•what barbarised in the MSS. 

^ tertio capitulo primo, C ; //, 1. 
ca» 1., D. } cap. prlmOy B. The true 
reference is to lib. xv. c. 1. § 30, 
and § 67. Se3 Isid. Hisp. Op. vol. 
4, pp. 200, 207. (Ed. Arev.) 

" Hanibale] Space left for word 
in B. 



l>e hille * niout Atlas, pis Spayne is a playn lond and Trevisa. 

ha]? grete copy and^ plente of castell,^ of hors, of metal, 

and of liony, and heet somtyme Hesperia of Hespera,-* J>e 
eue sterre, J?at ladde fe Grees fider and was her lode*'» 
steire. Afterward he heet Hiberia of pe ryuer Hiberus ; 
but at fe laste he hatte Hispania of J)e ryuer Hispalus. 
In**» Hispania bee]) sixe prouinces ])at bee]? Tarraconensis, 
Lusitania, Gallicia, Betica, Tingitana, Asturia, AiTagonia. 
Isidorus, libro quinto decimo, capitulo secundo, pis Car- 
thago of Spayne is i-cleped Spartaria, for to liaue difference 
bytwene |;is Carthago [and ]>q grete Carthago] ^ of Affrica, 
])at Scipio consul of Rome destroyed. Afri, men of AflS'ica, 
made ]?is Carthago Spartaria in dulce Hanybal his tyme : 
but sone aftirward ]>e Romayns took pis Carthago Spartaria,» 
and at ])e laste Gothi destroyed it al out,^ for Gothi were 
lordes of Spayne long tyme, and speciallich'e in Honorius 
J)e emperours ^^ tyme. But afterward 'pe Sarecenes brak ^^ 
out of Affrica and put Gothi out of Spayne after Hera- 
elius ]>e emperoures ^^ tyrae.^^ But pe Saracenys wei*e aftir- 

towarde the mownte Atlantike. That Spayne is a pleyne MS. Hael 

londe, plentuous of castelles, horses, of hony, and of me- 2261, 
talle ; somme tyme caUede Hesperia, of the sterre Hesperia 
directenge the Grekes to hit. After that hit was callede 
Hiberia, of the floode callede Hiberus. But at the laste 
liit was callede Hispania, after the floode callede Hispalas. 
Spayne hathe yj. prouinces, that is to say Terraconense 
Lucitany, Gallicea, Bethlike, Tingitine, Astury, and Arro- 
gany. Isidorus, libro quinto decimo, capitulo secundo» This 
Carthago of Spayne was callede Spartaria vn to the dif- 
ference of Grete Carthago, wbiche is in Affrike, whom 
Scipio the consul of Rome destroyede, but this Cartago 
Spartaria was made of men of Affi^ike under Duke Hanibal, 
but after that hit was destroyede of the Gothes, whiche 
hade possession longe in Speyne, and specially in the 
tymes of Honorius themperoure. The Saracenes brekenge 
furthe from Afii*ike after the tymes of Heraclius thempe- 
roure ouercome the Gothes. Whiche Saracenes were de- 

> hiile] om. Cx. 

* copy and] om. Cx. 

* castelles, a., Cx, 

* Espera, MS. 
^ lood, a. 

« Htspalus, In] om. MS. After 
Hispalus Cz. adds, or ofHispanu&j 
that Hercules ordeyned gouemour 
and kyng there. 

^ Words in brackets added from 
ff. and Cx. 

' Ox. omits the fourteen vords 

* al out] om. Cx. 

" emperour his, a. 

" breekftt, 

^^ emperour his, a. 

'^ Thepreceding sentence omitted 
in Cx. 


Carolo Magno devicti occiduas partes Hispanise, quas 
sunt Gallicia, Lusitania, amisernnt, orientales partes 
Hispaniaa solummodo retinentes.' 

Cap. XXX. 

De Insulis MaHs Magni? 
Gades Apte prima inter insulas magni maris Gades^ poni- 


tur, quae in occiduo fine Hispanise in faiice occidentalis 
oceani situatur, ubi oceanus magnus in terras erumpit, 
dividens Africam ab Europa; quam Tyrii* de mari 
Rubro ,profecti occupantes lingua sua Gades voeaverunt, 
quod sonat septam, pro eo quod mari undique**^ cinga- 
tur, centum et decern passibus a® terra separata; ubi 
et Hercules posuit columnas mirabiles et memorabiles, 
tanquam in orbis extreme, quae de- nomine illius insulae 
dictse sunt Gades.^ Hugutio^ capitulo Gades, Et 

^ The preceding paragraph from 
Isidore appears thus in CD. : Ista 
Carthago Hispanica dicta est 
Spa[f\taria, ah Afris sub Hanibale 
condita, a Romanis cito post capta, 
sed postea a-Gothis eat suhversa. 

minutely. The, paragraph on Cor- 
sica is omitted entirely. 

* Apte , . . Gad^s^ Apud insulas 
maris prima, B. 

^ Tirii or Tiri, MSS. 

* sepiatur sive,3. 

Alia est Carthago Africep, quam 1 ^ a terra . . . Gades] om B. 

Scipio delevitf CD. | ' Ahbreviated in CD., and placed 
* The sections are transposed in at end of the chapter ; the paragraph 
C.p., and much abbreviated. It is, from Hugutio being omitted, 

therefore, impossible to collate them j « Hvgo, B. 



ward ouercome of Charles J>e Grete, and lost be west Trkvisa. 
landes of Spayne, Gallicia,* and Lusitania; and hilde onlice — 
|)e este londes and contrayes of Spayne, 

De Insults Maris MagnL 

Capitulum tricesimum. 

Gades is couenableliche first i-sette among J>e ylondes 
of ]?e greet- see, and stondef in fe west ende of Spayne in 
a mouJ)e of the west occean. pere ]?e grete occean broke]? 
in to \Q ynner londes, and departed atwynne^ Afirica and 
Europa. Tiries come, seilled^ out of ]?e Rede see, and oc- 
cupied fat lond4 and cleped it Gades in hir langage, and 
Gades is to mene^ bycUpped^ for it^ is byclipped [al] ^ 
aboute wij) ])e see, and is from fe lond an hondred paas 
and ten. pere^ Hercules sette his pileres, fat beef weP 
wonderful, as it were in f e vttermeste^^ ende of all fe erfe ; '* 
and fe same pileres beef i-cleped after f e name of f e ilond 
Gades also. Hugutio^ capitulo Gades.^^ And f erof it come 

victe of Gi^ete Charles, and losenge the weste partes ofMS. Harl. 
Spayne, whiche be callede Gallicia Lucitania, I'eceyuede 2261. 
oonly to theyme the este partes of Speyne. 

Of the Yles of the Grete See. Capitulum tricesimum. 

That yle callede Gades is put firste amonge the yles of 
the grete see, whiche is sette in the weste ende of Speyne, 
as in the mowthe of the weste occean, where the grete 
occean brekenge vp diuidethe Affrike from Europe ; whom 
men of Tire occupyenge callede hit Gades, whiche is in 
theire langage, compassede abotvie, in so moche that hit is 
eompassede abowte with the see, departede from the londe 
c. and X. passes ; where Hercules putte mervellous pyllors 
as a memorialle in the extremite of the worlde, whiche be 
callede Gades, after the name of that yle. Hug. capitulo 

» So Cx.j GaUacia, MS. Gallse- 
cia IS the ancient classical name ; 
but Higden probably intended to 
use the later form Gallicia. 

^ a sonder, Cx. 

' seyling^ Cx., which is better, 

* ilond, a. 

5 saye, Cx. 

^ he, o. 

' al] Added from a, and Cx. 

® There as, Cx. 

® righty Cx. 

*® otmeste, a. 

" of the world, Cx. 

*^ Cx. gives the first sentence thus : 
— And to gyue knowleche that there 
is noplace ne lond ferther westward 
that stronge man Hercules sette the 
pylers there hy Gades \ihenne est- 
witrd from these pylers, ^c. 



De Sar- 

inde inolevit, ut ^ columnse positae a viris fortibus ^ in 
illis locis, quae supergredi ^ non possent, Gades voca- 
rentur. Post has versus orientein Baleares insulse, 
Majorica et Minorica situantur. 

Deinde Sai'dinia insula ad austrum habet Africam, 
ad septentrionera Siciliam ; quse nee serpentes habet 
nee lupos nee venenum, sed herham quara apium vocant, 
qufB homines ridere facit et ridendo interire.* Hsec 
regio fontes habet calidos et saUibres, quarum aqua 
latronibus caecitatem affert,® si sacvamento prsestito 
oculos jurantis attigerit.® 
I)e Corsica Corsica^ insula multis promunctoriis angulosa, gig- 


nens Isetissima® pascua et lapidem aconitem, habet ab 
oriente Tyrrhenum mare, ab austro Sardiniam ad tri- 
ginta milliaria, ab occasu Baleares; a septentrione 
ligusticum sinum et Liguriara Italian provinciam. Et 
tenet in longum^ centum sexaginta millia passuum, 
in latum '^ vero virinti sex. Est autera insula ilia 
dicta Corsica '^ a quadam muliere Corsa, .qu8e cum 

* quod, A. 

^ foriissimis, B. 

' qu<B transgredif B.E. 5 quos , . . 
970» possunf, A. 

* interimit, D. 

* conferty CD, 

® tetigerit, CD. The whole passage 
about Sardinia slightly altered inC.D. 

^ Cortica, B. 
* latissima^ A. 
' longitudine, B. 
" latitudtne, A,B. 
" Crosicat A., (which has Crosa 
below) ; Carcica, B. 


pat ' ])e pilers, ]?at pe orped men and stalworf e settep in place Tbbvtsa. 
pere fey mo we no furj)ere passe, beef i-deped Gades; pan aftir- — — 
ward* from fese pileres and from pe Uond Gades by^ pe 
ilondes Baleares, pat hatte Maiorica and Minorica. pan is pe "^ 
ilond Sardinia, and hap in pe soup side AfTrica, and in pe norp 
Sicili% and hap noper addres noper venym, but pey haue '"* an 
herbe pat hatte apium, pat ' makep men laughe hem selue to 
dep. pis lond * hap hoot welles and heleful ^ pat makep ^ peues 
blynde, and pey forswore hemself and touche Mr ei^en 
wip pe water of pilke welles. *^ pe ilond Corsica is cornered 
wip many forlondes schetynge*^ in to the see; perynne 
is noble lese and pasture for bestes ; pereynne is a stone 
pat hatte aconites.^* Corsica hap in pe est side pe see 
Tyrrhenus, in pe soup pe ylond Sardinia pritty mile 
pennes, in pe west pe ylondes Baleares, and in pe norp pe 
see Ligusticus and Liguria a prouince of Italia, and is ei^te 
score myle in len^pe and sixe and twenty in brede, and 
hap pat name Corsica of a womman pat heet^^ Corsa. pis 

Gades. Where of a consuetude was taken, that pyllers MS. Harl. 
sette of my^hty men in those places whicho mythte not 2261. 
be paste were calledde Gades. After these the yles callede 
Baleares, Maiorica and Minorica, be sette towarde the este. 
After theyme the yle callede Sardinia, hauenge on the 
sowthe to hit Aflrike, at the northe Sicille ; in whiche yle 
be noo serpentes, neither venom, but an herbe whiche thei 
caUe apium^ causenge a man to la^he, and in Isi^henge to 
dye. That region bathe hoote welles and whollesom, the 
-crater of whom causethe blyndenesse to theves, after the 
sacramente recevede, if his eies be towchede with water 
there of. Corsica is an yle gendrenge nowble pastures, and 
a ston callede aconites ; hauenge on the este to hit the see 
Tirene, and pf the weste the yles callede Baleares, at the 
sowthe Liguria^ a prouince of Italy ; hauenge in longitude 
a c. Ix. m. passes, and in latitude xxvi. m. passes» That 
yle, callede Corsica, toke the name of hit of a woman 

^M] Added from a. 
^ estward, read by Cx., is probably 
' ben, Cx. (in the same sense.) 

* is there the, Gx. 

* )>«t Aa>, «. $ iker grouith, Cx, 
« wkiehe^ Ox. 

' iflond, a, and Cx, 

' whieh wcUer tnaketh, Gx. 

'* ihet^s and men thatjbrswere hem 
sdf hlynde^ tjf ikeyr ^en touche the 
water of il^lke ioeues, Cx. 

" airetchjfngt Cx. 

^* aconij^ieey MS. 

" hetfghtf Cx., and highte below, 
contrary to his custom. 




De Arado 

videret taurum mum. a reliquo armento frequenter 
discedere ac mari^ tranisito melius refectum redire, 
navicula ascensa taurum usque ad insulam illam sub- 
secuta^ est, cujus fertilitate agnita Ligures^ illuc 
prime ^ adduxii 

Atadia sive Aradium^ est insula, qu^ tota est 
civitas, non longe ab urbe Tjrro,® viros habet nauticos 
in pugna'^ validissimos* 
De msniis Ovclades insulse», numero® quinquaginta tres,® sic vo- 

Cycladi- ± ^ 

^^^* cantur a cyclon ^^ Grsece, quod est circvlU8 Latine, quia 

quasi in orbem, id est circulum, circa Delon insulam 
sitsB sunt." Aliqui dicunt eas ^® sic vocari propter sco- 
pulos qui in circuitu earum sunt. Harum prima ad 
orientem'* est Rhodus, et finiuntur versus septentrionem 
in littore Asiaa minoris ; habent quoque ab austro in 
boream millia quinquaginta, ab ortu veto ad occasum 
millia*^ ducenta.^* Media autem illarum est Delos,'^ 
quod sonat wmvyfestma^ eo quod post diluvium ante 
alias terras fuerit^^ a sole illuminaia. Ipsa etiam 

' secuta, B. 
' Ligureos, B. 


* Gradia nve GreuUumf B« The 
only correct fonn is Aradu», \^eh 
is, therefore, tidoipted in th6 fflarginal 
smnmaiy, where the MSS« have 

' beUis natfoUhui, C.l>. 

* in nuntero, A. 

^ numero quinquagtnta ites'] om. B. 

*' sichn^ A, $ eichn, £. Higden 
should have -written cychs» The de- 
riTation is omitted in D. 

" statutrntttry B. 

*^ AUqui tamen vchtnt eas, AM, 

** o^ ausiro, D. 

''SoB.i miUiana,}^. 

1« 220 D., which omitft «h« re- 
mainder of the paragraph. 

^^ Dehm, MSS., and bo Mow. 

" fueraty A. 



Corsa hadde a bole ]>at ofi;e lefte companje of ofev bestes^ Treyisa. 

and swam in to fat ilond and com home in weU better 

poynt J^an he ^ede^ oute. Corsa saj^ ]?at, and way ted hir 
tyme, and took a boot, and folwed"* j)e bole in to ]?at 
ilond, and sey^ fat fere was good^ lond for to here corne 
and gras, and brouZt fider first men fat were i-cleped Li- 
gures. Aradia, fat haf ^ Aradium also, is an ilonde fat is 
al oon citee nou^t fer from fe citee Tyrus, and haf many 
schip men fat beef ful stronge in fiitinge. Cyclades beef 
many ilondes to gedres, f re and flW;y, and beef ® so i-cleped 
of fat Grew word ciclon fat^ is a cercle in ^^ Englisshe. For 
fey beef i-sette all rounde as it were a cercle aboute f e 
ilond fat hatte Delon. Nof eles som men seif fat f ei beef so 
i'^cleped by cause of hi^e rokkes fat beef al aboute hem. 
pe fiirste of hem is Kode *' toward f e est ; and f ese ^^ ilondes 
endef toward f e north in f e clyue ^^ of f e lasse Asia^ and 
hauef out of f e souf in to f e north fifty myle, and out 
of f e *4 est in to f e west two hundred myle. The myddel 
ilond of hem hatte ^^ Delon, fat is to menynge i-schewed; 
for he was by schewed i^ to fore of er londes after Noes 

callede Corsa, whiche seenge a buUe departenge ofte from MS. Hakl. 

other bestes, and to comme ageyne better fedde then other, 2261. 

meruaylede, and, takenge a schippei folowede the bulle in 

to that yle. The plentuosenes of hit knowen, sche brouthte 

men from the prouince of Liguria to inhabite hit. Aradia 

or Aradium is an yle whiche is alle a cite, not ferre from 

the cite of Tyrus, hauenge schippe men, worthy men in 

batelle. There be liij. other yles, callede Cyclades, of this 

word, ciclon, in Grrewe, that is, a cercle, inLatyn, sette abowte 

the yle callede Delon. Somme men wylle they be soe namede 

for stones beenge in theyme« The firste yle of theyme 

towarde the este is the yle of Boodes, and thei be finischede 

in the northe in the brynkes of the lease Asia, whiche 

haue from the soWthe In to the northe a m. and 1*^ myles, 

from the este to the weste ij<^. myles. The myddel yle of 

theyme is callede Belon, whiche sowndethe open^ in that 

hit was illuminate of the son a fore other londes after 


< moahe, 03C. 

* wente, Cx. 

* seyy a. ; sawe, Gs. 
^ fohwed after^ Cx, 

* a«>, a, ; sdwe, Cx. 
® good\ om. Cx. 

' So MS. ; is called, Cx. 

* ar, Cx. 

^ of ciclon in Grewe tDhtcke, Cx. 

*® andf o. 

" JRodes^ Cx. 

12 So a. and Cx.; i>e see, MS. 

'^ cli/f, Cx.; and hath, below. 

^*i>e'] om. MS. Added from a. 

'* is named, Cx., as usual. 

^^ besehyned, a. ; it toas somtyme 
byschxfne with the sonne, Cx. 

u 2 




De Cypro 




Delos dicta est Ortygia, quia ortygise, id est cotur- 
mces, ibi abimdant.^ Ibi quoque Latona * peperit 
ApoUinem DelpbicunL 

Samos vel Samia est insula ubi nati sunt Pytha- 
goras philosophus,* Juno, et Sibylla. Hsec terra albam 
et rubeam prodit argillam, unde fiunt vasa fiotilia 

Cyprus insula, quse et Paphos ^ sive Cethim, ab 
austro cingitur Phoenicis pelago, ab occidente marl 
Pampbylico, a circio Ciliciam liabet, continet centum 
octoginta millia in longum, ® sed centum viginti 
quinque in latum7 Ibi ses et aeris usus primo fuenmt 
reperta,® cujus terrse vinum est fortissimum.® 

Creta insula a quodam Crete indigena denominata 
est, qua^ etiam Centapolis dicta est^ eo quod ^^ centum 
urbibus quondam insignis fuerit." Terra quidem 
Satumi et Jovis, quae'^ de antique jure ad Graeciam 

' So B. ; abundant tbi, A.E. 

^ Locani, B. 

' PUagei pkiloscphi, B. ; Phita-- 

goras, E. 

* optima, B. ; paragraph abbre- 
viated in CD. 

^ Phason, B. ; Paphan, A«E* 

' hngitudine, B. 

' latiiudine, B. 

* inventa,A^. 

'The paragraph abbreviated in 

'^ guondam before centum in B. 

1^ Juerit insignis f A. (but inter- 

« et, B. 



schippe. pe same^ Delon hatte Ortygia; for ortigie, (pat Tkevisa. 

beej>2 coturnicies, curlewes,) beef perynne^ greet plente. 

Also ]>ere4 Latona bore Appolyn Delphicus. Samos, J>at 
hatte Samia also,^ is an iloud. pere ynne^ Pythagoras 7 
|>e philosofre and luno and Sibylla were i-bore. In ]?at 
lond is why te dey and rede cley ; ^ of fe ^ whiche cley men ^® 
make]? er]>ene vessel good wij> pe beste.^i Cyprus ]>at ilond ^^ 
hatte Paphon and Cithim ^^ also, and is byclipped in fe 
soujj side yr'ip pe see of Phenieia, in pe west wi]> pe see 
Pamphylicusy and in pe north west with Sicilia^i^ and is 
ei^te score myle in lengpe and six score and fyue in brede. 
J>erei^ bras and craft of bras was fii'ste i-founde. J)e 
wyn^^ of fat lond is strengest of alle wynes. Creta fat 
ylond ^^ haf fat name of oon Cretus, fat wonede ferynne. 
pat ilond hatte Centapolis also^ ]>at is a lond fat haf an 
hundred citees. For fere were ferynne an hondred citees 
somtyme, and fere *® was somtyme lupiteres ^^ and Saturnus 

Noe floode. That yle was callede other wise Ortygi% for MS. Habl. 
curlewes be there habundante, where Latona childede Apollo 2261. 
Delphicus. Samos or Samias ys an yle, where Pythagoras 7 — — 
the philosophre and also Sibille the prophetisse were borne. 
That londe bryngethe furthe white clay and redde, of whom 
pottes or godardes be made, Cyprus is an yle, whiche^® other- 
wise callede Paphon or Cethim, cincte on the sowthe parte 
to hit with the see of Phenicia,^^ on the weste with the see 
Pamphilike, conteynenge in longitude c. and Ixxx, myles, 
and in latitude c. xx^ and v. myles. There brasse and the 
use of hit were fFounde fyrste. The wyne of whiche f. 47. b. 
londe is moste stronge and myihty. The yle callede Creta 
toke the name of hit of a man inhabitenge hit, whose 
name was Cretus ; whiche was callede somme tyme Centa- 
polis, in that hit hade a c. nowble cites in hit. The 
londe of Saturne and lupiter, whiche longede to Grece in 

I same] Added from a. and Cx. 
^ hen called. Ox. 

' whiche ben there, Cx. 
* in that place f Cx. 
^ otherwyse coiled Satnia, Cx. 
< in whichCf Cx. 

' Pittagoras, MSS. $ Pyctagoras, 
Cx., onutting ^ philosophre» 
^clej/} om. a. and C^. 
» >€] om. Cx. 
*• me, a, 

II vessd at beste, Cx. 

" lond, Cx. 

" Cichym, Cx. 

»* So MSS. and Cx. for Citicia. 

^* In that yle, Cx, 

** wynes, Cx. j ifho, however, has 
is 1)elow. 

'^ >a< ylond\ om. Cx. 
\ " ^ere'\ Added from Cx. 

1' lubiteree, MS. (not a.) 

^Either wMche shotdd be can- 
celled, or is inserted. 

2» Fenicea, Harl. MS. 



pertinet. Habet ad austrum mare Libycum, ad sep- 
teutriouem* Graeci» sestibus allambitur, ab ortu in 
occasum porrigitur. Remis,® armis, sagittis prima cla- 
ruit, litteris * jura * dedit, equestres turmas docuit, sta- 
dium musicum ab Idaeis*^ dactylis repertum mundo 
tradidit et ampliavit. Oves et capras babet multas, 
sed® cervos et capreas paucas/ Noxia animalium genera, 
ut vulpes, lupos, serpentes nocuas nusquam gignit ; 
quia etiam venenosa iUuc allata moriuntur. At^ cum 
majoribus venenis careat, gignit tamen araneas^ vene- 
nosas quas spalangias ^^ vocant, Orosius. Continet in 
longum base insula mUlia passuum centum octoginta 
septem ; in latum vero millia quatuor." Bcmulphus, 
In hac insula est una de quatuor labyiinthis, sicut 
infra dicitur.^^ 

* a septentrioney B. 
- Remi8\ plena, B? 
^ litteras^ A. 
*jura] om. B. 

* ah Jdeis] Aloideis dali, B. 
« et, B. 

^ paucas etpanteres, B. 
« Sed, B. 
^ arenas f B. 

1® Higden should have 'written 

" yi,, A.B. 

*^ The whole psTngn-ph. muchaV 
breviated in CD. ; the latter half 
being omitted entirely. The Har- 
leian version» on the contrary, con- 
tains the latter part, while it omits 
much of the earlier* 



lond, and it^ longe]» to Grrecia rl^tfulliche ^ of olde tjme, Tbbyihi. 
and ha]> in pe south side pe see Libycus, and in pe norf — 
side it is bygoo wif l>e see of Gres,^ and strecchej) out of 
pe est in to 4 pe west, and was pe firste lond })at was parfite 
and noble in craft of ores and of armes and of arwes,^ 
and ^af lawe i-write in lettres and tau^te horse men to 
ryde in rotes ; ^ and [ j)er was] musyk and craft of syngynge ^ 
of Ideis dactalis i-founde, Men^ of Creta made it more, 
and communede it in to^ oj'cr londes aboute. In pat 
londe^o bee]> many scheep and geet and fewe roos and 
hertes ; ]>eryiine is i^ no foxes no]>er wolfes nofer addres . 
uo])er non suche'^ venemoas bestes» And ]>at lond hate)» 
so venym, pat ^if me bryngeth pider i* eny venemous bestes 
oper wormes out '^ of oper londes he deiej? i^ a,0on ; but pej^ 
Jjere be no grete bestes of venym, ^it pere bee]) venemous 
attercoppes ^^ pat beep i-cleped spatangia *7 in p^t ilond. pis *® 
ilond is ei^te score myle and seuene in lengpe and an 
hundred myle in brede. In pis ilond is oon of the foure 
laborintus, as it schal be ynner more declared.!^ Treuisa, 
For to brynge here hertes out of pouit pat herep speke of 
laborintus, here I telle what laborinthus is to menynge. 

olde tyme, hauenge on the sowthe to hit the see of Libya ; MS. Haul. 
in whiche yle be mony schepe and gaytes or gootes, but 226I. 
there be fewe hertes and hyndes ; gendrenge not foxes, 
wulfes, or nyous serpentes. And sdso bestes replete with 
venom dje anoon after thei be brou^hte pider. Neuerthe- 
lesse that cnntre gendrethe gravelle with venom, whom they 
calle Spalingeas. Orosius. That yle conteynethe in longi- 
tude c. Ixxx. and vij. m. passes, and in latitude a m. 
and vj. In that yle is also oon of the iiij. mases, as hit 

> iq Added from Cx, 

2 Cx. reads thus: For therin were 
sonUyme an C cytees somtyme (jsic), 
and there was Saiumus and Jupiter 
60m, and were first kynges there, and 
of right it longetk to Urecia of old 
tyme, and hath, ffc, 

* and in the north the see of Grecia, 

^ oute in to the eest, and in to, Cx. 

^crafte of rowyng with cores, 
armes, and shotyng with arowes, Cx. 

° routes, a, 

' lawe wreton, and taughte men ride 
on korsbak ; and iher was the craft 
ofmusike and syngynge, Cx. 

« They, Cx. 

^ yafit in knowleche to, Cx., who 
adds: Huit lond is now called Can- 
dia, after aboute, 

" ylond, Cx,; and so elsewhere in 
the chapter, and conversely. 
" be, Cx. 
*2 ne such, Cx. 
** \nder] om. Cx. 
** owi] om. Cx, 
'* they deyen, Cx. 

'^ and though ther be no grete vene- 
mous beestes in that hmd, yet ben ther 
attercops, Cx. 

" So MSS. and Cx. 

'^ Orosius seith that this, Cx. 

^ be sayd afterward^ Cx. 



De Sicilia. SiciKa insula aliquando * vocabatur Trinacria quasi 
triquadra, a tribus montibus in ea prominentibus sic 
dicta, qui vocantur* Pelorum, Pachynum, Lilybseum.'' 
Deinde dicta est Sicilia a Siculo Itali fratre. Ali- 
quando etiam vocabatur Sicania a Sicano rege. 
Habet quoque ab aquilone partem Italiss, Apuliam, 
marine brachio nunc discretam;* sad olim, secundum 
Salustium, Sicilia fuit Italiee conjuncta, sed postmo- 
dum aut aquarum alluvione aut terraB motu ab invi- 
cem scissa;^ ita quidem® quod fretum illud strictumj 
quod trium millium^ spatio Siciliam® hodie distinguit 
ab Italia,® Rhegium vocatur, quod Greece sonat ab- 

^ aliquartdo] aliter, B. 

^ guia, £. ; qius vocabatur, B. 

' Libeum or Zibium, MSS. and 

* So A,B. ; discretam nunc, E. 

' Mahet «... scissa] Be Sicilia 
refert Salustius, quod olim fuerit 
ItalisB conjnncta; post hecc aut 
aqaamm alluTione aut angnstia 

scissa est ab ea, D., where it occurs 
about the middle of the paragraph. 
The remainder down to comadia is 
scarcely at all altered. 

^qutdem] om.K 
"" miliarium, B. 
" SicUiam] om. B. 
^ guogue, B. 



Laborintus is an hous wonderliche i-buld wiji halkes and Tbevisa. 

hemes,* yrip tornynges and wendynges and wonderful weyes 

so dyuersliche and so wrynkyngliche i-wrojt, fat who fafc 
is wi]> ynne fat hous and wil out wende, [fey he wende] 
wel faste oo wey and ofer, hiderward and f iderward, estward 
and 2 westwarde, norfward and^ soufward, whider euere 
fey drawe, [and] of [alle] f e weies chese f e faireste ; fey 
he trauaile neuere so sore, al is for noutt. For out goof 
he neuere, but he haue a craft fat nedef f erfore.^ !^. 
Sicilia fat ilond was somlyme i-cleped Trinaeria, as it were 
fre square, bycause of fre hi^e hilles fat beef ferynne. 
pe hilles hatte Pelorum, Pachynum, Lilybeum, and afterward 
was i-cleped Sicilia of Siculus fat was Italus his brof er, 
and fat londe heet somtyme Sicania of Sicanus f e king ; 
and haf in the norf side Apulia, a party of Italy, and is 
departed bytwene wif an ai'm ^ of f e see and ioynede somtyme 
to Italy, and^ afterward was i-cloue and i-parted fere fram wif 
grete wateres of er wif erf e schakynge, so seif Salustius ; 
and f e see fat is now bytwene Sicilia and Italy is fre myle 
brood, and hatte Rhegium, fat is to menynge, i-broke of. 

schalle be expressede afterwai'de. That yle Sicilia? wasMS.HABi,. 
callede somme tyme Trinacria, of thre hilles schewenge in 2261. 

hit, whiche be namede Pelorum, Pachynum,? and Lilybeum. 

After that hit was callede Sicilia,* of Siculus brofer to 
Italu6« Also hit was callede Sicania, of Sicanius kynge, 
hauenge on the northe to hit Apulia, a parte of Ytaly, 
now diuidede by an arme of the see. But after Salustius, 
SciciUe was coniuncte somme tyrae to Ytaly, but after- 
warde hit was diuidede auf er thro invndation of water, other 
thro the movenge of erthes, in so moche that a see diuidethe 
now Ytaly from SciciUe by the space of iij. myles. That 

1 himes, a. 

^ and] om. a. 

' and] om. a. 

* In the preceding extract from 
Trevisa the vords in brackets are 
added from a. Oaxton's text has 
been very much altered thus: ** For 
'* to late men haue knovleche what 
'' laborintos is, it is an hous won- 

derl 7 buylded and wrought with 

halkes and huyrenes, tornynges, 

and windynges so diuersly by won- 
** dertul wayes and wrynclis, that 
** who, that gooth in to that hows 
** and wold come out agayn, though 




" he retome hytherward and thy- 
" derward eeste, west, north, or 
'' southward, Whytherener he drawe 
" and for alle the wayes he can 
** chese, though he trauaylle neuer 
" so sore, he shal be so mased that 
** out can he not goo, but yf he haue 
*^ the craft that serueth therfore." 

' departed fro that part voiih grete 
waters of an arme of the see or cumen 
hy erthshakyny^ Cx., who has slight 
variations in the words following. 

* and\ Added from o, 
' Pathniumy Harl. MS. 

• ScicUia^ HarL MS. (twice.) 




mptwm, Habet quoque illud fretum duo famosa et 
fabuloisa jnonstm, ScyUam et Charybdim. Scyllam ac* 
colas saxum mari imminens ^ appellant^ humans^ formao 
similem oapitibus camnis^ succinctam finguat, qiiia^ 
collisi ibi fluctus videutur latratus exprimere. Cbaryb' 
dis autem est mare vorfcicosum* et naufragosum, ter ia 
die fluctus evomens et ter absorbens,^ Iddoru9, libra 
qwrto decimo, Hsec insula primo omnium terrarum 
pro committendis seminibus fertur aratro foisse pro- 
scissa,^ ibique primum inventa fuit comoedia, JBeda dc 
Ndturie. Tellus Siciliae cavernosa, sulphure ao bitu- 
mine strata^ ventis pene tota et ignibus patet; spiritu 
quoque introrsus cum igne concertante^ multis sespe 
locis ftimum, vaporem, seu flammas eructat ; ^ vel etiam, 
vento acrius incumbente, «renarum lapidumve moles 
egerit, indeque montis Minsd tarn diutinum est incen^ 
dium, Jeidom$, Ubro quarto dedmo, capitulo Beptimo. 
M%nB. mons versus eurum et Afrioum^ habet spe- 

^ iminens (sic), A.B» ; rninans, B. 
Probably eminent h the true readktg. 
^ caninam, A.E. ; suecinetumf B. 
» qui, B.E. 

* verHcosunif MSS. 

' absorhens ter, B. 

< precisa, B. 

' emittii, B. 

« So A.B. 5 Affricam, B. 



la ]7at see heep tweie greet periles and ^ wonderful and wel Tbetisa. 
wyde i-knowe ; J^at oon is Scylla, J>at opir is Charybdis, — 
Men of fat lend clepej? Scyllam a greet stoon, ]>at is fere 
i-seie aboue fe water^ i-scbape as a man^ byclipped aboute 
wij> hondes,* and feynej? and aeief fat it semef fat f e wawes 
berkef,* fat betef fere vppon. Charybdis is a perilous 
whirlynge see fat castef vp water and wawes, and swolowef 
hem yn fries a day."* Isidorus^ libra quarto decimo. In 
f is ilond me ^ erede firste wif plow^ for to sawe ^ in corn 
and of er sedes, and fere was commedy a song of gestes 
firste i'founde. Beda de Naturis. pe lond of Sicilia is holow 
and ful of dennes, and baf mocbe^ brymstone and glewe, so 
fat the eier and feire® haf wey i-now ferto, and fuyre 
i-closed in f e dennes and chenes ^ wif ynne f e erf e stryuef 
wif fe ^^ ayer and wijp i* ofer f inges fat beef contrarye to 
f e fuyre and makef ofte and in meny places breke out a ^^ 
smoke and brennynge leie.^* And somtyme the strengf e of 
f e wynd fat is wif inne makef breke vp i^ hepes of grauel 
and of stones ; for suche doynge it is fat fe brennynge of 
fat hil *5 mont Etna^^ duref so longe. Isidoms^ lihro quarto 
deeimo. pat hille mount Etna toward fe souf est baf 
many chenes and holow*^ dennes *^ wif inne f e erfe ful of 

see bathe ij. famous wondres and fuUe of fables» that be MS. Habl. 
Scylla and Charybdis. This Scylla, as men dwellenge there 226I. 

expresse, seyen that hit is a ston apperenge in the see 

lyke to the forme of man with hedes lyke to dogges. 
Wherefore thei seyne that thynge as to berke for the 
collision of waters meteuge there. Charybdis is callede 
properly a tumenge water, and i)erellous for destroyenge of 
schippes, evometenge waters thryes in the day, and de« 
vourenge theyme. Tsidorus, Eth^ libra quarto deeimo. 
That londe occupiede tyllenge of the londe with a plowe 
firste of alle other londes. IsidoruSy libro quarto deeimo, 
capitulo septimo. In this Scioille is the mownte callede 
Etna,*^ hauenge in hit towarde the sowthe weste pyttes of 

1 and] om a., Cz. 
^houndes heede»t Cx. 
3 So 0. and Ojc ; brehei^, MS. 
* in cigayn tkryes m a day, €x. 
^ men, Cx,, as usual. 
. ® sowe, a,, Gx. 

'' caueB and moche stdpkur or 
brymaUme, Cx« 
8 fire, 0, 

' inihecauesandin the chinnes, Cx. 
1« >e] om. a. 

11 1&2>] om. Cx. 

" greet, a. 

" to fyre, and that caueeth ofte 
smoke and brennyng Ujfte to breke 
out in many places, Cx. 

^* to breke oute, Cx. 

1' hiUe that is called ike mmaU,Qx.» 

1" Ethna, MSS. and Cx. 

" Mw, MS. 

^^ chynnes and holowe dennee or 
cauee, Cx. 



luncas isulphure plenas, qusd ventum recipientes ignem 
gignunt fumosum. Ranulphus. In quo loco apparent 
figurse et audiuntur voces gemebund^, unde creditur 
a plerisque ibi fore^ loca poenalia animarum, quern- 
admodum Beatus Gregorius in suo dialogo videtur 
facere mentionem.^ Qiraldus vn Topograpkia? Est 
in Sicilia* fons, ad quern si quis rubro indutus 
vestimento accesserit,^ statim ad accedentis staturam 
prosUiens in altum aqua® ebulUt, ad alios prorsus 
colores immota.^ Sunt et in ea cicadas alatse arterias 
apertas sub gutture habentes^ quae melius® (ut fertur) 
decapitatae quam® integrse didciusque*^ mortuse quam 
vivse canunt." Unde et pastores terrsB, ut dulciorem 
cantum ab eis^^ extorqueant, eas decapitare solent.'* 
In hac quoque terra urbs est Palerma,^* quss plus 
certi^^ reditus reddit annuatim regi terrse quam tota 
Anglia reddit de certo ^^ regi suo. laidorus, Ubro ter- 
tio ded/nio. Sunt in Sicilia fontes duo, quorum unus 
sterilem fecundat, alter vero fecundam^'^ sterilem reddit. 

1 qucedam loca, B. 

^ The three foregoing citations, 
and part of the opening words of this 
paragraph, are thus abridged in CD. 
** Sicilia habet ab aquilone Italiam, 
** marino brachio a terra Oalabriai 
*' separatam ; quondam dicta est 
** Trinacria, quasi triquadra, a tribus 
*' montibus. Demum Sicilia a Si- 
" colo Itali fratre, aliquando etiam 
'' dicta est Sicania a Sieano rege« 
** Terra cavernosa et sulphurea ; 
** in qua est mons ^tna (Ethna) 
'^jugiter ardens. Sunt in ea sales 
" argentlni (agergentini, B.} ad ig- 
" nem soluI)ili8 in aqnam (aqua, I)«) 
" crepitantes." 

' topicis, A. 

* ea, CD. 

^ Transposed in CD. ; cum indulus 
vestimento rubeo accesserit, B. 

^fonsy CD. 

' immotus, CD. 

' in olivis, B. 

» vel, B. 

*• didciuSf B. 

" canunt before mortwBf B. 

'* ah m] om. CD. 

*3 Ysidorus Etkimohgus Ubro 13 
added in C, wrongly. 

» So C ; Pahma, A.D.E. 

^^ certi] om. CD. 

^* de certo'] om. CD. 

^'' fectttidam after reddit in A. 
This sentence, and all that follow, 
except the first, are omitted in D. 



brymston, fat fonge]> ^ moche wynde and gendre]> fuyre Treyisa. 

and smoke. ]^. In J>at place bee|) i-seie dyuers figures 

and schappes and i-herd reweful* voys and gronynge. 
J)erfore some men wenej> pat soules beej> pere in peyne, 
as it semej> ]>at Seint Gregorie makep mynde in his dia^ 
logo.3 Giraldus in Topographia. pere is a welle in Sicilia, 
^if a man come]> ]>erto i-clo]>ed in reed, anoon pe water of 
]7at welle springe]> vp as hi^e as pat manis hede ; and for 
ojier colour and 4 h'ewe fe water meue]> nou^t. pere beej> 
also cicade bryddes j^at syngep at pe^ beste, and haue]? a 
pipe open vnder pe frote, and syngej> better whan pe hede 
is offe pan while ^ it is onne, and better whan ]>ey beep 
dede pan while pey bep on lyueJ perfore herdes of pat 
lond byhedep hem forto haue pe swetter song. . Also * . in 
pat lond is a citee pat hatte Falama^^ andi<> ^eldep euery 
^ere more of certeyn rente to pe kyng of pat lond^^ pan 
pe kyng of Engelond hap of certeyne*^ rente of Engelond.*^ 
Isidorus, libro tertio decimo. In Sicilia beep tweie welles, 
pat oon of hem makep a bareyn womman here *4 children, 

sulphur,*^ whiche receyvenge wynde gendre a fumose fyre. MS. Harl. 
^. In whiche place figures do appere and lamentable ^^^i- 
voices be herde ofte tjrmes ; where fore mony men suppose ' 

that per be places of peynes for sawles, as Seynte Gregory 
semethe to afferme in his dialogges. Gir, in Top, Also 
in Scicille is a welle to whom a man commenge in redde 
clothenge anoon that water movethe vp, not movenge to 
other coloures. Also in hit be gressehoppers, hauenge 
streyte veynes vnder the throte ; whiche, hauenge theire 
hedes kytte of, synge more swetely, as hit is seyde, then 
when thei haue theire hedes, and dedde better then on 
lyve. Wherefore the schepardes, wyllenge to make thejrme 
to synge swetely, kytte of theire hedes. In hit is a cite 
callede Palerna, whiche yeldethe more rente yerely to the 
kynge per of, more then alle Englonde yeldethe to the 
kynge of certenty. Istdorus, libro tertio deeimo. Also in 
Scicille be ij. welles, oon of theyme makethe plentuous a 
bareyne thynge ; that other welle makeythe bareyne a 

^ resseynethf Cx., as usual \ and 

engendryth below. 

* rufil, a. 

' dyahge^ Cx. 

* and\ or, Cx. 

^ wel in the best wyse, Cx. 
' whan, Cx. 
f a lyue, Cx. 

« And, Cx. 
• So HSS. and Cx. 
*• ihaty Cx. 

^^ to)fe kyng of]>at hnd] om. Cx. 
*2 siker, Cx. 
^^ of (d Engehndy a. 
" to here, Cx. 

^^ Perhaps atdphure is the reading 
of Harl. MS. 



Deinmili» Sunt et^ in Sicilia sales Agrigentini, contra morem 
alterius salis in^ igne solubiles et in® aqua crepi- 
tantes. Item juxta Sidliam est insula iSola^ sic dicta 
ab jEoIo, quern poetse finxerunt deum venti, pro eo 
quod ipse existens rector iEoliarum* insularum, nu- 
mero novem, ex fumosis et nebulosis vaporibus ascen- 
dentibus prsddicebat ventos affuturos, ac per hoc putatus 
est ab imperitis ventos habere in potestate. Romul" 
phus» HsB esedem novem inaulse dicte sunt* Vul- 
canisBi^ eo quod ignis in eis^ jugiter ardeat. Sunt et 
alise insulse in mari Euxino, quod magna ^ pars est 

Oolchos. maris magni, inter quas famosae, sunt Colchos, ubi 
Jason qusBsivit vellus aureum, sieut infra tangitur^ 

Patmos. circa bellum Trojanum ; et Patmos,*^ ubi " Johannes 

' et] offi. A. ; eti^ipDi ibidem^ B. 

* I»] om. B. 

' in\ om. B. 

« Eokrum^ MSS« 

' dicUB sunt] om* B. 

< mkane, MSS. 

' tn eis iffniSy B» 

" taagna] om. B« 

* tangetur, B, 

>• PoMinot, MSS.» tt ttsttal* 

>* sanctuSf added in B. 

i< retegahaty B.E. 




and ]?e o]?er make]? a chUdyng womman barayn. In Sicilia Trevisa, 
is salt Agrigentinus,' wonderful and contrai4e to ofer salt. — — 
For |>ey^ meltef in fuyre, and lepej? and sprankelef ^ in 
water. Byside Sicilia is an ilond ]7at batte Eola, and ha]> 
J)e name of Eolus. Poetes feynede and deped^ r]>at]5 
Eolus god6 of wyndes ; for while he was rulere of ^ nyne 
ilondes, euerich of hem heet Eola; by risynge of moisture 
of mysfc and* of smoke he wolde telle whan it schulde 
reyne ; and ferfore men, ]>at kouJ?e but litel good, wende 
]>at** he hadde be wynde in his power and my^t. pe 
same nyne ilondes hatte volcane,^ that is fuyre^^ for fire 
brennej? J>ere all wey. J)ere bee]) ofer ilondes in |)e see 
Euxinos.^^ pat see Euxinus is a grete partie of ]ie grete 
see of myddel er]>e ; among ]>e whiche ilondes ^e ilond 
Colchos is famous, pere lason^^ fette ]»e golden dees, as 
it is^* declared wij> ynne^* aboute J?e batayle of Troye* 
And Patmos '® is an ilond in fe same see ; fere Seyut ^^ 
lohan J>e Euangeliste was, whan he was outlawed'^ onte 
of o}>er londes. 

thynge plentuous. Also in Scicille is white salte, contrary MS. Harl. 
to the nature of other salte, whiche, beenge soluble in the 2261. 

fyre, brestethe and brekethe in the water. Also there is 

an yle nye to 8cicille callede Eola, takenge the name of 
hit of a man callede Eolus, whom poetes feynede to be 
god of wynde, in so moche that he, beenge gouemer of 
the seide ix. yles, seyde ofte tymes when wyndes scholde 
folowe by fumose rapores ascendenge. Where fore indis- 
crete men supposede h^ii to haue the wynde in his go- 
tiemaile and powere. These ix. yles be namede and callede 
Walcane, in that fire brennethe in theyme continually. 
Also there be other yles in the see Eusyne, whiche is a 

grete parte of the grete see, amonge whom the yle callede 
olchos, where lason did seche the fieese of golde^ as hit 
Bchalle be towchede abowte ]>6 batelle of Troye, ys moste 
of fame ; and Patmos,*® where Seynte lohan was in exile. 

1 So «« and Cx«) anQmiiSim^ HS. 

* ^rancUih, a.; sperdyth, Qx. 
^fetfnen and itiye, Ol 

* l>af] Added ^om a, and Cx 

* M 5«rf, Cx. 

* of ike, Cx. 

^ih$rfir€ gympk men iuppo$ed 
that, Cx. 

* So Cx. ; vleanej HS., a. 

^""Jifnfy Cx. 

^^ JSusinug, MSS* and C3K«, as 
>2 09 lawn. Cat. 
" shal fie, Cx* 
" after, Cx. 

i^ Paihmoa, MSS. and Cx. 
" 0» seynt, Cx. 
" exyled^ Cx. 



Cap. XXXL 

De insulis oceani. 
De insulis Plinius et Iddoms. Temperate sunt insulse For- 


tunatsd in occidentali oeeano positae, qua& putaiae sunt 
a Gentilibus esse Paradisum propter soli fecunditatem 
et aeris temperiem. Ibi enim fortuitis vitibus juga col- 
lium vestiuntur et herbarum more messis et olus rulgo * 
est* Proinde ob uberem proventum ForttinatsB dicun- 


tur quasi feliees, nam ibi stmt arbores usque ad 
centum quadraginta pedes porrectae in altum. Ibi 
etiam est^ insula Capraria, a multitudine caprarum et 
arietum sic dicta.^ Et etiam insula Canaria, a mul- 
titudine canum sic dicta.^ 

De Daeia 

Dada est insula boreali parti QermanisB contigua, 
cujus gens quondam ferox et bellicosa/ propter quod 
Britannicas oras et Gallicas aliquando oceuparunt.^ Et 
dicuntur Daci quasi Dagi * quia de Ck)thorum genere 
procreati^ Gens ejus copiosa, elegantis statural, et de- 

^ vulgus, B. 

^ The whole much abbreviated in 
CD., in which the remainder of the 
paragraph does not occur. 

^ est eHawif B. 

* est, added in A.B. 

^sic dicta] fordmn nuncnpata, 
" gens pidckm et pia, D, 
^ vccupaverutttf A. 
« Dage, B. 
* de stirpeGothorumdeieendens,!), 


De insults OceanL Tbetisa. 

Capitulum tricesimum primum, 

Isidorus, libra quinto. Insule Fortunate, (j?at bee]> J^e 
gracious ilondes, and beef of good temprure of wynde and 
of weder i-sette in ])e west occean and of som men i-holde 
paradys by eause of goodnesse of ye iond and of tempe- 
rure of weder,i) ])ere by ^ gracious tymes ; fe huUes beej> 
i-heled, and come ^ and herbes growej) as it were gras. 
perfore by cause of plente of come and of fruyt Jey beef 
i-cleped Fortunat, fat is, gracious : for fere bee|> trees of 
seuen score foot of heitlie.^ pere is fe ilond Capr[ar]ia, 
fat is f e ilond of Geet ; for fere beef meny geet and 
wetheris also. j)ere is f e ilond Canaria, fat is f e ilond 
of Houndes, [for ferynne beef ful meny strong houndes].^ 
Dacia, fat is Denmark, is an ilond fat ioynef to f e north 
side of G-ermania, Men of ^ -Denmark were somtyme ful 
stume and goode men of armes ; ferfore fey occupied 
somiyme greet contrayes in Brytayne^ and in Fraunce, 
and hatte Daci as it were Dagi, for fey come of [f e] * 
Gothes. pere beef many men in Dacia, and beef faire 

Off the Yles of the Occean. Capitulum tricesimum primum. MS. Haul. 
Plinius^ et Jsidorus libro quinto decimo,^ " 

The Yles Fortunate be temperate, putte in the weste 
occean, supposede of mony men to be paradise for the 
temperaunce of the aier and fecundite or plentuosenes of 
the soyle ; the hilles of those yles be clothede as by for- 
tunable enchaunce with herbes and other commodites, for 
whiche cause men inhabitenge theyme calle theym the £ 48. b. 
yles fortunate or happy. Where extente in alti- 
tude by a c. and xl*» foote. Where is an yle callede 
Capraria^ namede soe of the multitude of stronge dogges. 
Dacia, that is callede Denmarke, is an yle contiguate or 
adnecte t*o the northe parte of Germayne, the peple of 
whom was cruelle somme tyme and bellicose, in so moche 
that thei entrede f e prouinces or costes of Fraunce and of 
Englonde ; callede Daci, as Dagi, for thei come of the kynde 
of Gothes. The peple of hit is copious, of semely stature, 

* of temperate weder ^ Cx. 

^ So MS. aad a. ; hen^ Cx., which is 

« couerd with come, Cx. 

* hixe, a., Cx. 

*Tne words in brackets added 
from a. (not Cx.) 

VOL. I. 


^ So Cx.; Brutayne^ MS. 

^ j>6] Added from a. and Cx. 

• Both versions are wrong ; the 
true reference is to lib. xiv. c. 6, § 8. 



centis faciei et comaB, et quamvis contra hostes sasva, 
tamen erga innocentes pia; de uno notatur/ quod ex- 
cessuin potaiidi Ahglise^ adduxit.* 
DeWynt- Wyntiandia* insula, ad occasum Daciae, terta steriiis 

landia in- 
sula, est,* gens barbara et idolatra, quae navigantibus ad 

eorum portum * ventum vendere solent, quasi sub nodis 

fili^ indusum;® quorum enodatione ventus augebitur> 

ui voluerint. 

De Islan- 

Islahdia® insula^® habet ab austro Nbrguegiam, ab 
aqTiilone mare conglslatuih ; geUtem hab6t br^viloquath, 
veridicam, ferinis pellibus tectam, quse piscatroni in- 
dulget; eundem habet regem quem et" sacerdotem. 
Ibi sunt gyrofalcones et*^ aecipitres generosi, Ursi albi 
aquam gelatam rumpentes ut ** pisces extrahant.^^ Hsec 
terra propter nimium '^ frigus oves non nutrit nee 

' notantur, B. 

^ Anglia potandi, B. 

* The preceding paragraph abbre- 
viated in CD., the last sentence 
being entirely omitted. 

* Haukmdia, C. (not D.) 

* est'} et, A. 

* ad eorum portum] de pi'ope, C.I). 
^ sith globo fill nodosi incltisum, 

CD., omitting the r^aindeir 6f the 

^ interclusum, B. 

* FlandriUf O. (not D.) 

'* insula} om. CD. 

» et} om. CD. 

^^€t} om. A. 

" et, CD. 

'* extrahentes, CD. 

** nimiiitn} oiii. CD, 




of stature and semeliche of face fwid of here. And J?oti^i Tketisa. 
J>ey be slerne a^enst here enemjes, pej beej> to gode" 
men and trewe bofe esy and mylde : ^ but J)at ^ may not 
be fortete, fat^ fey broutte grete drynkyng^e into Enge- 
lond. Wyntlandya^ fat ilond, is by west Denmark, and 
is a barayne lend and^ of men mysbyleued ;7 fei^ wor- 
schippef mawinetrie, and sellef wynd to schijpmen, fat 
seillef to hire hauenes,^ as it were i-closed Ynder knottis 
of f rede ; and as f e knottes beef ynknette^^^ f e -wynde 
wexef at her owne wille.^^ Islond, fat ilond, haf in fe 
est side Norf wey,i2 in f e north f e froten *^ see, [th&t is,] >* 
mare congelatum« pe men of fat ilond beef schorl of 
speche^ trewe '^ of hir wordes, and i-clofed in wylde bestes 
skynnes, and beef fisslieres, and hauef al^^ oon inan kyng 
and preost.'^ pere beef girefauicouns and geutil haukes^ 
and fere beef fe^® whyte beres, fat brekef f e yse for to 
drawe out fische. pere beef no schepe in fat lend, and 

beatuous of faee $ thau^he that peple be cruelle ageyne MS. Habi., 
theire enmyes, neuerthelesse hit is meke ageynes innocentes. ^261. 
Also oon thynge is attendede specially of the ])anes, that 
the! brou^te firste in to Englonde the exeesse and surfette 
in drynkenge. Wytlandia is an yle at the weste parte of 
Benmarke, a bareyn grownde, inhabite with peple of barbre 
worischippenge ^doles ; whiche be Wont6 to selle wynde to 
men commenge to theire portes as inclusede vnder knotty 
of threde, causenge the wynde to be encreasede after theire 
pleasure thro that threde. Islandia is an yle, hauenge on 
the sowthe to hit Norweye, on the northe the see conge- 
lede ; hauenge also peple of schorte langage^ couerede with 
the skynnes of wilde bestes, ^iffenge theire labour to fisch- 
enge, hauenge to theire kynge whom thei have to theire 
priste. There be grete fawkunnes and gentylle gossehawkes, 
white beres brekenge the water congelede to drawe owte 
fysches. That londe noryschethe not sehepe for h^bundahY;^ 

' }>«t^, a. 

^ to god ho)^ gode, MS. 
^ they hen esy and mylde to good 
men and trewe, Cx. 
* J>af >f^> MS., «. 

^ hut it may not heforgoten, that, Cx., 
^ and] Added from Cx. 
' oute ofhyleue, Cx, 
® j>ei] Added from Cx. 
^ that come to theyr portes, Cx. 

^*' miknytte, Cx, 
'* theyr wile, Cx. 
^* Norwaye, Cx. 
^^ frozen, a. ''not Cx.) 
1* Added from Cx. 
^^ and trewe, a,, Cx. 
'• aV\ om. Cx, 
" preest, Cx. 

" \>e} om. a. and Cx., -wfiich is 
perhaps better, 

X 2 


De Thule 

segetes, excepta avena. Et* distat haec insula ab 
Hibernia sive a Britannia trium dierum velificatione.^ 
Solinus de mivoMlihus? Tile* ultima oceani in- 
sula inter septentrionem ^ et occidentalem plagam 
post Britanniam ultima ^ est, et ^ ® yix paueis nota ha- 
betur. Plinius, libra secwadOy capitulo septuage^imo 
septimo. A sole nomen habet^ quia ab SBquinoctio ver- 
nali usque ad^ sequinoctium autumnale sol semper 
ibidem praesens est, et nox nulla ; et iterum ^^ ab sequi- 
noctio autumnali usque ad sequinoctium vernale" sol 
semper abest, et dies nulla; quamobrem inhabitabilis 
est in aestate propter continuum solem, et^^ in hieme 
propter continuum frigus ; *^ quamobrem ^* annona ibi ^^ 
crescere non potest. Ibi quoque ^® mare est congelatum 
et concretum, quod nos stromum '^ appellamus.^* Inter 
eam insulam^* et Britanniam sunt insulse Scandia,*^ 
Lingos, Vergion.*^ Ipsa tamen TUe ®^ sex dierum veli- 
ficatione^ distat a Britannia. Oiraldus in Topographia» 
At ^* cum Augustinus, vicesimo primo de Civitate Dei, 
diqat TUen^ esse insulam Indise^® cujus arbores folia 

^JEt] om. B, 

^ Transposed in O.P. 

^ de mirahUibus] om. CD. 

* So A.I).E. ; Tylei, B. ; Tifa, C. 
Similarly- the versions. Thule is, of 
course, inteilded, yet the correction 
can hardly have place in the text ; 
(see below). In the marginal sum- 
mary the MS. reading has been 

® septentrionalem, CD. 

^ ultima, B. 

' et] uty A. ; om. CD. 

" CD. here bring in Orosius, and 
then the reference to Pliny. 
^ ad'\ om. C(notD,) 
** et iterum] item, CD. 

" vemaiel om. C ; adaliud aqui' 
noctium^ D. 

« et"] om. CD. 

'' nihil ibi crescere potest, added 
after frigus continuum in CD. 
" ideo, B. 
** ibidem, B. 
*• quoque'] om. CD. 
" So A.CD.E. ; stremum, B. 
^* vocamus, B.CD. 
*' insulam] om. CD. 

^ Naudia, B. 

** Verigonf C; Virigon, D. 

*2 Ipsa tamen Ttk] Tyle, B. ; 
et sex, CD. 

^ navigatione, D. 

2* At] om. C 

25 Tylen, B. 

^* Slightiy transposed in CD. 



fat is for greet colde,^ no]?er corn but otes. pat iiond is Tbevisa. 

from Irlond and from Bretajne J?re dayes seillynge. Soli- 

nus de mirahilibus. Tile ^ is ])e vttermost^ ylond of occean» 
by twene ]je norJ> and ]?e west cost by ^onde Bretayne, and 
"weH fewe men knowe]> J?at ilond. PUniuSy libro secundo,^ 
Tile hajj fat name of fe sonne, for from springynge 
tyme whan fe day and fe hyjt beef euen anon ^ to heruest 
tyme, whan f e day and f e ny^t be euene eft sones, it is 
all wey beschyne wij> f e sonne ; and eft from fat tyme 
anon to f e 7 springynge tyme a^en, whan f e day and f e 
ny^t bef euene, it^ haf no li^t of fe sonne, but all wey 
derk ny^t and no day. And f erfore f e lond is nou^t 
couenable for men to wonye ynne in somer for hete and 
in wynter for colde and derk ; ^ and bycause f erof fere 
may no corn growe. Also fere the see is hard i-frore. 
By twene fat ylond and Bretayne beef f e ilondes fat hatte 
Scandia, Lingos, and Vergion. Nof eles Tyle is sixe dayes 
seillynge oute of Bretayne. RanulphuSj Giraldus in Topo- 
graphia,^^ For Seint Austyn, vicesimo primo de CivitateDei, 
spekef of Tyle, and self fat it is an ylond of Inde> and 
seif fat f e treen ^^ of Tyle lesef neuere hire leues : but 

of colde, neither comes, otes excepte. Whiche yle is from MS. Hakl. 
Breteyne by the saylenge off iij. daies. Solinus de mira- 2261. 
hilibus mundi. Tyle is the laste yle of the occean after 
Briteyne, betwene the northe plage and the weste, the 
knowlege of whiche yle is hade vnnethe of men. PliniuSy 
libro secundo. That yle takethe the name of hit of the 
son, for from the equinoccialle of Ver on to the equinoc- 
cialle of herveste the son is allewey presente there, and 
neuer nyihte, and the son is absente also alleweyes from 
the equinoccialle of herveste to the equinoccial of Ver. 
Wherefore hit is inhabitable in the somer, for the con- 
tinualle presence of the son beynge there, and also in 
wynter, for contynualle coldenes beenge there, and for the 
absence of the son. Wherefore corne may not growe there. 
Betwene whom and the yle of Briteyne be of er yles, callede 
Scandia, Lingo, and Virgion. That Tyle is from Breteyne 
by the saylenge of vj. dayes. Giraldus in Top. Seynte 
Austyn, xxj<>. libro, de Civitate Dei, seythe that Tilis is 
an yle of Ynde, the trees of whom suffre not theire leves 

1 The six preceding words follow 
oies in Cx. 

« Tile or ryfe, MSS. and Cx., 
and so below. 

^ otmeste, a, 

* weT) om. Cx. 

^ Beference omitted in MS. (not 

^ at oon, MS.; vnto^ Cx. 

' \>e] om. a. 

" about September, it. Sec, Cx. 

^ derknesse, a.; Cx. 

w So MS., a., and Cx. ; bnt Ba- 
nulphus shoold he cancelled, or et 

" trees f Cx, 



De Nor- 

non deponunt, sequivocatio nominum * non decipiat te 
lectorem,^ quae^ in. recto reperietur non in obliquo. 
Ilia enim qu8B Indiee est dicitur Tilis in nominativo, 
sed quae occidentis est dicitur Tile in recto,* teste 
Isidore, Etymologiarum libro quinto decimo. 

Norguegia® ab euro Daciae et QothisB contermina 
ab anstro * babet Scotiam, ab aqnilone Islandiam ; in- 
sula qaidem^ lata, mari undique cincta, regio aspera,^ 
frigida, montuosa, silvestris. Ibi ® rara annona, feri ^^ 
mulfci,^' nrsi albi^ fibri, et castores. Cujus terrse incolae 
plus piscatione et venatione vivunt quam pane. In 
cujus aquilonaK *^ parte sol ssstivo solstitio non occum- 
bit '^ per dies plures, et itidem in solstitio hiemaK non 
videtur oriri ; quo in '* tempore oportet incolas quod 
necessadum est '® operari cunx candelis. In qua ^^ terra 
est fons, quo*^ ligneci» seu*^ lanea'® imposita per an- 
num^ in lapidem congelantur. Gens iUa scrutatrix 

^ nominum] om. C.p* 
^ no» . . . kctorem] Spsu^e left for 
tbe vords in B. ; lectorem om. CD. 
» quia, C. (not D.) 

* in nomiTUitivo^ CD., endiiig the 
sentence there. 

* Norvegia^ A. ; fforwegia^ B,p, 

* enroy E. only. 

^ quvdeni^ m^ CD, 

* aspera\ om. C (not D.) 
» /K] om. CD. 
»^/«r«, A.B.C.D. 

*^ vmU<Bj D. (not A., whose text 

seems to be annona fere ; mtdti ursi, 

"So A.E. 5 aquUonari, B.CD. 

** videtur oecumberef C 

'* m] om. CD. ^ 

^^Juerit, B. 

»« kacy CD. 

*' 3R quOy CD. 

w vely B.p. 

<® vel linea, added in CD. (the 
latter has seu») 

2* pro parte vdpro toto durimmum, 
added in CD. 



be war pat ))0u be pou^t begiled by liknes of names: for TRBvigA, 

"pat ylond of Ynde batte Tills in pe nomenatyf caas ; 

and J?e ^ ilond of occean hatte Tyle in J?e nominatyf 
caas, and beef licbe in ofer, as ^if pou canst declyne 
]?ilk:e tweye names, and speke Latyn ; so seip Isidre, 
Etbym., libro qninto decimo. Norway slareccbe]) somdel est 
toward Denmark and Grothia, and ba]> in pe sou]) side 
Scotlond and in pe northside Islond» pe ilond is brood, 
byclipped aboute wip pe see, and is ful scharpe and colde, 
and hap many hilles and woodes and 2 wylde bestes, white 
beres, bausons, and brokkes, and scarsite of corne. Men» 
of pat lend leuep more by fisshynge and huntinge -pan by 
brede and com. In pe norp side of pat lond meny ny^tes 
in pe somer tyme aboute pe styntynge of pe sonne, pe 
Sonne gop noutt doun but schynep al ny^t ; and eft as 
mi|,ny dayes in pe wynter aboute pe styntynge of pe 
Sonne, the sonne arisep nou^t for to leue hem ly^t ; per- 
fore al pat tyme pey moot do by candeH what work pat 
hem nedep. In pat londe is a welle pat tomep tree and 
leper in to stoon, and it be perynne from pe bygynnynge 
of a ^ere^ to pe ^eres ende.^ pe men of pat lond beep 

to falle. Therefore, who so euer dothe rede this processe, MS. Haul. 
y wylle he aduertise that there be yles, the oon of theyme 226I. 
is callede Tills, and that other is callede Tile, leste equi- 
uocaciop of the names deceyve hym. That yle in Ynde is 
callede Tills, and that yle in the weste is callede Tile in 
the nominatiue case, Isidorus wittenesse, Eth«, xxP. Nor- 
guegia, that is callede Norway, is nye to Dacia and Gothia, 
hauenge on the sowthe to hit Scotlande, of the northe 
Island ; a grete yle, and compassede abowte with the see, a 
colde londe, a bareyne ciintre, and fulle of Miles. There 
is litelle corne, mony beeres and brockes. The peple per 
of lyve more by fyschenge then by huntenge, eitenge but 
lytelle brede. In the northe parte pf that cuntre tibe sqn 
goethe not down in the solstice of somer by mony dales, 
and is not seen to aryse ageyn in the solstice of wynter 
by mony dayes. In whlche tyme hit behouethe men labor- 
enge to worche by ly^bte of candeles. In that londe is a 
wdle in whom wopdde putte or wpUe by a yerp be coii- 
gelede in to a stop. The peple of hit, serchenge the 

* So Cz. ; and in pe, MB. 
2 and] om. Cx. 

. ? In >£ nori» side men, MS. (not a. 
or Cx.) 

* they mnste merke hy candd light, 

B ayere, MB. conjimctiQ). Similar 
instances occur elsewhere, and are 
not always noticed. 

* and it abyde iherinn^ a yeer hoole^ 



oceani vitam piraticam exeroet ; quorum expeditio na- 
vali fit certamine.^ 

Qas de 

Cap. XXXIL^ 
De Hibemia. 

Erat Hibernia ab olim Britaimiea jure dominii ^ con- 
^gname- corporata, quam, duce Giraldo ia sua Topographia 
earn* ad unguem plenius describente, profusioribus 
laudibus congruit illustrare.^ Ad cujus notitiam liqui- 
dius consequendam viam aperiunt^ tituli subsequentes. 
Dicetur ergo : 

De situ terrse locali : De ejus quanto et quali : In 

quibus terra sufficit : In quibus rebus deficit : De 

jncolis prioribus : De incolarum moribus 'J De locorum 

prodigiis : De sanctorum prsBConiis. 

Be situ Hibernia omnium insularum occidentalium novissima 


loeaii. sic dicta est® ab Hibero Hispanico, fratre scilicet^ 
Hermonii, qui duo simul juncti^^ earn conquisierunt ; 

* So A.B. $ CUJU8 expeditio navali 
certamine est, CD. ; last clause 
omitted in B. 

^ This and all the following chap- 
ters of the first l>ook are contained 
in Gale's Hist Brit. Scriptores xv., 
vol. i. pp. 179-212, Oxon. 1691. 
. His readings, and occasionally those 
of his MS. (G.) are noted below. 

' So A.B.B. $ domini, C; om. E. 
* earn before t», B. 
^ illustrari, B. The sentence 
slightly abbreviated in CD. 
« aperient, Gale (not G.) 
^ majorihus, C (not D.) 
^ e8t\ Added fi:om A.D. and Gale* 
■ scilicei] om. CD. 
^® simul juncii\ om. CD« 



schipmen and j^eues of J>e see. Treuisa. For to knowe Tbbvisa. 

what fe styntynge of fe sonne is to menynge, take hede 

]»at ]7e Sonne styntep twyes a ^ere ; ones a somer, whan 
he goJ> no heiter ; and eftsones a ^ wynter, whanne he 
goo))^ no lower; and so in eifer^ tyme is fe styntynge 
of ^e Sonne. 

De Hibernia. Capitulum tricedmum secundum. 

HiBEBNiA^ J^at is Irlond, and was of olde tyme incorporat 
in to fe lordschippe of Bretayne, so sei]? G-iraldus in sua 
Topographia. pere^ he descryuej> it^ at fe fuile, tit it is 
worjjy and semelich to preise J>at lend wi]? large ® preysinge. 
For to come to cleer and ful knowleche of J)at lond, fese 
tyteles }>at folwe}> oponej? fe way : J)erfore first me schall 7 
telle of []>e]s place and stede of J>at lond, how greet 
and what manere lond it is ; where of ]>at lond ha}> plente ; 
and where of he ha]) defaute ; of men )>at woned ]7ere 
first ; of maneres of men of J>at londe ; [of the wondres 
of Jjat lond ;] ^ of worjjynesse of halewes [and] of seyntes.^® 

he situ tlibemicB localL Irlond is fe laste of alle J>e 
west ilondes, and hat ^^ Hibernia of oon Hiberus of Spayne, 
)jat was Hermonius his broker. For J?ese tweie bre|)eren 

occean, exercise the lyfe of schippemen ; fe victory and MS. Harl. 
spede of theim is by fi^hte in schippes on the see. 2261. 

Of Irlonde* Capitulum tricesimum secundum. 

Iblonbe was somme tyme to Briteyne concorporate by 
ryjhte of dominacion, whom Giraldus describenge in his 
Topographye extoUethe hit with mony laudes. The titles 
here folowenge expresse and schewe the way. Therefore, 
hit schalle be seyde of the site and place of that londe, of 
the quantite and qualite of hit, and the defawtes of that 
londe, of the firste dwellers of hit, and of the maneres of 
the inhabitatores of hit. 

Of the localle site of Irlonde. Irlonde^ the laste of 
all the weste yles, toke the name of hit of Hiberus 
brother of Hermonius, whiche coniuncte to gedre gate that 

» a] at, Cx. 

« no hd^er . . . goo^'\ Added from 
a. and Gx. 

» So Cx. ; neif>er, MS. absurdly. 

* wherCy Cx. 

s if] Added from Cx. 

« larger, «.5 Cx. 

' IsM, Cx. 

" Added fcooL a. and Cx. 

' Added fix>m a. and Cx. 

'• of hdhwes and saintes of that 
hmd, Cx.; and so o,^ omitting of that 

" height, Cx 


vel dicta est ab Hibero flnmine Hispanise occidentali,^ 
Dicta est etiam aliquando Scotia a Scotis earn inhabi- 
tantibus^ priusquam ad aliam Scotiam^ Britannicam ^ 
devenirent.'* Unde in Martyrologio ^ legitur : '* Tali die 
" apud Scotiam Sanctse Brigidse ;" quod est, apud Hiber- 
niam. Hsec terra ab euro-austro^ habet Hispaniam 
trium dierum^ navigatione collateralem ; ab oriente 
habet Britanniam majorem,® unius® diei velificatione 
distantem; ab occasu habet oceanum infinitum; a 
septentrione Islandiam, trium dierum velifico cursu 
distantem. Solvmis. Sed et mare quod inter banc et 
Britanniam ii^terluit undosum et inquietum est toto 
anno, jBt nisi panels diebus vix enavigabile, in^® cen- 
tum viginti mlUia passuum latitudinis expansum. 
J>eejus Hibernia insula post Britanniam maxima ab austro 

^tS^^* in boream" extensa/^ a Brendanicis scilicet montibus 
usque *ad Columbinam insulam, continet pcto dierum 
disetas, quarum qusBlibet quadraginta milliarium existit ; 
et a Dublinnia^* usque ad Patricii colles^* Connacti- 
cumque mare in latum quatuor dieruin excursuni tenet ; 
quae in sui medio strictior est quam circa capita^ sed '^ 
epontra est de *^ Britannia ; et sicut Hibernia brevipr 

1 sive ah Hehero flumine Hispa' 

^ Scotiani] om. B. 

3 Sritannwam] om. CD. 

* devenerunt, B. 

* So A. ; Mariilogio, I).B. 

* euro] om. CD. 

^ naturcdium, added in CD. 

* majorem] om- CD. 

? noctis et uniuSf B. 

" in] pm. CD. 

'^ in bcream] om. B. 

** expansa, C (not D.) 

w Dublinia, B.D. 

" coUes Patridi, B, 

J« sed] om. CD. 

** de} om, G. and Gale. 



gat and whan^ ])is lond bj eouquest. 0]>er it hatte Hibemia Tbevisa. 

of J>at ryuer Hiberus, fat is in J>e west ende of Spayne. 

And J>at londe hatte Scotland also, for Scottes woned fere 
somtyme, or J)ey come into pe ^ oJ>er Scotland, J)at longede 
to Bretayne, perfore it is i-write in J>e martOoge : " Suche 
*' a day in Scotland Seint Bryde was i-bore ; " and fat 
was in Irlond. pis lond haf in fe sonf est side Spayne 
Jire dayes seillynge fennes aside half, and ha]? in fe est 
side J>e more ^ Bretayne, fennes a dayes seillynge ; in 
fe west side he hajj fe endeles occean, and in fe norf 
side Iselond J>re dayes seiUynge fennes. Solinus. But 
fe see fat is bytweene Bretayne and Irlond is al fe Jere 
ful of greet wawes and vnesy, so fat me may seelde siker- 
liche seille bytwene. pat see is six score myle brood. 

De ejus quanta et qualL Mand is an iland grettest 
after Bretayne, and strecchef norfward from Brendans 
hilles anon to fe ylond Columbyna, and conteynef ei^te 
dayes iorneis, euerich iorney of fourty myle. And from 
Deuelyn to Patrykes hilles and to f e see in fat side in 
brede is ^ foore iorneyes. And Irlond is narwer in f e myd- 
del fan in fe endes, al of erwise fan Bretayne is i-schape. 

londe. Or elles hit was namede of a weste floode of MS. Harl. 

Speyne callede Hiberus. And hit was callede also Sco- 2261. 

tia, of Scottes inhabitenge hit or that thei come to that 

other Scotlande. Wherefore hit is redde in the marti- 

logge : *' Suche a day at Scotlande Seynte, Brigida," 

whiche was at Irlonde. That londe hathe on the southe 

este to hit Spayne by the saUenge of thre dayes from hit 

as colaterally, and on the este to hit the more Briteyne 

beenge from hit by the 3|i,ylenge of ppn day, and on the 

weste to hit the occean infinite, of the north Islande from 

hit by the saylenge of iij. dayes. Solinus^ The see that 

departethe hit from Briteyne ip pereUous and fulle of water^ 

and inquiete of alle the yere, and vnnethe able to be passede 

with schippes in eny tyme ; extente in latitude cxx** m. 


Of the quantite and qualite of hit. The yle of Irlonde, 
after Briteyne moste extendede in to the northe, conteyn- 
ethe from Brendan hille to the yle callede Columbina 
xvi'^^. myles, and from Dublyn to the hiUes of Seynte 
Patrikke viij**. myles, whiche londe is more streyte in 
the myddes then at the endes, but hyt is in contrary 

1 wan^ a»j Cx. 

2 that, Cx. 

' So a. and Gx. ; more hcdf^ MS. 

* is] Added from Cx.; ben would 
be more correct. Several minute 
variations below are unnoticed. 



est ad boream quam Britannia, ita productior est ad 
austrum. Terra quidem inaequalis/ montuosa, plu- 
viosa,^ ventosa, mollis,^ et silvestris; per latera mari- 
tima valde demissa ; introrsus ^ montana et sabnlosa. 
Solinus, Alias ita pabulosa ut pecora ibidem, nisi^ 
a pascuis iaterdum^ arceantur, ad periculum agat 
satietas7 Qiraldus? Indigenarum sanitas continua, 
advenarum quoque propter humiditatem ® nutrimen- 
torum fluxus ventris periculosus^^ est," Games ibi*^ 
vaccinae salubres, porcinae nocentes. Incolae nulla 
febris specie vexantur, excepta acuta, et hoc perraro. 
Omnes igitur orientales pompas in lignis^ herbis, 
gemmis, vestibus, hujus terrse salubritas et veneni 
carentia compensant; et videtur hsBC salubritas causari 

' aqutUiSy B. , 

2 phwiosal om. CD. 

' meUis, E. (clerical error.) 

* interiitSf C. 

^ ibidem msi"] ibidem nisi inter- 
dum, B.; niBi interdnm, CD. 

* inter dum] om. B.C 

' satietas] om. B. 
^ in iopographia, added in CD., 
» So A.B.CD., Gale ; muOtatemy E. 
^^ pericuhsa, B. 
"c»*] om. B.C (not D.) 
1^ ibt] om. B. ; Aic, D. 



As Irlond is schorter norjjward Jian* Bretayne, so is he Trevisa. 

lenger soa|)ward. pe load is not playne ; but ful of 

mountajnes and of hilles, of wodes, of mareys^ and of 
mores : pe lond is nesche,^ reyny, and wyndy, and lowe by 
]>e see syde, and wij> ynne' bUly and sondy. Solinus,^ pere 
is grete plente of noble pasture and of lese ; ]^rfore bestes 
moot 4 ofte be dreue out of hir lese, leste fey fede hem 
self to ful and schende hemself, and ]>ey moste. ete at 
hir owne wille.* Giraldus. Men of ]>at lond haue]> here 
hele alwey,^ and straunge men ^ haue]? ofte a perilous f uxe ^ 
by cause of moysture of mete 5 J^ere cowes flesche ^ is hol- 
som and swynes flesch vnholsom. Men of fat lond hauef 
no feuere, but onliehe pe feuere agu, and fat wel silde 
whftnne.1® perfore fe holsomnesse [and helfe] '^ of fat lond 
and f e clennesse wifoute ^* venyme is worf al fe boost and 
richesse of treen, of herbes, of spicerie, of [riche] ^* clofes, and 
precious stones of f e est londes. Hit semef fat f e helf e 

wyse of Briteyne ; and lyke as Monde is more schorte MS. Haru 
to the northe then Briteyne, in lyke wise hit is more 2261. 

large at the sowthe. A londe inegaile fuUe of hilles and 

water. Solinus. That londe is so pkntuous in pastures 
to bestes that the fattenes of theyme scholde cause perelle, 
with oute the bestes were removede from hit of er while, 
Giraidus. The flesche of that cuntre inducethe sanite 
to men of that londe, and causethe strongeours to haue 
the flux for the moisture of the noryschenge of theyme. 
The flesche of a kowe is wholsom there ; but swyne 
fiesche be nyenge moche : the dwellers of hit be not vexede 
with the ax^s excepte the scharpe axes, and that is but 
selde. Men of that londe thenke that the wholsomnes 
of that londe and wontenge of venom excelle and compense 
alle the prides of the este, as in wode, herbes, gemmes, 
and ofer clothes. The holsomnesof that cuntre semethe 

» >af, MS. (not Cx.) 

« soft, Cx. 

' Added from Cx. 

* must^ Cx. 

* dryue oute ofiheyr pasture^ leeste 
they ete ouermoche, for they ahold 
shende hem self, yf they myght ete at 
theyr wyUe, Cx. 

' haue eomundy theyr helth, Cx. 

' stravngersy Cx. 
^flixe, o. 

^Jlessh of kyen, Cx. (wiih other 
slight variadons.) 
^^ ^lat right seme, Cx. 
" Added from a. and Cx. 
" un^te"] oute of, Cx. 
" Added from «. and Cx. 


ex eo quod modicus est ibi excessus in frigore aut 
Inquibus Terra hasc magis vacdis quam bobus, pascuis quam 

rebus suf- . 

fici*« frugibiis> gramme quam grano fecunda. Abundat 

tamen^ sahiioiiibus> murseniS)^ aiiguillis>^ et csBteris 
mariiiis * piscibus ; aquilis qiioque, gruibus, pavoiiibus> 
cottimicibus, niso, falcom^ et accipitre generbso.^ Lupos 
quoque'' habet,® tiaiires nocentissiinos ; sed et araneas, 


sanguisugas, et lacertas habet^ innocuas. Mustelas 
quoque parvi corporis sed valde ^^ animosas possidet. 
Habet et " aves quas bemaces ^^ vocant, quas aucis '^ 
silvestribus siiniles de lignis abietiiiis quasi contra 
naturam natura producit^ quibus viri religiosi tempore 
jejuniorum vescuntur, eo quod de coitu vel de came 
ininiine procreantur.^* Sed huic repugnare videtur,^^ 
qtiod siquis tie ifemore jprimi parentis comedisset, car- 
iietii utique comedisset, qiiamvis de carne minime pro- 
pagatam ; et sicut ilia caro ex limo^ ita ista caro '^ ex 

^ The clauBe abbreriated in CD. 

* tatnen} haec UmsL, C.D. 
^ et, added in CD. 

* anffuiUis] om. B. 
^ mariSy B. 

® geso, Gale, smd so 6. 

' etiam, CD. 

^ vulpes et, added in CD. 

" habet'] om. B. 

^^ valde tamen, B. 

" etiam, CD.; et habet, A. 

'^ bemahes, B; 

" aves, A. 

^* creantur, CJ). 

** n^uffnat, iCD. 

" caro] om. CD. 


of* fat lond is bycause fat J>ere is no^t grefc passjnge Teevisa, 
and exces in hele^ nober in hete. 

In quibus rebus sufficiL In pis lond beef mo kyn * fan 
oxen, more pasture fan come, more gras fan seed, pere 
is grete plente of samon, of lampreys, of eles, and of of er 
see fiscli ; oiP egles, of ^ cranes^ of ^ p^Bkokes, of corleweS, 
of sperhaukes, of goshaukes, and of gentil faucouns, and of 
wolfes, and of wel schrewed mys. pere bef attercoppes, 
blood soukers, and enettes^ [fat doof noon hartti].^' p^te 
beef veyres^ litel of body and ful hardy and strong, pere 
beef bernakes ^ foules iicne to wylde gees 5 kynde bryngef 
hem forf woiiderliche out o£^^ trees, as it Were kyiide 
worchynge a^enst kynde." Men of religioun etef bernakes 
in*2 jfasting dayes, for fey come)? nou^t of flesche nofer 
beef i-gete flescheliche bytw«n© fader and moder : biit fey 
beef fol lewedliche i-meued, for resoun is contrarie to fat 
doynge.*^ For ^if a man hadde i-ete ^* of Adams figli,-^* he 
had i^ete flesch ; and ^it Adam com noutt *^ of flesch, 

to be causede in that there is but lytelle excesse in MS. Haul. 
coldenesse or in hcete. ^2^*; 

Of mhat thynges that londe is suffisiaunte. That londe 
is more habundaunte in kye then in oxen, in pasture 
then in corhe. Neuertheles^, hit habundethe in ^al- 
mones, eles, lawmpreis, and in other fysche of the isee ; 
in egles, cranes, pokokkes, curlewes, sparrehowke, 
ffawken, and gentille gossehawke j hauenge wulphes 
and moste nyous myse, and weselles lytelle in body, but 
bolde in herte. Also there he bryddes whiche thei calle 
bernacles, lyke to "wylde gese, whom nature producethe 
ageyne nature from firre trees, whom relijgious men do eite 
in fastenge dales, in that thei be hot bredde and geten 
thro the acte off venery. But an obieccidn may be made 
ageyne that cause ; for and if a miah «cholde haue eiten 
of the flesche of Ad^tm he scholde hav^ eiten flesche with 

* Thus in Cx: The cause of the 
helthe and kdlsomnes of that londe is 
the attemperat hete and colde that is 

* chele, «. 
^ keen, a. 

^and,tt. (not Cx.) 

^ So a., Cx. ; andpekokes, MS. 

« eefies, Cx. 

' Added from a. and Cx. 

^f eyres, Cx. 

* bemacles, Cx. 

^® whiche ffrowen wonderhf vpon, 

" natttre vormght ag^x/h kynde, Cx. 

« on, Cx. 

'^ Cx. thnfi: ^ cause they ben not 
enyendryd of fiesshe, wherin, as vie 
ihynkeA, they erre ; for reson is 
ayenst that 

'* eitek, Cx, 

" legge, Cx. 

"«70* Twt engendred, Cx., -with 
other slight variations, and some 



la qoibiis 
rebus de- 

ligno 8aque mirabilis. Abundat etiam ' haec terra 
lacte, melle, vinis, non vineis. Et quamvis Beda dicat 
illam terram* vinearum non expertem,*et Solinus ac 
Isidorus apibus earn carere asserant^ circumspectins 
tamen e diverso scripsissent,* si earn vineis carere et 
apmn^ expertem non fuisse® dixissent ; item Beda 
dicit capronim' venatu insiilam fore insignem, cum 
tamen constat earn semper capreis caruisse.® Nee 
mimm; cum Beda nihil de hac insula oculata fide 
cognoverit, sed per relatorem • audierit. Ibi ** quoque 
gignitur lapis" sexagonus, scilicet Iris, qui soli appo- 
situs format^* in aere oelestem arcum. Ibi quoque 
invenitur^^ lapis gagates et margarita Candida. 

Tritici grana sunt hie ^* minuta,i« vix manu pur- 
gabilia, et omnium animantium '^ corpora hie ^'' quam 
alibi minora exceptis hominibus reperiuntur. Desunt 
hie '* pene^® orones pisces, qui^ ex aquis dulcibus non 

' etiam] om. CD. 

* iRam terrain] earn, C. 

^ So CD. ; vineis non expertem, 
B., Oale ; vineis expertem, A.E. 

* circuTnspectms scripsissent e di» 
verso, B. 

* apium, CD. 

* esse, CD. 

' capreorum, B.CD. 

^ See Solinus» Pd, c. 22, § 6. Isid., 
Etym. lib. xiy. c. 6, § 6 . Bede's words 
(HistEech lib. i. c. i.) are : Dives 
lactis ac mellis insula, nee Tinearum 
expers, pisciomque yolucnimque, 
sed et ceryomm capreammque ve- 
natu insignis. 

* latorem, C (not D.) 

*" Ibi . . . Candida] om. CD. 
" lapis] om. B. 

^^ A space left for format after 
arcum in B. 
^' Inveniiurque ibidem, B, 
>♦ %bi, C (not D.) 

" Slightly transposed in Ui (not 

'^^ omnia animaliumy B. 

" ibi, C (not D.) 

"t6i, C(notD.) 

"/«•«, CD. 

^ qua, all MSS. collated for this 
edition ; qui, G. and Oale, cor- 
rectly ; but perhaps xfigden used 
the feminine. 


nojjer was i-gete flescheliche bytwene fader and moder. Trevisa. 

But ]>at flesch com wonderliche of pe evpe, so fis flesche ^ 

come]» wonderliclie of fe tree. In fis lond is plente of 
liony and ^ of mylt and of wyn, and nou^t of vyne^erdes, 
[Solinus and Isidorus wryten that Irlond hath no bees ; 
netheles it were better wryten that Irlond hath bees and 
no vyneyerdes.] ^ Also Beda sell? }&t J>ere is grete hunt- 
ynge of^ roobukkes, and it is i-knowe ]>at roobukkes bee]> 
noon pere.s It is no wonder of Beda; for Beda knew^ 
neuere fat ilond wi)) his ey^e ; bot som tale tellere tolde 7 
hym suche tales. Also fere growef fat stoon Saxagonus,^ 
and is i-cleped Iris also, as it were f e reynebowe ; ^if fat 
stoon is i-holde a^enst fe sonne, it^ schal schape a reyn- ' 
bowe. pere is i-founde a stoon fat hatte gagates,^^ and 
white margery perils. 

In quibus rebus deficit. Whete cornes beef ^^ fere ful 
smal, vnnefe i-clansed ^^ wif manis bond ; out take men,^^ 
alle bestes beef smallere fere fan in ofer londes. pere 
lackef wel nyh al manere of ^* fresche water fische, fat is 

owte dowte thaujhe hit come not of iiesche ; for like as MS. Harl. 
the flesche of Adam was made of the erthe, so those ^^* 
bryddes comme of a tre, as a thynge to be hade in mer- 
uayle. Also that londe is habundante in mylke, bony, in 
wynes, but [not] in vynes. And also thau^he that grete 
clerke Bede seye that londe not to be experte of vynes, and 
Solinus and Isidorus ^^ seye hit to wonte bees, neuertheles 
thei seholde haue writen more circumspectely, if they hade 
seide that londe to wonte vynes, and to haue be habun- 
dante in bees. Also Bede seythe that yle to habunde in 
dere, sythe hit is provede by experience that londe to 
have wontede suche bestes, and no meruayle, sjrthe Bede 
provede not the trawthe of the commodites of that yle by 
his awne person, but by the relacioun of other men. A ston 
is gendrede there whiche is callede Iris, whiche putte to 
the sonne causethe a reynebawe to appere in the aier. Also 
a ston callede gagates, and a white margarite be founde there. 
In what thynges that londe is defectiue. The comes 
ofP whete be scarse there and lytelle. Also that londe 


* So c; fesehe, MS. 
aTid] om. ct. 

^ This sentence added from Cx. 
■* to, a. 

* 1?iat iher hen none, Cx. 

* he sawe neuer, Cx. 
' somme men had tcMy Cx. 

* sescctgonus, Cx, ^* Ysodortis, Harl. MS. 

* anon iV, Cx, 

VOL. I. 

'^ SoCx.; gogaihes, MS. and a. 

" bee, a. 

** %-clensed, a. 

" reserued men, Cx. 

" o/*] om. Cx. (a frequent varia- 
tion) ; alie manere fische offresshe 
water ^ a.. 



marinis sementinam trahunt originem; desunt hic^ 
degeneres falcones, quos laniarios^ vocant, desup.t et 
gyrofalcones,* perdices, phasiani,* picae efc ^ philomelse.^ 
Caret quoque capreis et damis, hericiis/ putaciis^ et ® 
talpis et cseteris^ venenosis. Unde fingunt aliqui 
satis favorabiliter Sanctum Patricium cunctis pestlferis 
ammantibus *^ insalam ptirgasse; sed probabilius*^ ^^est 
insulam ab imtio hujusmodi nocivis caruisse. Quin- 
etiam^^ venenosa aliunde allata statim moriuntur 
ibidem, et toxicum aliunde advectum ultra medios 
fluctus versus Hiberniam vim suae malignitatis amittit; 
ac etiam ^ pulvis terrse iUius aliunde aspersus veneno- 
sos vermes fiigat, adeo ut corium hujus terree vermi 
circumdatum ^^ aut ipsum occidit aut terram penetrare 
cogit. In hac terra galli cantant in ipso noctis cre- 
pusculo, et quantum alibi a tertia,^^ tantum hic^'^ a 
prima galli voce dies distare dignoscitur.'® 

> ibi, C. (not D.) 

^ hnerios. Gale (not G.) 

^ jerofakonesy B. ; girofakonesr 

*fasiani, A.D. ; folianiy C. ; fcun- 
anif B.E. 

^ et"] om^B., Gale. 

^pkHomenay MSS. and Gale. 

' putaciis before hericm in R 

® putaciis et] onu B. 

• et ccBteris] om. CD., -which have 
etiam caret after venenosis. 

'• aninuint^us] om. CD. 

^^ probahUetHri inD. some erased 
word has been altered tp probabt- 

^^ puto ah initio hujus (kitfusmodi, 
D.) nocivis faisse desHtutaf CD. 

" Sed etianif CD.; Quin et, Gale. 

^* ac etiam] om. CD. 

" circumdata, MSS. and G., not 
Gale. Probably eorium should be 
changed into torva. See Trevisa. 

'* a terUa'] om. B. 

" ibiy C (not D.) 

»® dinosciiur, MSS. and Gale. 


nou^t gendred in fe see ; fere lakkej) vnkynde faukouns, Tretisa. 

girefaukouns, partriche,^ fesauntes, ny^tingales, and pies. 

pere lakke]> also roo and bukke and ilspi[les],^ wontes, and 
ofere yenemous bestes ; ferfore som men feyne]? and fauor- 
abliclie seij) ^ J>at Seynt Patryk clensed J>at lond of wormes 
and of venemous bestes. perfore som men feyne}? J>at it 
is 4 more probable and more skilful, ))at fis lond was from 
V^ bygynnynge alwey vnp oute sucbe wormes. For vene- 
mous bestes and wormes deye]? fere anon, and me* brynge 
hem J>ider out of ofer londes ; and also yenym and poysoun, 
i-brou^t fiderward out of ofer londes, lesef his^ malys 
anon as be passef fe myddel of fe see. Also powder of ^ 
erfe of J>at lond i-sowe^ in ofer londes ysef^ awey wormes 
so fer forj), fat a torf of fat lond i-doo aboute ^^ a worme 
sleef hym ofer makef hym fruUe foru^^^ fe erfe for to 
scape a way. In fat lond cokkes crowef wel *^ litel to 
fore day ; so fat f e firste cokkes erowe in fat lond and 
fe fridde in ofer londes beef i-licbe^^ fer to fore day. 

wontetbe fiiscbes wbicbe haue tbeire originalle naturalle MS. Hasl. 
in fresche waters. Also that cuntre bathe not a 2261. 
kynde of hawkes that be callede lauerettei^ and grete- 
fawkones, partricche and fesaunte, pyes, ny^htegales, 
bucke and doo, wontes and other bestes of venom. 
Wherefore somme men feyne fauorably, seyenge Seynte 
Patrike to haue purgede and made clene that yle thro 
his preyers from nyou» bestes. But hit is more probable 
to say that yle to haue wontede suche bestes from the 
-begynnenge of hit. Also other bestes fuUe of venom 
brouihte from other places to hit dye anoon. Also if 
pois(m be brouthte to that londe, hit losethe the stren^hte 
of hit or that hit comme in f e myddes of the water nye 
to that londe. Also the erthe of that londe caste abrode 
in other cuntres or londes dothe expelle venomous bestes, 
in so moche that parte of that erthe putte to worme 
auther sleethe hit other elles constreynethe hit to entre 
in to the erthe. Cokkes in that cuntre begynne to crawe 
in the begynnenge of the ny^hte ; neuerthelesse day is 
supposede to drawe nye at the firste crawenge of the cocke. 

^ partrichisy Cx. 

* ikpiles, o.; ^lespilesy Cx. 
' and that fauourcMy, Cx. 

* But it is, Cx. 

* if men, Cx. (as usual). 
^theyr, Cx., who has not very 

consistently replaced he by it just 
' andy a., Cx. 

® Cfiste and sowen, Cx. 

* vesej;>, a. ; driuen, Cx. 

^® be putte ahoute (with other sfigbt 

variations), Cx. 

" >ortt^} om. B, ; Grille die erthe, 

»2 hut, Cx. 

w like, Cx. 





De incolis priorU)U8. 

Eefeet Giraldus quod haec insula inhabitata^ sit 
primo^ a Casera^ nepte* Noe diluvium timente, et 
ad hanc insulam cum tribus viris et quinquaginta 
mulieribus proximo ante diluvium anno* applicante. 
Secundo a Bartholano ® Sere ^ filio cum tribus filiis de 
stirpe Japhet filii Noe descendentibus, ccc^.^ post di- 
luvium anno^ casu vel industria hie ® applicantibus, qui 
usque ad novem millia virorum excrescentes ex cor- 
ruptione cadaverum gigantum*^ quos oppresserant 
onmes mortui sunt, excepto solo Euano, qui per mille 
quingentos annos usque ad tempora Sancti Patricii 
perdurans " cuncta gesta illius gentis sancto viro repli- 
cabat. Tertio Nimeth sive Nimedus cum quatuor filiis 
suis ^^ de Scythia *^ veniens per ducentos sedecim annos 
terram incoluit ; et ^* tandem, ejus sobole per varia in- 
fortunia bellorum et mortalitatum detrita,^^ ducentis 

' primo inhabitata, B. ; sit, om. A. 

* Slightly abbreviated in CD. 

^ So A. E. ; CeserUf C. ; Cesarea, 
D.; Sera, IB. 

* nepote, E. only. 

^ anno] om. C. (not D.) 

* Bartolano, C. (not D.); ab Ar- 
ckolano, 3. 

' Ccsere, C. (not D.) 

8 So A.C.D., Gale (in figures) ; 
tricesimo, E, (at length). 

* ibi, C. (not D.) 

^* So C. ; gigantorvm, A.D.B. j 
ffiganiium. Gale. 

" perdurans] om. B. 

'^ suis] om. CD. 

^* Variously barbarized in MSS. 

»cO om, CD. 

" decreta, C. (not D.) 



De incolis prioribus, 

Capitulum tricesimum terdum* 

GiBALDUs seij> fat Casera, Noes nece,* dradde J?e flood, 
and fli^2 -^ij, ^Ye men and fifty wommen into fat ilond, 
and wonede )jer ynne first fe laste ^ere to fore Noes flood* 
But afterward Bartholanus, Seres ^ sone, pat com of ^ 
lapheth, Noes sone, come ])ider wi]? his ]ire sones by hap 
oJ?er by craft pre hundred ^ere after Noes flood, and woned 
}>ere, and encresede to |)e noumbre of nyne }>owsand men 5 
and afterward, for stenche of kai'eyns of geantes fat fey 
hadde i-kyld, fey deiden alle saue oon, Kuanus, fat durede^ 
a fowsand ^ere and fyue hundred anon to Seynt Patrikes 
tyme, and enformed f e holy man of f e forsaide men ^ and 
of alle hir doynge and dedes. pan fe fridde tyme come 
fider Nemef 7 out of Scythia ^ with his foure sones, and 
woned fere and encresed to fe noumbre of ^ two hondred 
^ere and sixtene ; and at f e laste al his ofspringe by dyuers 
myshappes of werres and of moreyn was clenliche^^ de- 
stroyed, and fe lond lefte voyde two hundred ^ere aftir- 


Of the firste Inhabitatores of that Londe, Capitulum tri* M!S.Ha»l. 
* cesimum tertium* 2261, 

GiRALDUS rehersethe and seithe that londe was inhabitate f. 62. ends, 
firste of Casera, son of the dou^hter of Noe, [which] dredenge 
the grete floode, come to that yle in the yere a fore that 
floode, with iij» men and 1*^ women. In the secunde tyme 
hit was inhabits of Bartholarius with iij, childer, of the stocke 
of laphethe son of Noe, in the iij<^. yere after that grete 
floode ; which encreasenge vn to the nowmbre of ix* m. 
alle diede thro the corrupcion of carion of the bodies of 
giauntes whom thei had oppressede, Euan excepte, whiche 
lyvede by m. yere and a halfe, vnto the tymes of Seynte 
Patrike, tellenge to that' holy man the gestes of that peple. 
In the thrydde time Nimeth or Nimedus, with his iiij. childer, 
cuiAmenge from Scythia,^ inhabite that londe by ij«. and xvi. 
yere ; and at the laste that stokke and kynnerede de- 
stroyede by diverse infortuny of batelles and of ofer mor- 
talite, that londe was vacante from inhabitatores by ijc. yere 

> niece, a, 

^ftedde, Cx. 

«SoCx.; SeihhisylAB, 

* So Cx.; to, MS, 

^ lyuedf Cx. 

^ So Cx. ; many MS. (clerical error.) 

'' Nymeth, a, and Cx. 
^ Schitia, or Scitia, MS. 
' and encresede to \>e noumbre qf^ 
om. «. and Cx., probably rightiy. 
^® they were clBne, Cx. 



itidem annis terra vacua mansit. Quarto vero ^ quinque 
duces, germani fratres, Gandius,^ Genaadius, Segan- 
dius/ Eutheragus,* et Slanius,^ de posteris Nimedi 
prsedicti/ de Grsecia venientes terrain occupaverunt, et 
earn ^ in quinque partes diviserunt, quarum quaelibet 
pars continebat triginta duo cantredos; (est autem^ 
cantredus portio centum villarum;) posueruntque * la- 
pidem in media terra quasi in medio ^^ umbiKco, velut 
quinque ^^ regnorum principium. Tandem Slanius *^ fac- 
tus est ^^ monarcha terrse totius. Quinto debilitata 
multum per triginta** annos natione ista, advenerunt 
de Hispanisa partibus, in sexaginta*^ navium classe, 
quatuor nobiles Millesii regis filii, cum pluribus aliis, de 
quibus duo nominatissimi fratres Hiberus *® et Hermon 
regnum inter so diviserunt. Sed procedente tempore, 
rupto foedere fr^temo, Heberoque occiso, Hermoni cessit 
monarchia, a cujus tempore usque adventum ^'^ Patricii 
primi*® cxxxi. reges de eadem gente fuerunt Et sic 
ab adventu Hibemiensium usque ad obitum *^ Patricii 

* vero] om. CD. 

« Ghndius, C. (not D.) 

' Sagandias^ A.B.$ om.C.D. 

^ Ituieragus, A. ; Natkeragus, C, 
(not D.) 

» Slanius] S0A.C.D., Gale; Cla- 
mius, B. ; Salnius, E. (but Slanius 

^preedicti] om. OJ). 

' earn] om. C. (not D,) 

* et esty B. 

« [^ue om. A, 

** terra, C, ; terra, D. (clerical 

" vdui quinque] tanquam, C«D. 

^ Sclanius, 0* ; Tsahnus, B. 

^^ prinms added in CD. 

»* 20, C. ; 200, D. 

'* So A.D.E.,Gale; 20, Cj *J.,B. 

** Heherua, A.D.y Gale. 

' Sancti^ added in O.D« 

^primi] om. CD. 
*® Sancti added in CD. 


wardJ J)e four]?e ^ tyme fyue dukes,^ Gandius, Genandyus,^ Trevisa. 

Sagandius, Rutheragus, Salinus,* of pe forseide Nymef his 

successours come out of Grees, and occupied fat lond and 
deled it in fyue parties. And^ eueriche party conteynede 
two and fritty candredes ; (a candrede is a contray fat 
conteyneJ> an hondred townes ;) and pej sette a stoon in fe 
mydel of fe lond as it were in J>e nauel and bygynnynge 
of fyue^ kyngdoms. At fe laste Salynus ^ was i-made kyng 
of al fe lond. pe fifte tyme, whan fis nacioun was fritty 
^ere to gidres, fey woxe swyfe ^ feble, foure noble men, fat 
were Millesius^^ fe kynges sones, come out of Spayne wif 
many of er in a naueye of f re score schippes and tweie : 
fe 11 worfiest of f ese foure bref eren, fat heet Heberus and 
Hermon, deled f e lond bytwene hem tweyne ; but afterward 
couenaunt was to broke by twene fese tweyne breferen, 
and 12 Heberus i* was i-slayne.!"* pan Hermon was kyng of 
al fat lond, and &om his tyme to f e firste Patrik his tyme 
were kynges of fat nacioun sex score and enleuene. And 
so from fe comynge of i^ Hibemiensis anon to fe deth of ^ 

foloenge. In the iiij^i*^ tyme v. dukes and bref er german, MS. Hasl. 
Gandius, Sanandius, SegaJadius, Rutheragus, and Sclanius, ^^^\' 
commenge by succession of the stocke of Nimedus, com- 
menge from Grece, occupiede fat londe, diuidenge hit in 
to V. partes. Euery parte in that diuision did conteyne 
xxxij. tancredes. Aiid a tancrede is a porcion of c. townes, 
whiche putte a ston in the myddes, as in the navelle, as the 
begynnenge of v. realmes. After that Sclanius was made 
the holle lorde of alle that londe. In the y^^ tyme, that 
londe made feble by mony yere, iiij. sonnes of kynge Mil- 
lesius comme to hit with iij»^. sayles from Speyne, with mony 
other, of whom Heberus and Hermon were gouernoures, 
diuidede that reahne amonge theyme, but by succession of 
tyme the bonde of luffe was broken betw^ie theyme. And 
so, Heberus sleyne> the holle monarchy succeedede to Her- 
mon, from the tyme of whom were cxxxj*^ kynges of that 
peple to the tyme of the £rste Fatrikke* And so from the 
commenge of theyme rn to the dethe of Seynte Patrikke 

^ after, Cz. I ' swyl>e] om. Ox. 

« ferine, a. 

^ duhis that tpere hretheren, Cx. 

* GenaTidns, a.; Genundusy Ox. 
^ Sclanius, Ox. 

* So a. and Cx. ; tn, MS. 

^ f!/ue] Added from a. and Cx. 


" MyUemis, Cx. 

" of the, Cx. (without WDse.) 

*2 hem both and, Cx. 

*3 Hebreus, MS. $ Hiberus, Cx. 

^* slawe, a. 

^^ of the Hybermenais (sic) vntQ 

5&»tw«, a., Cx. (rightly.) | the fyrst PaM, Qx, 


primi* sunt anni mille octingenti. Ab is to Hibero 
dicti sunt Hibernici, vel secundum alios ab Hibero 
Hispaniae fluvio. Dicti sunt etiam Gay theli ^ et Scoti ^ 
a quodam Gaythelo, Phenii nepote, qui post linguarum 
confusionein * apud Nemproticam turrim in variis Un- 
guis peritus duxit Scotam filiam Pharaonis ; ^ ex quibus 
ducibus^ Hibernienses descenderunt. Iste etiam Gay- 
thelus, ut aiunt/ Hibernicam linguam composuit, quae et 
Gaythelaf^ dicitur, quasi ex omnibus Unguis coUecta. 
Tandem Gurguntius,^ BeUni regis Britanniae fiUus, de 
Dacia rediens apud Orcades insulas quosdam Basclenses 
de Hispanise partibus advectos invenit, quos locum 
babitationis petentes rex ad *^ Hiberniam tunc vacuam 
transmisit, *' quibus duces aUquos ex suis designavit. Ex 
quo videtur *^ quod de jure antique Hibemia debeat ad 
Britanniam pertinere.'^ Ab adventu autem ** Sancti ** 

* primt] om. C.D- 

2 Gaiteli, B.C. Gale; GaitUi, A. 
Similar rariations belov. 

* confusionem Unguarwn, A.B. 

* Phmis, MSS. and G.; Pkaronis, 


® duobus, CD., which seems 

annuity A» 


» Gaitelak, CD.; Gaitelaf, A.B., 
• BurgnntiuSf A.B. 

"tfd] om. A.6. 

^ aique quosdam ex suis prtsfectt 
ms duces, CD. 

^^patet, CD. 

1' Slightly transposed and altered 
in CD. 

"flM^m] om.B. 

** Sancti'] om. CD. 


pe first Patrik his tyme were a fowsand ^ere and eijte Tbevisa. 
hondi'ed. pey hadde ]?at name Hiberniensis and Hibernici — 
of ]?e forsaide Hiberus ; oJ>er, as som men wolde wene, of ^ 
Hiberus a ryuer of Spayne ; ]>ei were i-cleped also Gaitels 
and Seottes of oon Gaithleus,^ fat was Pbenius his nenew. 
After ]?at men speked^ many langages at Nemprot his tour,* 
]>is Gaythelus kou]7e speke many langages and tonges ; and 
wedded o Scota ^ Pharoo ® his doubter. Of pese dukes 
come J>e Hibemienses. Me seith ])at fese^ Gathleus made 
pe Irlsche langage and cleped hit Gathelaf,^ as it were a 
langage i-gadered of alle langages and tonges. At the 
laste Belinus, kyng of Bretaigne,^ hadde a sone fat heet 
Gurguntius. As fis Gurguntius come out of Denmark at 
]>e ilondes ^^ Orcades, he fonde men fat were i-cleped Bas- 
denses and were i-come fider out of Spayne. pese men 
prayed and bysou^te for to haue a place for to wone 
inne ; and fe kyng sent hem to Mond fat was f oo voyde 
and wast, and ordeyned and sent wif hem^^ dukes and 
lederes ^^ of his owne. [And] ^^ so hit semef fat Irlond 
schulde longe ^* to Britayne by lawe^^ of olde tyme. From *^ 

the firste were m* yere and ccc. Men of Irlonde toke the MS. Harl. 
name of theym of this Heberus, other elles after somme men 2261. 
of a floode of Speyne callede Heberus. Also thei were 
callede Gaiteles and Seottes after a man callede Gaitelus 
nevewe to Phenius, whiche, after the confusion of langages 
at the towre of Nemproth, wyse in diuerse langages did 
wedde Scota, the dou^hter of kynge Pharas, of whiche 
dukes men off Irlonde haue descendede. This Gaitelus, as 
hit is seide, made the langage of that cuntre, whiche is 
callede Gaitelaf, as a langage collecte of alle langages. At 
the laste Gurguntius, the sonne of Belyn kynge of Briteyne, 
tumenge from Denmarke to the yles callede Orcades, founde 
a certeyne peple of the cuntre of Speyne callede Bas- 
clenses, whiche desirenge to haue inhabitacion, the kyng^ 
sende theyme in to Irlonde to inhabite hit, that tyme voide 
of inhabitatores. Whiche made a certeyn gouernoure espe- 
cialle amonge theyme. Wherefore hit semethe that Irlonde 
longethe or perteynethe to Briteyne by olde lawe and 

' or eUys of, Cx. * Gatthelaf, a, ; Gaytelef, Cx. 

2 Gatthdus, a. ; Gmftdus, Cx. » Bfytapne, a, ; Breiayn, Cx. 

Similar rariations below. 

' speke, a. 

* Aftfir . . . tour] om. Cx. 

^ 00 Scolu, a. ; one Scota, Cx. 

« Pharoes, Cx. 

^ \>eosef a. ; these, Cx. The trae 
reading must be >w. 

'• atte Irhndes, Cx. (typ. error.) 

» So Cx. ; kym, MS. 

** capitayns, Cx., and so below. 

1^ Added from a. and Cx. 

" hnge'] Added from Cx. 

» righy Cx. 

" So Cx. ; For, MS, and o. 


Patricii primi ' usque ad Fedlimidii regis tempora, tri- 
ginta tres reges per quadringentos ^ annos in Hibernia 
regnaverunt. In hujus autem^ Fedlimidii* diebas 
Norguageoses,® duce Turgesio, terram banc occupave- 
runt; factisque quam pluribus^ per loca fossatis pro- 
fundis castella simplicia, duplicia, trip]icia, pluraque^ 
murata adbuc integra, vacua tamen, erexerunt. Sed 
Hibemicus populus castella non curat, nam silvis pro 
castris, paludibus ® utitur pro fossatis. Tandem Turge- 
sius dolo puellarum delusus^ interiit. Et quia Anglorum 
populus damat Gurmundum subjugasse Hibemiam et 
ilia fossata fecisse, de Turgesio nihil memorans;^ Hi- 
bemienses vero Turgesium pi^dicant, Gurmundum 
vero^^ prorsus ignorant; — ^ideo sentiendum" est Gur- 
mundum in Britannia^ regno quod sibi subjugaverat 
extitisse, et a Britannia Tuigesium istum cum electa 

* primi] om. CD. I "^ So A.B. (ccarected) ; pleraque, 

2 300, CD, ; 406, B,, apparently. J D,E., Gale. 

' autem] om. C 

* regis added in B.CD. (D^ twice 
has Fedlinidiu See Harl. MS.) 

^ NorvagenseSf A. ; Norwoigenses^ 

^ quamplunmiSy'R, 

^ etpaiudibuSf C (not D.) 
* est reminiscens, 0. ; and so D. 
omitting est. 
*• autem, CD. ; mn. B. 
" sciendumy CD. ; censendum,^. 



pe firste Seynt Patryk anon to Fedlimidius ^ fe kynges Trevisa. 

tyme, foure hondred 5^re, fre and ]?ritty kynges euerich 

after o])ir regned^ in Irlond, In ^ ]>is Fedlimidius his tyme 
Turgesius, duke and ledere of Norweyes, brou^t ]>ider Nor- 
wayes,4 and occupied fat lend, and made in wel^ many 
places many 6 depe diches and castelles sengle, double, 
and [treble, and] ^ many wardes strongKche i- walled ; and 
many J>erof stondef ^i* ^ bool. But Irische men recchef 
noutt of castelles ; for fey taken ^ wodes for castelles, and 
mareys and mores for castel diches. But at J?e laste Tur- 
gesius deide by gile ful wyles and^ wrenches. And for 
Englische men seij? fat ^^ Gurmundus wan Mond, and made 
fUke diches, and of Turgesius makef no mynde ; " and 
Irische ^^ men spekef of Turgesius, and knowef not of 
Gurmundus; — ^ferfore it is [to] wetynge^^ fat Gurmundus 
hadde i-wonne Bretayne, and woned ferynne, and sente 
Turgesius wif grete strengf e of Bretouns ^^ in to Irlond 

rythte, where xxx*» iij. kynges reigned from the tyme andMS.HABL. 
commenge of the firste Patrikke to the tyme of kynge Fed- 226 1. 

linidius in that londe by iiij^. yere. In the tyme of kynge , 

Fedlinidius men of Norway commenge with a duke callede 
Turgesius occupiede that londe, makenge grete diches, cas- 
telles symple, dowble and threfolde as in veyne ; for the 
men of Irlonde attende not to castelles, for thei vse woodes 
for castelles an.d marras. At the laste this duke Turgesius 
was perischede and extincte thro the disseyte of maydenes. 
And for cause the peple off Englonde sayethe and cryethe 
Gurmunde to haue subiugate Monde and to have made 
those dyches, hauenge not Turgesius in vre or in remem- 
braunce ; but men of Irlonde remembre that duke Tur- 
gesius, hauenge noo remembraunce of Gurmunde ; — there- 
fore hit it to vnderstonde Gurmunde to haue bene in the 
reahne of Briteyne, whiche he subduede to hym, and to 
haue sende Turgesius with a multitude of peple to Irlonde 

^ FedlinudittSy Cx., and so below. 

* Placed after yere in Cx. 

* in to, MS. (not «, or Cx.) 

* men of Norweye^ Cx. 
^we^ om. Cx. 

« many] om. Cx. 
' Added from a; and Ox. 
^ takijp a. ; txikef Ox. These va- 
riations are fre<]nent. 

» q/*, a. ; of toymmen, Cx. The 

text of MS. makes excellent sense, 
but the tme reading is, doubtless, of 
wenches (^pueUamm). 

" So o., Cx. ; at, MS. 

" mencum, Cx. (who transposes, 
some words.) 

'2 Erisshe, a, 

" to uritynge, a. ; to wete, Cx, 

" of Bretouns} out of Bretayne, 
a., the words are omitted in Ox. 



juventute ad Hiberniam expugnandam transmisisse ; 
qui quidem Turgesius, quia hujus expeditionis tribu- 
nus et rector extiterat, idcirco ilium ^ gens Hibemise ^ 
quem vidit et novifc famose prsedicat.^ Gurmundo tan- 
dem in * Galliarum partibus interfecto, Turgesius in 
Hibemia filiam regis Medensis adamavit, quam pater 
suus cum quindecim puellis transmittere Turgesio pro- 
misit, quibus apud ^ stagnum Lacherinum cum totidem 
nobilioribus gentis suae Turgesius occurrere spopondit. 
Quod dum faceret, a quindecim juvenibus imberbibus 
sub habitu puellari sicas ferentibus dolose occiditur, 
postquam triginta annis in insula imperaverat. Non 
multo post de Norguegi83 ® partibus, quasi sub pacis 
obtentu et mercationis exercendse praetextu, tres fratres 
Amelanus/ Siracus, et Ivorus ® cum sua sequela ad banc 
insulam venerunt ; et de consensu Hibemiensium otio 
deditorum maritima loca occupantes tres civitates^ 

* i>to, CD. 

' cdebraty CD., Gale ; pradicat 
et celehraty A. 

* in\ OTH. B.; in GaUorumy A. 

* orf, B. 

' B. has Norwagicsy and uses the 

same form throughout ; A., here and 
commonly, Norvegtcs ; D. here has 

' AurelanuSj B. and HarL MS. 
® Iviorus, B.D. (apparently.) 
^ tres civitates] om. CD. 



forto Wynne fat load. And so for * Turgcsius was gyour Tjievisa. 

and ledere^ of J?at viage aad of ]?at iornay,^ and so i-seie 

in Irlond and weH i-knowe^ among Irische men, — ^ferfore 
Trische men speke|> moche of hym as of a noble man fat 
was i-seie in Irlond and wel i-knowe in fat lond. At f e 
laste whan Gurmundus was i-slawe in Fraunce, Turgesius 
loued fe kynges don^ter of Meth of Irlond ; and hir fader 
behitt Turgesius, fat he wolde sende hir hym to fe Lowe 
Lacheryn wif fiftene may denes j* and Turgesius behi^t for 
to mete him 6 fere wif fiftene fe^ noblest men fat he 
hadde. He hyld ^ couenant and f oujt of ^ no gile, but 
fere come fiftene ^ong berdles men i-clofed as wommen,^® 
wif schorte swerdes vndir her clof es, and fil on Turgesius, 
and slowe hym ri^t fere. And so Turgesius was traytour- 
liche 1* i-slawe, after fat he hadde reigned fritty ^ere in 
fat lond. Nou^t longe afterward fre^^ breferen, Amela- 
nus, Siracus, and luoris, come in to Irlond wif hir men 
out of Norway, as it were ^^ for loue of pees and ^"^ of 
marchaundise, and woned by fe see sides by assent of 
Irische men fat were alwey idel as Poules ^^ kny^tes. And 

to expugne hit. And for cause that Turgesius was as the HS. Hakl. 
gouernoure in that labor, ferfore fe peple of Irlonde 2261. 
namethe hym whom thay *^ see. Gurmnnde dedde at the 
laste in Fraunce, Turgesius lufiede moche fe doubter of 
kynge Medense, whiche mayde here fader promisede to 
sende to Turgesius with xv, other maides, whom Turgesius 
made promyse to mete at a water callede Lacheryne, with so 
mony nowble men of his peple. Whiche Turgesius was 
sleyne by disseyte of those xv. yonge men in the habite 
and clofienge of women hauenge weppen vnder theire 
clothes, after that he hade reignede in that yle xxx*^ yere. 
After that thre brefer come to that yle from the partes 
of Norway, as in signe of pease, Aurelanus, Siracus, and 
luorus, with other people, whiche, thro the consente of men 
of Irlonde, tiffen to ydellenes, occupienge the places and f. 51, b. 

^ And by cause, Cx. 

^ capytayn and leder^ Cx. 

' and iourney, Cx. 

* u>eT\ om. o., Cx. 

* i-knowe in ^at hmd, MS. ; om. a. 
and Cx. The latter has other omis- 

« So o. and Cx.; Ati», MS. 
'^offtCf Cx. (who has other slight 
" and helde, Cx. 

® of] om. Cx. 

" like wymrnen, Cx. 

" trayUmresliche, a. ; traitorously, 
Cx. (who has other slight yaria- 

»2 So a. and Cx. ; J>w, MS. 

" had been, Cx. 

" and] Added irom Cx, 

'* Paules, Cx. 

»« So Harl. MS. 



Dublinniam,' Waterfordiam, et lamiricum * construxe- 
runt, qui tandein numero ^ succrescentes contra indige- 

nas frequenter* rebellaverunt/ et usum^ ^securmm, 
qui® Anglice^ sparth^^ dioitur," ad terram Hibendas ** 
coxnportarunt. Igitnr a tempore Turgesii usque ad 
ultimum monarcbani Rothericum Connactise regem, 
septendecim reges in Hibernia fuerunt.^* Et sic in 
universo a primo Hermone usque ad ultimum ^* Rothe- 

ricum, quern subjugavit rex Anglise Henricus secundus 
anno setatis suae *^ quadragesimo, regni ^^ sui septimo 
decimo/^ ab incarnatione Domini millesirao centesimo 
septuagesimo secundo, rexeinint Hibemiam centum 
octoginta unus *® reges non coronati, non inuncti, non 
hsereditarii, sed vi et armis succedentes. 

Cap. XXXIV. 
Be vncolarum moribus. 
Eefert Solinus quod^® gens hujus terrse sit^^ barbara, 
inhospita, belKcosa, fasque*^ nefasque pro eodem ducens.^ 

* DuhlinioMy D. 
^ Lmiciunif B.^ 
^ in numero, A. 
*fr€quenter'\ om. B. 

* rebeUarent, A. ; debeUarunt, B. ; 
reheUarunty D. 

^ hvsitmy B. 

' et added in B. 

^ gut] om. C. (not D.) 

* Anglice] om. A.B. 

*• sparthuSf C. (not D.) 
" dicitur] om. C, (not D.) 

^ Mibemke'} out. 0. ; istam, D. 

*^ E. has some clerical omissions. 

^* idtimum] om. B.. 

" siwp] Added fix«n B»C, (xale. 

" vero added in B. 

»' 7^ C. (not D.) 

** unum annum, B. (without sense.) 
" Hefert Solinvs quod] om. CD, 
^ sit] om. CD. 
^fcK que nephas, A. 
^ ducunt, CD.} om. E. 


J>ese Norwayes bilde ]>[r]e ^ citees, Deueljug, Waterford, Tbevisa. 

and Limyriche ; and encresed faste afterward, and wax 2 

rebel a^enst men of ]>e lond, and brou^t first spartbes 
in to Trlond. So fro ^ Turgesius tyme anon to Ro]?eryk his 
tyme, kyng of* Connoccia, 'pat was fe laste Jat was k3mg 
of al pe lond, were seuentene kynges, [in Irloiid. And 
so ]>e kynges]^ fat reigned in Irlond, from J»e flirste Her- 
mon his tyme anon to J)e laste Rotheryk his tyme, were 
in al an hondred kynges foure score and oon, ]>at were 
nou^t i-crowned nofer anoynt, no]>er by lawe of heritage 
bot by my|t and maistrie and stren^fe^ of armes. pe 
seconnde Henry ^ kyng of Engelond made pi^ Rotherik 
sngette ]>e ^ere of kynge Henries tyme of age fourty, and 
of his kyngdom seuentene, ^ ^^ere of oure Lord elleueu 
hundred pre score and twelue. 

De ineolarum ptoribus, 

Capiiulum triceswum. quartum^ 

SoLiNUS seip pat men of pis lond beep strannge^ of 
nacioun, housles, and grete fitteres, and acountep ri^t and 

costes of that cuntre nye to the see, made Dublyn, Water* MS.Hakl. 
forde, and Lymyrike, thre cites. Whiche encreasenge in 2261. 
nowmbre, made mony batelles ageyne the inhabitatores of 
that cuntre. Therefore from the tyme of Turgesius vn to 
the laste Rotherike^ whom kynge Henry the secunde made 
subiecte to hym in the xP' yere of his age, and in the 
xvij^« yere off his reigne, in the yere of ouye Lorde God 
m. c. Ixxvij., a c, Ixxxj. kynges gouemede Yrlonde, not 
erownede neither anoyntede, neither occupienge hit by 
rythtefuUe inheritaunce, but obteynenge the predominy by 
stren^hte and armes. 

Of the Disposieion of ike Inhahitatours of thai Londe, 
Capitulum iricesimum quartum. 

SoLiKus, the grete clerke, rehersethe that the peple of 
that londe be like to the peple of Barbre, bellicose, accom- 

^ thre, Gx. ; l>e, MS. and a. 
^ encresed and after wexe, Cx. 
* from^ a. 

*of\ added from Cx., who has 
^ Added from a. and Cx. The 

latter has afev very flight varia-» 
tioBs in the sentence following. 

^ hy stren^ey vi, 

"^ Harry y Cx., and so below. 

* So a. and Cx.; strong^ MS. 



Gens liabitu singularis efc inculta, victxi parca, animo 
saeva, affatu aspera, sanguine infcei'emptorum prius 
bausto * vultus ^ suos oblinivit.* Carnibus et frucfcibus 
pro esu, lacte pro potu contenta.* Gens qnidem ludis, 
otio, et venation! plus dedita quam labori. Gfiraldus in 
Topographia Hibemice,^ Gens ista post ortum suum ® 
dure nntritur, moribus et vestibus inculta. Laneis tarn 
braccis quam ealigis, capuciis quoque strlctis trans hu- 
meros deorsum ctibito tenus protensis/ et vice palliorum 
phalangis® nigris utitur;® item non sellis, non'^ocreis, 
non calcaribus equitando utuntur. Virgam in superiori 
parte cameratam ad concitandos" equos manu ferunt ;^^ 
frsenis ^^ cami vice fungentibus et pabula nequaquam '* 
impedientibus ntuntur. Inermes corpore, pngnant at- 
tamen^^ jaculis binis, lanceis, et securibus ampUs. Una 
tantum nianu confligunt ; lapides pugillares, cum alia 
defecerint, in promptu habent. Gens itaque*® agricul- 
turam spemens, pascuis tantum utens^ barbis et comis 

^ hausta, E, 

^ multos, B. 

^ ahUnunt, A. ; obliniunt, B.C.B., 
Gale; probably rightly. Solmiis(c. 
22) has chUnwiit. 

^ est contenta, A.B.C.D. 

* CD. omit reference ; A.B. omits 

* suum] om. CD., Gale. 
' pratensisy Gale (not G.) 

* So A. C. ; phalingisy D. ; falangis, 
B.E., Gale. 

® utuntuTy B. 


" concitandum, A.D. 

^^ferunf] om. E. 

^^ /rents circa capita equorum non 
in orejugantvr, (for utuntur,') pabula 
nequaquam impedientihus, C. (not!)., 
'which agrees with the text.) 

'* WOM, B. 

'* tantum, Gale (but cancelled in 

'* Gens ista silvestrisy C. ; gens 
itaqve silvestris, B. 


wrong al for oon,^ and beef sengle of dofinge, scarse of Thevisa. 

mete, cruel of herte, and angry of speche, and drinkejj 

firste blood of dede men J>at bee]? i-slawe, and fan wasshe]) 
here face ^ ferwif ; and holdeJ> hem apayde ^ wiji flesshe 
and fruit instede of mete, and wip mylk instede of drynke, 
and yse]> moche playes'^ and hydelnesse and huntynge, and 
trauaillef ful litel.^ In hir child bode fey beef harde i- 
norisched and hard i-fed, and fey beef vnsemeliche of 
maneres and of clofyng, and hauef breche and hosen al 
con 6 of wolle, and strai^t? hodes fat strecchef a cubite 
ouer f e schuldres by hynde, and blak faldynges « instede of 
mantels and of clokes. Also sadeles, bootes, [and]^ spores fey 
vsef none, whan fey ridef ; but fey dryuef hir hors wif 
a chambre ^erde ^® in fe ouer ende instede of barnacles** 
and of britels of reest ; and vsef bridels ^^ fat lettef nou^t 
here hors of here ^^ mete, pey fi^tef ^* vnarmed, naked in 
body ; neuerf eles wif tweie dartes and speres and wif 
brode sparthes.^^ pey fi^tef wif oon bond ; ^^ and whan 
ofer wepene faillef, fey hauef good publestones redy at 
bond, pese men forsakef tilienge of lond and kepef pas- 
ture for beestes : fey vsef longe berdes and longe lokkes 

ptenge ry^hte and wronge as for oon thynge, a peple sym- MS. Habl. 
pie in habite, scarse and liteUe in fyndenge, cruelle in herte, 2261 
scharpe in speche, vsenge frutes for flesche, mylke for "-"~ 
drynke, a peple that ^iffethe more attendaunce to ydelnesse 
and to disportes then to labour. The peple of that cuntre 
is norischede hardely after thei comme in to this worlde, 
whiche vse no sadelles in rydenge, neither spurres, neither 
bootes. Neuerthelesse thei haue a wonde, other a rodde, 
clenede in the bier parte of it to cause the horses to move 
and labour in theire honde ; which fi^hte with oute armoure. 
neuerthelesse thei vse dartes and speres, and thei fi^hte 
also with oon honde and with brode axes, vsenge moche stones 
in theire fi^htenge when thei wont© other weppen. This 
peple despisethe tyllenge of londe, vsenge pastures, and suf- 
frenge the hynder partes of theire hedes to groe in to a 

* one thyngf Cx. 

^ the^ visages, Cx. 
^patd, Gx, 

* ptegnfff Cx. 
^ ^te, a. 
^hon, a. 

^ airaitf a. ; sira^t, Ox. 
" andfoldynges, Cx. 

* Added from a. 

'^ chambred yerd, Cx., who trans- 
poses some previous words. 

" bamade»] byttes with trenches, 
Cx., who has 6rt/dles for britels, 

*2 briderhf o. 

*' to ete thetfTy Cx. 

*' So a. and Ox. ; sparthus, MS. 
^' Cx. omits to at hmd. 

VOL. I, Z 


'a posteriori parte capitis^ luxurians,^ non lino, non 
lanificio, non aliquo mercationis genere, nee ulla me- 
chanicarum artium specie* vitam producunt; sed otio 
dediti, delicias reputant* labore carere, divitias depu- 
tant libertate gandere* Et cum Scotia hujus terrae 
filia utatur lyra,^ tympano, et ^ choro, ac Wallia citliara, 
tibiis/ et choro ; Hibemici tamen ® in duobna mnsici ge- 
neris instrumentia^ (cithara scilicet ^^ et tympano aBreis^^ 
cbordis armato,) prae ceeteris stint periti ; quibns instru- 
mentis qnamvis*^ precipitem et velocem,^^ suavem tamen 
et jocundam crispatis modulis et intricatis notulis '* e£- 
ficiunt harmoniam.N A B moUi incipiunt et sub obtuso ^^ 
grossioris chordae sonitu latenter ludentes in idem re- 
deunt, ut pars artis maxima ^^ videatur artem velare, 

Si lateat, prosit ; ferat ars deprensa '^ pudorem. 
Gens etiam ista spurcissima, nondum decimas solvunt, 
nondum matrimonia rite contrahuntj non incestus'® 

* pracipue added in CD. ! ^* scUicet} om. A. 

* capitis] om. B.C.D. I " tsneis, CD, ; «n», B. 

' intricans, R 

* spent, A.D. 

^ deputantf C. (not D.) 

« lilna, C (hot D.) 

^ et etiam^ A. 

« tibia, C. (not D.) 

» tantum, C (not D*) 

1'^ quam, £. 
^^ quamvis pracipitem et velocem'] 
licet praecipue, CD. 

^* et intricatis notulis'] om, 1). 

1* optuoso, A. 

'^ maximam, B. 

" deprehensoy MSS. and Gale. 

"* ineestus non, B. 



hongynge doun by hynde hir nolles.^ pey vse^ no craft Trbvma. 
of flex and ^ wolle, of meta]^ no]7er of marchaundise ; but — - 
^eue]> hem alle^ to idelnesse and to slett]>e,^ and counte]»^ 
reste for likyng and fredom for richesse. And fey Scot- 
lond fe doubter of Irlond vse harpe, tymbre, and tabour, 

iand Wales use]? harpe and pipe and tabour]/ neuerfeles 
ridche men bee]> connyng in tw^ie manere instrumentis ^ 
of musyk, in harpe and tymbre ]?at is i-armed wip wire 
and -wip strengea of bras. In pe whiche ^ instrumentis,^ pey 
[J>ei] ^^ pleye hastiliche and swiftliche, Jiey make]» wel ^i mery 
armonye^^ and melody wij> wel ]>icke'^ tunes, werbeles, and 
nootes; and bygynne]> from bemol, and pleie]> priueliche 
vnder deepe*'* soun of pe grete strenges and tornej) a^en 
in to pe same, so pa,t pe grettest. partie of pe craft hide]> 
pe crail ; [as hit wolde seme as ]>ei pe craft] *^ so i-hidde 
schulde be aschamed, and it were intake» peso men bee]> 
of yuel maneres and of leuynge ; pey paiej> none tepinges,^^ 
pel weddejj lawefbUiche none wyfes, J>ey spare]) not her 
alies, hot pe broJ)er wedde]> his broperi? wyf, pey beeji 

grete lengthte : not vsenge theire lyfe in makenge of clothe MS. Habi. 
of woUe, other elles of lyne or flex, neither in eny kynde ^^^^» 
of marchandise, neither in eny honde crafte ; but ^iffen to 
ydelnesse, accompte to be with owte labor delites, and a plea- 
sure to ioye in liberte. Also Scotlande, the do^hter of hit, 
as in ydehiesse vsethe an harpe, a tympan, and a crowde« 
And Wales vsethe trumpettes, an harpe, and a crowde. Ne- 
uerthelesse men of Monde be experte specially in ij. kyndes 
of musike, that is to say, an harpe, and a tympan stryngede 
and armede with cordes off brasse. But thauthe thei make 
a swyfte melody ther with and a swete, thei begynne with 
a softe noyce and tune, and pleyenge priuely vnder a duUe 
sounde of a more ^osse corde retume to the same. The 
peple of this cuntre is vile of oondicion ; vn to this tyme 
presente they pay not theire tythes, thei make not lawe* 
fulle contractes in matrimony, thay avoide not inceste, but 
bre])er wedde the wyfes of theire brether, vsenge gretely 

^ hedeSf Cx. 
2 vsef>, a. 
' of, o,, Cx. 
* aSe] om. Cz. 
^ shuihey Cx. 
' reheney Cx. 

' Added from «. (not in Cx.) 
B So a.; inBtmmentz, MS. (twice.) 
^ in whiche, Cx., with other slight 

^® though they, Cx. 

" right, Cx. 

** So Cx. ; armenye, MS. 

*' with thyck, Cx. 

^* secretely vnder dymme^ Cx. 

»* Added from a. and Cx. The 
latter slightly raries a few words in 
the previous sentence. 

^*^ tythes, Cx. ; no tejtinges, a, 

*' Sie broders, Cx. 

z 2 



vitant ; sed fratres fratrum «xores ducunt, proditionibu» 
insistunt, securim, id est sparth,' in manu quasi pro 
ba^ulo bajulant,® qua^ sibi confidentes prseoccupant. 
Gens ista vempellis et Inconstans, varia et* versuta, 
cujus^ magis timenda ® arfS quani Mars/ pax quam fax, 
mel quani fel/ malitia quam militia ; cuju3 mores sunt,^ 
qnod nee in bello fortes, nee in pace fideles inveniun- 
tiir.'^ Cum illo quem dolose opprimere volunt, primo '^ 
compatemitatis et consecratse fratemitatis fcedera juu- 
gunt ; in qua alter alterius sanguinem sponte ^® fusum 
bilmnt. Alumnos et collactaneos aliquantulum diligunt, 
fratres et cognatos persequunfcur, vivos decipiunt/ mor- 
txios ulciscuntur. Inter quos adeo in naturam converti 
prsevaluit pravse eonsuetudinis longus abusus, adeo a 
<3onvictu'^ mores formantur, ut etiam^* hoc vitio prodi- 

1 21^2 est sparih] om. CD. 
- gestantf C» (not D.) 
^ qua$, B. 

*€i] om. CD. (twice.) 
* So CD., Gale ; cm, A,E. 
^ timenda] om. E« 
^ So Gale ; Mara quam ars, MSS. 
and G. (contrary to the meaning.) 

. , »/el] om. B. 
*' sunt] onu C.D. 
'^ inveniuntur] om. CD. 
" purOf E. 

*^ sponte sanguinem^ B. 
^^ adeoque convictu, A. 
J* in, B. 



besy forto betraye hire nei^bores and o}>ere. Pey bereii Trevisa. 

sparthes in here hond instede of staues, and fi^tejj per- 

wi]> 1 a^enst hem fat tristef ^ to hem beste ; pe ^ men 
beef variable and vnstedefast, trecherous and gilefuL Who 
fat delef wif hem nedef more to be war more of gile fan 
of craft, of pees fan of brennynge brondes, of hony fan 
of galle, of malice fan of knytthode. pey hauef suche 
maneres fat fei beef not stronge in werre and bataille, 
nof er trewe in pees, pey bycomef [gossibs to hem] •* fat 
fey woUef falseliche betraye in*^ gosibrede and holy kynrede; 
'eueriche drinkef oferes blood, whan it is i-sched. He<> 
louef somdel her norice and here pleieng^ feres whiche 
fat s soukef f e same melk fat fey soukef , while they beef ^ 
children. And fey pursewef here breferen, her cosyns, 
and here ofer kyn-: and despisef hir kyn, while fey beef 
on lyue,^** and awrekef ** her deef, and*^ fey beef i-slawe. 
Among hem longe vsage and euel custume haf so longe 
i-dured,i3 fat it haf i-made ^^ -p^ maistrie, and tornef among 
hemsein^ traisoun in to kynde so fer forthe, fat as^^ fei 
be ti'aytoures by kynde, ^^ so aliens and men of straunge 
londes fat wonef longe among hem drawef aftir ])e manere i^ 
of hir companye, and skapef wel vnnef e ^^ but fey be 

ti*eason, berenge in theire honde an iustrumente callede a MS. II:a»l. 

sparth as for a staffe with the whiche they perische offee- 
tymes men trustenge in theyme. This peple is frowarde 
and inconstante, diuerse or variable, and wyly, amonge 
whom batelle is more to be dredde then^arte, peace more 
then armor, hony more then galle, malice more then cheual- 
lery ; the propertes and condicions pf whom be, thei be 
neither stronge in battelle neither tru in pease ; whiche 
ioyne to theyme men whom thei intende to sle by the bonde 
of compaternite and of consecrate fraternite, by whiche oon 
of theyme drynkethe the bloode of that other wyllefuUy. 
Which lufFe theire childer in a maner, and bref er ; whiche 
prosecute their cosynnes : deceyvenge men in lyfe, and tak- 


^ ))ert{;tj>] om* Cx. 
- trmte tnoost, Cx. 
' >c«€, o., Cxj 

* Added from Cx. t^ot in a.) 
^ in ^e, a. 

* So MS. aad a. ; they, Cx. (in the 
same sense.) 

' So idso o;^ and Cx. 

* were, Cx. 

^* atifuCf a, I th^ lyuBi Cx. 

" auenge, Cx. 
^* whan, Cx. (so often). 
" Slightly varied in Cx. 
** goten, Cx. adding ouer tftem, 
'^ among hemsel/] om. Cx. 
^^ cts and so, below, om. Cx* 
^' nature, Cx, 
** maneres, «. 

^^/ohwen their manera tfiat vnuethe^ 


tionis ' alienigensB hue advecti fere inevitabiliter invol- 
vantur. In hac gente quamplures viii sedendo, mu- 
lieres stando urinam emittunt. Miilti sunt in liac terra 
deformes, naturce beneficio in ^ membris destituti ; ita ut 
sicut* qui hie* bene formantur nusquam melius, ita^ 
qui male nusquam pejus ; efc recte quidem, ut de gente 
incesta® nequiter copulata/ natura nequiter defot- 
mante, natura® Uesa contra legem naturae^ producat. 
In hac terra et in Wallia vetulas quasdam in leporinam 
formam se transmutare ^® ubera vaccina " sugendo, alie- 
num lac surripere/^ leporariosque magnatum^* cursu 
fatigare vetus quidem et adhuc firequens querela est* 
Quidam etiam magicis artibus pingues porcos (sed ru- 
beos duntaxat) ex aliqua prsejacente materia produ- 
centes in nundinis vendunt ; sed hi statim^ ut aliquam 

^ perditionis, B. 

* Ml] om. B. 

* sicuf] om. CD. 

* hie qui, B. 

* ibi, a (not D.) 

* incesiUf C. (not D.) 

' nequiter deformata vd mtura 
Iffsa, C. (not D*) 

^ ioHa TuHttrttf A. (second hand) 

* GL (not D.) adds^ ne prates defor- 
mis producatur, 

^® iransjbmmre mittt ubeta, A. ; 
muUio transforfHdrBj B. 

'^ vaecine<i, C.D. 

^' suscipere, C. (Hcrt B.) 

*' magnOf QJ)* 



i-smotted^ wi]> ye scbrewednesse and bycome]? ti*aytoura^ Tbeyisa. 

also. Among hem many men pissep sittynge and wommen 

stondynge. pare beej> meny men in J^is* lond wonder ^ 
foule and yuel i-schape yn lymes and in body.^ For in 
hir lymes lakkeji^'fe benefice of kynde, so ]>at nowlier 
beej? no 7 better i-schape, fan fey fat beef fere wel i- 
schape; and nowher non worse i-schape fan fey fat beef 
fere euel i-scbape. And skilfullicbe kynde, i-burt and de- 
fouled by wykkednesse of lyuynge, bryngef forf sucbe foule 
gromes and euel i-schape of hem fat wif vnlaweful wed- 
dynge* wif foule maneres and euel lyuynge so wickedliche 
defoulef ^ kynde, ^^ In fis lond and in Wales olde wyfes and 
wymmen were i-woned, and beef ^it (as me pleynef) ** 
ofte forto schape hem self in liknes of hares for to melke 
here nei^hebores keen/^ and so i^ stele hire melk, and ofte 
grehoundes ^^ rennef after hem and pursewef hem, and 
wenef fat fey be hares. Also som by craft of nygramanncie 
makef fat swyne [fat beef reed of colour, ]i* and noon ofer, 
and sellef hem in chepinge ^^ and in feires ; but anon as f ese ^' 

enge vengeaunce for dedde men. Mony men of that cuntre MS. Hakx.. 
vse to make water and to sende furthe theire vryne syt- 2261. 
tenge, and women stondenge. Also there is moche peple of ~^- — 
that londe destitute in theire membres thro the deformite 
of nature ; for lyke as men amonge theyme welle formede 
by nature be semely men, so men deformede by nature 
amonge f eim be moste vile and hade in contempte ; and by 
ry^hte, for hit is not to be hade in meruayle, thau^he nature 
hurte brynge furthe peple as ageyne the lawe of nature, 
amonge peple rsenge inceste and takenge women ageyne the 
lawe of God. Also hit is seide amonge commune peple, 
olde women of that londe, and of Wales, to chaunge theyme 
in to the forme of an hare and to sowke bestes, and to 
take aweye the mylke of other men, and to make feynte 
the grehowndes of grete men thro cowrsenge andrennenge. 
And somme of theim causenge redde swyne thro wycche- 
cra^, after the! were made fatte and solde at feires, when 

^ gmyttedf «. 

- ther is none but he is besmitied 
with their treaon also^ Cx. 
» that, Cx. 

* Slightly varied in Cx. 

* theff lacke» Cx. 
^ no», a. 

* ddyng^ Cx. 

^ So Cx. ; and defoule}f, MS. And 
u. (irithoUt sense.) 

'** %fM2e and nature, Cx. 
" So also 0»; as men eeyne, Cx. 
w kgnt, Cx. 
"w] oitt.C. 
" gerhoundes, Cx. 
" Altered from Cx., who has far 
to be reed, ^c. Absent from a. 
1^ markettis, Cx. 
17 the, Cx. 



aquam transeunt, in propriam naturam redeunt. Sed 
et hi quacunque' industria serventur ultra triduum 
uon perdurant.^ Inter hsec et hujusmodi ' adverteu- 
dum est, quod* mundi extremitates ^ no vis semper 
quibusdam prodigiis poUent ;^ ac si natura licentius 
ludat in privato et remoto, quam in propatulo'^ et pro-, 
pinquo. Unde et in hac insula plurima sunt miranda 
et stupenda.® 

Cap. XXXV. 
De locoimmfh prodigiis. 

Affirmatum est a multis^ quod in boreali parte Hi- 
bernisB eit insula viventium,^^ in qua nemo mori potest ; 
sed, cum diutino'^ detenti fuerint languore, ad proxi- 
mam deportantur insulam. Est et alia ibi ^^ insula, in 
qua mulieres parere non possunt, tamen concipere^^ 

^ Sed et hi quacunque'\ sed quaniw 
cumqttef CD. ; at quantacumque, B. 
2 durant, CD. 
^ So B., Gale j htgus, A.E. 

* Inter . . . qtiod] om. CD. 

* extremitas^ G» and Gale, 

* prodigiis quibusdam pollet, G., 

"" patuh, B. 

® et stupenda] om. CD. 


a multis'] om. A. (^hich has 
erasures) B. 
1" Slightly abbreviated in CD. 
" diutitrnOf B. 
'- JEt est thi (dia, A. 
^^ concipere tamen, I), 



swyne passe]» ony water pey tornej? a^eti in to hir owiie Tkbtisa. 

kyiidc, where' it be straw, hey, gras, o)?er torues.- But 

J>ese swyii mowe not be i-kept by no manere ^ craft forto 
dure in iiknesse of swyn ^ ouer frc dayes. Among peac 
wondres and oj>ere take hede fat in fe vttermeste'' endes 
of fe world falle]) ofte newe meruailles and wondres,^ as 
I?ei kynde pleyde wif larger 7 leue priuelichc and fer in ]>e 
endes fan openliche and ny^ in^ pe myddeL perfore in 
fis ilond beef meny grisliche meruayles and wondres. 

JJe locorum prodigiis» 

Cajntulum tricesimum quintum. 

Giraldus, capitulo imtm)? Meny men tellef fat in fe 
norf side of Irlond is f e ilond of lyf ; in fat ilond is '^ 
no man fat** may deie 5** but whan fey beef i-holde wif 
Iiard *^ siknesse fey beef i-bor6 ont to fe next ilond,*^ and 
deie fere, pere is anof er ilond in Irlond ; fere no womman 
may here a childe, but lit sche 1^ may conceyue. Also fere 

tliei come to eny water to rcturne in io an other kynde, MS.Hari. 
causenge that body soe to endure by wycchecrafte by the ^^^^* 
space of thre dayes. Amonge whiche thjTiges hit is (o be f TT^ 
aduertede that the extremites of the worlde schync in new(5 
wondres and meruailes, as if that natut*c scholde scliyne 
and play more in priuate places and remouede then in 
open places and also nye. 

Of the Wondres and Meruayles of hiU 
Capitulum tricesimum quintnm. 

Giraldus. Mony men afferme and say that ther is an yle 
in the northe parte of Yrlonde whiche is callede the yle of 
men lyvenge, in whiche yle a man may not dye, but after that 
thei be detente with longe infimiite thei bebrou^hte to another 
yle nye to hit. Also there is an other yle, in whom a woman 
may not be delyuerede ; neuerthelesse thei may concey ve in 

* i&/<efer, a., Cx. 

' turueSf Cx« 

' manere] om. Cx. 

^ Foilr prenoos words om. in Cx. 

^ dmesiCf a. 

' Slightly Taried in Cx» 
^So Cx.» who has hue (typ. 
enor ?) ; kw^g MS. and «. 

• m] om. Cx. 
' Reference added from <t. 
•• is] om. a. 
^' t^at] om a, 
*- noman may deie, CX. 
" old and be vexed with grete, Cx. 
i< lowU, Cx, 

>^ ke^ a. (probably joeaning they. 
See pp. 357, 383.) 




possunt. Est et alia insula ^ in qua mortuorum corpora 
putrescere non possunt.^ Est lacus in Ultonia insulam 
continens bipartitam, cujus^ una pars visitationibus 
angelorum^ assueta^ altera daemonum incursibus expo- 
sita, in qua est purgatprium Patricii j quod ^ predbus ^ 
obtinere meruit ad confirmationem dicti sui, dum po- 
pulo incredulo de poenis reproborum ac ^ gaudiis sanc- 
torum prsedicaret. Cujus^ loci, ut asserunt, si quis 
tormenta ^ ex injunota pcenitentia sustinuerit, infemales 
pcenas (rdsi^*^ finaliter fuerit" impcenitenia) non subibit,^*^ 
sicut in fine bujus capituli plenitis exemplabitur.^^ Est 

* insvk^ om. C.D, 
'poteruntj C.D. 

^ cujus'] om. C.I)* 

* vastationibus Anghrumy Gale, 
absiudly, and against Cr. ; where, 
however, Angehrum is deceitfully 

'^ CD. add quidem, 
^ suis added in B. 
"^ pcRnis reproborum ae] om, C. 
(not p., which has de gaudiisgue,) 

8 Hiijus, C.t>. (wHh slight trans- 

' iormmia is in the place ofpani" 
tentia in B. 

^*^ uhi, Gale, misreading the con* 
traction in G. 

^^ /uerit flnaiiier, B. 

i'<< subiet, B. 

>3 sieut .... evemphbitur'l om< 


is an ilond, fere * no dede body may roty.^ In Vltonia Tkevisa. 
is an ilond in ^ a lake departed wonderliche atweyne ; in -— " 
"pe^ oon partie is ofte grete destourbannce and discomfort 
of'^fendes, and in J>e ofer partie greet likynge and coumfort 
of aungelles.^ pere is also Patrick his purgatorie, j^at was 
i-schewed at bis prayere^ to conferme his prechynge and 
his lore, whan he preched to mysbileued men of sorwe and 
peyne ]?at euel men schal Jiole^ for hire wicked wordes,® 
and of ioye and of blisse' fat good men schal fonge for 
here holy dedes.^ He tellef []>at3 ^^ who Jiat sufire]^ )>e 
peynes of fat purgatorie, ^if it be enioyned hym for pe- 
naunce, he schal neuere sufire "pe peynes of helie, but he 
dye fynalliche vrip oute repentaunce of synne, as pe en- 
sample is i-sette more ful at this chapitres ende. Treuisa, 
pei fis sawe myjt be sooth, it is but a iape. For ii no 
man J^at doo]? dedely synne schal be i-saued, but he be 
verrey repentaunt,^^ [what sommeuer penaunce he doo ; and 
euery man that is verray' repentaunt] at his lifes ende of 
al his mysdedes, he schal be sikerliche i-saued and haue pe 
blisse of heuene, |?ey he neuere hire speke ^* of Patrik his 
purgatorie»*^ ]^. pere is an ilond in Conacte ^^ Salo,i^ fat 

-■■■----■■- ■ ■ ■ ■ — .--.-.-. — I.,. ,,.^_ ■,»,■■.. ■ ■ ■ . — - 

hit. Also there is an other yle in whom the bodies ofMS. Harl. 
dedde men may not be putrefiede. Also there is a place ^^* 
in Vltonia, that is callede Vlster, conteynenge an yle par- 
tede in twejme. That oon of theyme is wonte to be vsede 
with the visitacion of angelles* That other is expownede to 
the incursion of deuelles, in whiche parte the purgatory of 
Seyute Patrikke is, whiche he deseruede to obteyne by 
hys preiers to the confirmacion of his seyenge, when he 
prechede to reprobable peple of the ioyes of heuyn and 
of the peynes of helle. For, as hit is seide, if eny man sus- 
teyne the tormentes of that place by penaunce injoynede to 
hym, he schalle not suf&e the peynes of helle with owte that 
he were inpenitente finally, as hit schalle be schewede more 
pleyneley in the ende of this chapitre. Also there is an 

' in whichey Cx. 

^ rootye, o. ; roten, Cx. 

^ So a., Cx.; and, MS. 

* that, Cx. 

' Slightly transposed and varied 
in Cx. 

Sprayers, Cx. 

' ]>o6hy o. ; suffer y Cx. 

■ So also a. ; werhesy Cx., which 
is better. 

''Very slight variations in the 
above sentence in Cx. 

»' Added from a. and Cx. 

» Buty Cx. 

12 he he verr^ repentaunt} Added 
from a. and Cx. 

1^ So a.; nettere speke, MSt; here, 

^* In the preceding extract, Cx. 
omits the first sentence, and, besides 
slight variations, adds the words in 
brackets, which are absent £tom 
MS. and a. 

'^ Connactey a.; Caniiaete, Cx. 

^^ So Cx. ; Salaoy MS.; Saloo, a. 





et insula in Connacte sale a saftcto^ Brendano con* 
secrata, muribus carens, ubi humana corpora nec^ hu- 


mantur nee ^ putrescunt, sed spb divo servantur incor- 
rupta. Est fons in Momonia,^ cujus aquis si quis 
abluitur, pro toto seu pro parte canus efficitur. E 
contra est alius ^ fons in Ultonia quo intinctus non 
canescit ulterius.^ Est et fons in Momonia,^ qui si 
tactus fuerit ab liomine, statim tota provincia pluviis 
inundat/ quae non® cessabunt donee sacerdos virgo a 
nativitaje,® missa in vicina capella celebrata, aquae be- 
nedictione efe laetis ^^ vaccse unius coloris aspersione^ 
barbaro satis ritu, fontem reconciliaverit. Apud Glyn- 

delacan circa orator ium Sancti Keywyni " salices more 
pomerii ^* poma prefer unt magis salubria quam sapida, 
qu£e sanctus ille ad salutem jmeri sui '^ precibus 

* dicto, A. 

- 710«, CD. 

'•* Nemonia, B. 

^ alius] oni. CD., and the words 
slightly transposed. 

* ampl'msy CD. This and tlie pre- 
vious sentence omitted in A., whicli 
consistently amits the etiam foUow- 
iiig. They occur lower down. 

^ £. , . . Momonia] om. B. 

^ inundatur, A. ; inundavU, B. 

•* qu(B non] et non, D. 

® virgo after nativitate in B. * 

^» lacte, CD. (with other slight 

" Kewyni, B.; Keilwin, C; Keui" 
nii, D. (apparently.) 

^^pomarUf A.CD. 

" sui] om, C (not D.) 



is, in ])e see of Conactia, i-halowed of Sejnt Brendoun,* Tbevis^ 

and haj? no mjse ; ]>ere dede bodyes beef nou^t i-buried, • 

but bee]) i-kepte pere oute [of thertlie]^ and rotieji noiijt. 
In Mamonia is a welle ; who fat waschef «^ hym wif ]>e 
water of fat welle, for som ofer for allc* he schal worfe 
hoor.'* pere is anofer welle in Vltonia,^ who fat^ is i- 
wasche ferynne, he schal neuere wexe boor afterward, 
pere is anofer ^ welle in Manionia ; ^ ^if any man touchef 
fat welle, anoon schalle falle a*^ greet, reyn in to'^ alle the 
pronince ; and fat reyn schal neuere cese, or '^ a preost 
fat is clene^* mayde singe a masse in a chapel fat is faste 
by, and blisse *4 f e water, and with mylk of a cowe fat is 
of oon here byspringe f e welle, and so reconsile fe welle 
in a*'* straunge manere. At Grlyndalkan ^^ aboute fe oratorie 
of Seint Keynewyn wilewys ^^ beref apples as it were appel 
treen, and beef more holsom fan sauory; fat holy i^ seynt 
brou^t forf f ilke apples by prayeres for to hele his childe.^^ 

yle in that cuntre, whiche was consecrate of Seynte Bren- MS. Hakl. 
dan, wontenge myce, where the bodies of men neither rote 2261. 

neither be beriedde, but lye with owte incorrupte. Also there 

is a welle in Manonia that and if a man wasche alle his body 
with that water, other elles parte, he schalle be made hoore. 
Also there is a welle in Vlster, where in a man waschenge 
hym Bchalle not wexe hoore afterwarde. Also there is a 
welle in Manonia whiche towchede of a man schalle cause 
alle the prouince to habunde in reyn, whiche schalle not 
sease vntille a preste beenge a virgyn from his natiuite 
«yngenge masse in a chapelle nye to hit, makenge holy 
water, schalle reconsile that welle after the ryte of men of 
Barbre, castenge holy water abowte that welle with the mylke 
of a kowe that is of oon coloure. Also at a water callede 
Glynde, nye to the chyrche of Seynte Kexwyne, welo- 
trees here apples more hoUesom then thei appere to the 
savoure, whom that seynte causede to be brouihte furthe 
thro his preiers for the sawle healethe of his cnilde. Also 

*■ Brendan, a. 

2 Added from Cx.; not in «. 

» So a. and Cx. j wetstel», MS. 

*for som . . . alle] om. Cx. 

^ Cx. adds on his hede. 

" So Cx. ; Mamonia, MS., a» 

^ vfho someweK, Cx. 

• a, a,, Cx. 

* Mofpnftere or Mamonia, Cx. 

* a] om. Cx. 
^ to] om. Cx. 

2 til, Cx. 

3 a dene, Cx. 

* bhsae, Cx. 
^ in this, Cx. 

' Glydalcan, a, 

' ivithges, Cx. 

^ So Cx. ; ]>at i>e kobf, MS., a. 

* Cx, adds that was seek. 



Lacusin produxit. Est lacus in Ultonia piscosa satis, triginta 


millia passuum in longum ^ et quindecim in latum * 
habens, ex quo fluvius Banna usque in ^ oceanum bo- 
realem se diffundit ;* cui ^ lacui ^ talis, ut asserunt, casus 
initium dedit. Celebre fuit aliquando '' apud loci illius® 
incolas, vitio coeundi cum bestiis consuetissimos,* quod, 
quam cito fons quidam terrae illius ex prisca reverentia 
semper tectus *^ relinqueretur discoopertus, tanta statim 
fons inundatione exuberaret, quod totam provinciam 
submergeret.*' Unde '^ contigit mulierem qtiandam '' 
hauriendi causa ad fontem accessisse, qua necdum fonte 
signato ad parvulum vagientem properante, fons ita 
ebuUivit, ut et" mulierem cum parvttlo mergeret, et 
totam provinciam stagnum faceret. Hujus rei argu- 
mentum est, quod pificatores aquae illius turres eccle- 
siasticas more ^* patriee illius *® altas et rotundas sub 
undis sereno tempore adhuc conspidunt. Apud 

1 longiiudinem, B.C. (not. D.) 
3 laHtudine, C (not D.) 
» ad, A.B,I>. 

* transfundit, D. (with other slight 

* huic, CD. 

^ cujus lactts, B. 
^ quondam, CD. 

* ilHm] om. CD. 

^conauetos, B.; vitiosissimos, CD. 

*• semper tecius] coopertus, CD. 

II dUv^et, CD. 

" Budum, B. 

*^ quondam, A. 

^*et] om. CD. 

'^ secundum modum, B. 

** illius\ om. CD.. . 


pere is a lake in Vltonia* and :fisshe inow* jjerynne, and Tbevisa. 

is ]?ritty myle on ^ lengfe and fiftene in brede ; J>e ryuer 

Ban 4 renne]) in to |)e norj» occean out of ))at lake; and 
me seith J>at [fat] ^ lake bygan in ]>is manere : ])ere were 
men in jmt centre fat were of yuel leuynge, coeuntes cum 
brutis, and fere was a welle in fat lond in grete reuerence 
in^ olde tyme and alle wey i-heled ; ^ and ^if it were vn- 
heled, f e welle wexe ^ and adrenche ^ al f e lond. And so 
it happed fat a womman wente to fat weUe for to fecclie 
water, and hi^ed^® wel" faste to hir childe f at wepte^^ in 
his 13 cradell, and lefte fe welle vnheled ; fan. fe welle 
gprong so faste, fat ifc di'eynt'* fe woman and hir child, 
and made al f e contray a grete *^ lake and a fische pond» 
For to preue fat f is is soof, it is a grete argument fat 
whanne f e wedir is clere fischeres of fat water seen ^^ in f e 
grounde vnder fe water rounde toures, [and] ^7 hite, i-schape 
as cherches of [> e ^^ lond. In f e norf side of Irlond in the 

there is a water in Vlster ful of fisches, hauenge xxx*^ m. MS. Hael. 

passes in longitude and xy. m. in latitude, from whom 2261. 

the water, caliede Banne, goethe furthe vn to the northe 7" — 

occean, to whiche place and water a meruellous chaunce 

happede, as hit is seide. For that abhominable vice of send- 

enge fUtthe of sede was vsede amonge men of that cuntre 

with brute bestes, where a weUe vsede to be couerede for 

olde reuerence, laste at a tyme vncouerede that welle so 

habundaunte in water drownede alle that prouince. Where 

of hit happede a woman to haue goen to that welle for 

cause to drawe water, and leuenge hit vncouerede, makenge 

haste to here childe cryenge, the water was so habundante 

that hit pereschede f e woman with here childe, and makenge 

alle the prouince a water : an argumente and a probacion of 

this thynge dothe appere in that the fischer, vsenge to £sche 

in that water, may see in the bryjhte dales of somer vnder 

the waters hye towres and rownde of chirches, after the 

vse of that cuntre. Also at the sowthe pafte of Irlonde, in 

* Vlster, Cx. 1 • drowne, Cx. 

^ mochefyssh, Cx. 

' m, a. 

^ So Cx. ; Ban ^at, MS. and a, 

^ Added from a.; ikat this, Cx.; 
the f>at of MS. is probably trans- 
posed ; see preceding note* 

'^of,n,^ Cx. 

' couered,and vneoueredheioWyC^. 

* wexej wold ryse, Cx. 

® hied, a. 9 Cx. 

* wd] om. Cx. 
^ weept a, 

* the, Cx. 

* drownedy Cx« 

' grete\ om. Cx. 

« see, Cx. 

' Added firom a. and Cx. 

^ that, Cx. (not a.) 




australem Hibemiam in regione Ossiriensi* quolibet 
septennio, per imprecationem cujusdam sancti abbatis,^ 
duo conjuges mas et foemina a finibus illis et a formis 
propriis exulare coguntur. Nam formam lupinam in- 
duentes complete septennio, si forte superstites fuerint, 
aliis dnobus loco eorum^ simili conditione subrogatis, 
ad pristinam redeuut tarn patriam quam naturara. 
Est lacus in hac terra, quo si per aliquod spatium 
palus Ugneus infigatur, pars solo inhserens fit ferrea, 
quse in aqua est fit lapidea, sed qu£e supra aquam 
est lignea manet.* Est etiam ibidem * lacus^ in quern 
si virgam de corylo injeceris/ convertitur in fraxinum, 
et e contra. Item in Hibemia sunt tres salmonum 
saltus, quibus ad summa ab imis contra rupem ad 
. altitudinem unius hastse^ salmones se^ transferunt. 
Item in Lagenia^ est unum stagnum ubi^^ sunt aves 

' Assiriensif C. ; Hossiriensi, D. ; 
Affrieusiy B. 

^sancti ahhatis] E contra est 
alius fons in Ultonia quo intinetus 
non canescit ulterius. £st et fons 
qui ... . (blank in MS.}> B., and so 
A. nearly. 

» {Oorumy CD. 

* SUghtly varied in C.B, 
s tW, CD. 

^projeceris virgam corulif CD. j 
coruhf B. 

' unit» hcisUB altitudinem, B, 
^ salmones 8e\ om. CD, 
" Laegenia^ B. 
^* in qvoj B 


contray of Ossiriens * eueriche seuene ^ere, at |>e prayere Tkevisa. 

of oon pat was an^ holy abbot, tweyne J>at beep i-wedded 

a man and a womman schal^ nedes be outlawed * out of ]>at 
contray and out of here owne schap. For pilke seueno 
^ere ]>ey schul be ri^t as wolues i-schape ; and, ^if pey 
lyuep so longe, pey schuUe turne a^en in to hir owne lond 
and in to hir schap at pe seuen ^eres ende. panne schullen 
oper tweyne in her stede be in ]?e same mauere outlawed 
and i-schape for oper seuen ^ere,^ pere is a lake in pis 
lond, ^if a pole is i-pi^t^ perynne, pat partie of pe pole 7 
pat is in pe erthe schal turne in to iren ; al pat is ^ in pe 
water schal torne in to stoon ; and al pat is aboue pe 
water schal be tree and in his owne kynde. Also pere 
is a lake pat tomep hasel into asche and asche into hasel, 
if it is i-doo ^ perynne. Also in Irlond beep pre samoun 
lepes ; pere ^^ samoun ii lepep a^enst a roche a longe speres 
lengpe. Also in Lagenia is a ponde ; pere is Seynt Colman ^2 

the region off Ossirience, a man and a woman be constreynede ms. Hakl* 
to indue an other forme in the ende of vii. yere from that 2261. 

costes,** thro the preier of an holy abbotte, whiche induede with 

the forme of a wulfe the space of vij. yere complete, if they 
be in lyve thei returne in to theire propre nature, other 
tweyne subrogate in to the places of theyme in lyke wyse. 
Also there is a water in that cuntre, in to whom if a staffe 
or a thynge of a tree be put by a certeyne tyme, the parte of 
that tre beenge in the ertlie is yrne, that parte in the water 
is as the substaunce of a ston, that parte above the ^^ water 
dothe remayne in that forme as when it was putte ynne* 
Also there is a lake in that cuntre, in to whom if thou putte 
a rodde of an haselle tre hit is turnede in to an asche, and 
in contrary wyse. Also there be in Yrlonde iij. weres, whiche 
be in latitude of the hi^hte of a spere, ageyne a hille ouer 
whom salmones wylle passe pro a sprentenge. Also there 
is a water in Legennia, where [be] the bryddes of Seynto 

' So 0., Cx. ; Assiriens^ MS. 

2 of an, Cx. 

^ musty Csc 

* exykd andforskappen in to lyke- 
nes ofwolnes, and ahyde oute seuen 
pere. Ox. 

^The sentence is thus recast by 
Cx.: And at tkende of seuen yere, yf 
they iyue, they come home agayn and 
take etgmfn theyr owne shappe; and 
tfiensJioi other tw^ne goo forth in theyr 
stede, and so [^bef']forshapenfor other 
seuen yere. 

^pight, a., Ox., vho adds and 

^ shaft or pool, Cx. 

^ and that part that ahydeth, Cx., 
who has other slight Tariations. 

^ it be don, Cx. 
»• ikere as, Cx. 
^' samouns, a. 
^^ Colaman, a. 

^^ So HarL MS., hut the sen- 
tence is more or less corrupt. ' 
^*that, MS. 

yo?.. h A A 


Sancti Colemanni/ scilicet cercellse^ manibus hoiiii- 
num assuetsd ; quibus, si injuria fiat, aves non re- 
deunt, et aquae ibidem amarescunt, et foetent; et 
injuriator non evadet^ vindictam^ nisi condigne^ sa- 
DePurga- tisfaciat.* Rcmulphus,^ Circa pargatorium Patricii 

torio S. 

Patricii. est notandum, quod Sanetus Patricias secundus, qui 
fuit^ abbas et non episcopus, dum in Hibemia prse- 
dicaret, studuit animos hominum illorum^ bestiales 
terrore tormentorum infemalium a malo revocare, et 
gaudiorum Paradisi promissione ad bonum confirmare. 
lUi autem dixerunt se nolle converti, nisi aliquis 
eorum ® tormenta ilia et gaudia posset ^^ aliqualiter 
in hac vita experiri, Quamobrem Pakicio super hoc 
oranti apparuit Jesus Christus dans textum evangeUi 

* Cohmanni, A.B. | « Han. . . . intendU (end of chap- 

* cercettai] om, CD. j ter)] om. CJ). 

» ei;orftY, CD. | ',^. 

* digne, B^ j » illorum hominum^ B. 
^ condigna satuf actio subseq-uaiury \ * illorum, B. 

C ' >«p(w«2V, B. 



his briddes ; [pe briddes] J beef i-cleped cercelles, and Trbvisa, 
comej) homeliche to manis honde ; but Xi£ me doo]> hem — ~ 
harme,^ pej gooj? awey and come]? nou^t a^en, but « the 
water fere schal wexe bitter and stynke ; and he fat dede 
fe wrong schal nou^t asterte wif oute wreche and mes- 
chief, but fei doo ful^ amendes. ^.^ Touchynge^ Patrik 
his purgatorie take hede fat 7 fe secounde Seynt Patryk, 
fat was abbot and nou^t bisshop, whyle he preched in 
Irlond studied wel faste besily ^ for to tome filke wicked 
men, fat leuede as bestes, out of here yupl lyf for drede 
of f e peynes of helle, and for to conferme hem in good 
lyf by hope of f e grete blisse of heuene ; and fey seide 
fat fey wolde nou^t torne, but some of hem my^te knowe 
somwhat of f e grete peynes and f e blisse, fat he spak of, 
whyle fey were here on lyue,^ panne Seynt Patrik preied 
to God alle my^ty f erfore ; and oure Lord lesus Crist 
apperede to Patrik, and took hyra a staf,^® and fe text of 

Colomanne, whiche be callede cercelle, wonte to the hondes MS. Karl. 
of men : if iniury be doen to those bryddes, they comme not 2261. 

ageyne ; and also the waters f er wexe bytter and make an 

ylle savour ; and the doer of the iniury schalle not escape 
vengeaunce, vn tille that he have doen dewe satisfaccion* 
Also hit is to be attendede abowte the purgatory of Seynte 
Patrik> that Seynte Patrik the secunde, whiche was an 
abbot and not a byschoppe, when he prechede in Yrlonde, 
studiede to calle ageyne and brynge to the weye of sawle 
healethe the sawles of the bestialle peple in that cuntre 
from the peyne of helie, and to confirme* the myndes of 
theyme in goodenesse thro the promission of the ioyes of 
paradise. The men of that cuntre seide they wolde not 
be conuertede, but if somme of theym my^hte haue ex- 
perience in this lyfe in a parte of the ioyes of paradise 
and of the peynes of heUe : wherefore Seynte Patrike 
niakenge his preyers for that cause, oure Lorde lesus Criste 
apperede to hym, ^iffenge to hym a texte of the gospelle 

' Added &om a. and Cx. (the 
latter has the Inrdes.) 

'^ yf men do hem wrmg or harme, 

^ andy Cx. 

*fur\ cm. Cx. 

* Befereuce omitted in o. 

^ As touchingy Cx. 

^ ye shed vnderstande that, Cx. 

^ besy, a» ; labored and studied 
for to tome, Cx. 

^ Cx. has some omisfliona (and 
slight variatioiis} in the preYious 

1« The remainder of the sentence 
omitted in Cx., who hsi& staf and 

A A 2S 


et baculum unum, quae adhuc manent in patria^ apud 
samtnum arcWepiscopum. Eduxit ergo® Dominus Patri- 
cium in desertum locum, ubi fossam nnam^rotundara 
intrinsecus obscuram ei ostendit dicens: Quod si ve- 
raciter quis poenitens* per diem et noctem in ilia 
fossa manserit> et fide eonstans per illam transierit, 
videbit tormenta malorum et gaudia beatorum.^ 
Ad lisec Christo disparente, Fatridus construxit ibi- 
dem ecclesiam^ canonieos regulares instituens ; ^ fossam 
autem '^ illam, qusB modo ® in Ccemeterio ® est ad 
orientalem ecclesise frontem, murp circumcinxit ; ja- 
nuam obseravit, ne quia temere sine licentia episcopi 
et loci prioris ingrederetur. Multi quippe tempore 
ilUus Patricii ingressi sunt et regressi, narrantes 
pcenas et gaudia qu» viderant, quse et ^® Uteris ibidem 
demandantur.^^ Qua occasione multi tunc ad fidem 
convertebantur* Multi quoque intraverunt, qui nus- 
quam redierunt. Sed et '® diebus Stephani regis An- 

^ pairia iUa, A. ^tnodo] om. B. 

2 igitur, A. j 9 emUerio, MSS. 

8 unam] om. B. i i» * • a 

* pcenitens aUquis, 'H, 

6 hmi r 1 I " Uteris . . . denumdantur'} Space 

« cm^tuL, B. . 'X^ftfor the words in B. 

"fossamque, omitting autem, B. " «0 om. B. j i», Gale, 



J>e gospel Jjat beej> in pe contray in fe ei'chebisshopi^ Trevisa. 

ward.^ panne cure Lorde ladde Patrik in to a wilde place, 

and schewed hym J?ere a round pitte pat was derke wif 
ynne, and seide : Jif a man were verray repentaunt and 
stable of byleue, and went in to pis pitte, and waked ^ 
pere inne a day and a ny^t, he schulde see pe sorwes and 
pe peynes of euel men and pe ioye and pe blisse of goode 
men ; J>an Crist vanysched out of Patrik his si^t.^ And 
Patrik rered pere a chirche, and dede J>ere^ chanouns reguler, 
and closed pe pitte aboute wij? a waJ ; and ^ is now in the 
chirche ^erde« rijt at pe est ende of J^e chirche, and is 
fast i-loke^ wij> a strong ^ate.^ For no man schulde 
niseliche wende yn^ wij> oute leue of pe bisshop and^" of 
pe priour of pe place. Meny men went yn bere and come^^ 
out a^en in Patrik his tyme, and tolde of peynes and ioye 
fat j>ey hadde i-seie, and meruayles pat pej sey beef ^it 
pere i-wrete,*^ And by cause J>erof meny men tomed and 
were conuerted to ri^t byleue. Also meny men wente yn, 
and come neuer a^en. In kyng Steuene his tyme, kyng of 

and a stafie, whiche Temayne ^itte in the cuntre with the MS. Haul. 
archibischoppe. After that oure Lorde ledde furthe Seynte 2261. 

Patrike in to a deserte place, where he schewede to hym a 

lytuUe rownde dyche, obscure and derke with ynne, seyenge J^ ^^' 
that if a man, beenge truly penitente, abyde in hit by a day ieynte 
and a ny^hte, he schalle see the tormentes of ylle men and Patryk. 
also the ioies of blessede men. Then Criste euaneschede Seynte 
awey, and Seynte Patrike made a chirche there, ordeynenge Patrik 
in hit chanones reguler, compassenge abowte that dyche with vas a 
a walle, whiche is now in the chirche yerde at the este c^a^»<^n* 
parte of the chirche, and kepenge hit with grete diligence 
vnder a locke, leste eny man scholde entre in to hit in 
foly, withowte licence of the byschoppe and of the prior 
of that place. Mony men entrede in to pat place in the 
tyme of Seynte Patrik, whiche commenge ageyne tellede 
of the peynes and of the ioyes that thei hade seen ; pro 
whiche thynge mony men were conuertede to the feithe of 
Criste : and mony men entrenge in to that place come neuer 
ageyne. But in the dales of Steven kynge of Englonde, 

^ So a. ; namef MS. 

^ toalkedy a. and Cx. 

^ Cx. has a few trivial variations 
in the previons sentence, and also in 
the folloimg. 

^ and put tkerittf Cx- 

^ The syntax Requires tokiehb, or 
the addition of a nominative. 

' shytte^ CJX. 

* dore, Ci. 

^ goo in nycelyy Cxi 

" or, OX. 

*^ cmi, Cx.^ and so below. 

*^ sai^e bin thert yet wreton^ CXi 



gliae quidam miles, nomine Owynils, intravit, et rediens 
mansit in neg